Gene Symbol: fz
Description: frizzled
Alias: CG17697, CG3646, DFZ1, DFz, DFz1, Dfz, Dfz1, Dm Fz1, Dmel\CG17697, Frz, Fz1, dFz, frz, fz1, fz[[1]], frizzled, CG17697-PA, CG17697-PC, Frizzled1, frizzled 1, frizzled[[1]], fz-PA, fz-PC
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Kaltschmidt J, Lawrence N, Morel V, Balayo T, Fernández B, Pelissier A, et al. Planar polarity and actin dynamics in the epidermis of Drosophila. Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:937-44 pubmed
    ..We show that Wingless (Wg) signalling and Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) signalling have overlapping but different roles in these events. ..
  2. Strutt H, Strutt D. EGF signaling and ommatidial rotation in the Drosophila eye. Curr Biol. 2003;13:1451-7 pubmed
    ..The choice of chirality is governed by higher activity of the frizzled (fz) gene in one cell of the R3/R4 photoreceptor pair and by Notch-Delta (N-Dl) signaling...
  3. Jenny A, Reynolds Kenneally J, Das G, Burnett M, Mlodzik M. Diego and Prickle regulate Frizzled planar cell polarity signalling by competing for Dishevelled binding. Nat Cell Biol. 2005;7:691-7 pubmed
    ..PCP establishment requires the conserved Frizzled/Dishevelled PCP pathway...
  4. Cohen E, Mariol M, Wallace R, Weyers J, Kamberov Y, Pradel J, et al. DWnt4 regulates cell movement and focal adhesion kinase during Drosophila ovarian morphogenesis. Dev Cell. 2002;2:437-48 pubmed
    ..The DWnt4 cell motility pathway is distinct from both the canonical Wnt pathway and the planar polarity pathway. Our data suggest that DWnt4 facilitates motility through regulation of focal adhesions. ..
  5. Wehrli M, Tomlinson A. Independent regulation of anterior/posterior and equatorial/polar polarity in the Drosophila eye; evidence for the involvement of Wnt signaling in the equatorial/polar axis. Development. 1998;125:1421-32 pubmed
    ..Further, we show that the polarizing information acting in this equatorial/polar axis (Eq/Pl) is established in at least two steps - the activity of one signaling molecule functions to establish the graded activity of a second signal. ..
  6. Sato A, Kojima T, Ui Tei K, Miyata Y, Saigo K. Dfrizzled-3, a new Drosophila Wnt receptor, acting as an attenuator of Wingless signaling in wingless hypomorphic mutants. Development. 1999;126:4421-30 pubmed
    In Drosophila, two Frizzled proteins, Frizzled and Dfrizzled-2, have been reported to serve as receptors of Wingless. Here, we identified the third member of the Drosophila Frizzled family (Dfrizzled-3)...
  7. Strutt D, Warrington S. Planar polarity genes in the Drosophila wing regulate the localisation of the FH3-domain protein Multiple Wing Hairs to control the site of hair production. Development. 2008;135:3103-11 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the distally localised core polarity protein Frizzled positively promotes prehair initiation, suggesting that both proximal and distal cellular cues act together to ..
  8. Strutt D, Weber U, Mlodzik M. The role of RhoA in tissue polarity and Frizzled signalling. Nature. 1997;387:292-5 pubmed
    ..Mutations in the genes frizzled (fz), dishevelled (dsh) and prickle-spiny-legs (pk-sple) result in the loss of this mirror-image symmetry...
  9. Yan J, Huen D, Morely T, Johnson G, Gubb D, Roote J, et al. The multiple-wing-hairs gene encodes a novel GBD-FH3 domain-containing protein that functions both prior to and after wing hair initiation. Genetics. 2008;180:219-28 pubmed publisher
    The frizzled signaling/signal transduction pathway controls planar cell polarity (PCP) in both vertebrates and invertebrates...

More Information


  1. Tree D, Shulman J, Rousset R, Scott M, Gubb D, Axelrod J. Prickle mediates feedback amplification to generate asymmetric planar cell polarity signaling. Cell. 2002;109:371-81 pubmed
    Planar cell polarity signaling in Drosophila requires the receptor Frizzled and the cytoplasmic proteins Dishevelled and Prickle...
  2. Strutt D. Frizzled signalling and cell polarisation in Drosophila and vertebrates. Development. 2003;130:4501-13 pubmed
    ..For example, a non-canonical Frizzled signalling pathway has been found to coordinate cell polarity throughout the insect cuticle, and recent work has ..
  3. Adler P, Krasnow R, Liu J. Tissue polarity points from cells that have higher Frizzled levels towards cells that have lower Frizzled levels. Curr Biol. 1997;7:940-9 pubmed
    The frizzled (fz) gene of Drosophila encodes the founding member of the large family of receptors for the Wnt family of signaling molecules...
  4. Wu J, Mlodzik M. The frizzled extracellular domain is a ligand for Van Gogh/Stbm during nonautonomous planar cell polarity signaling. Dev Cell. 2008;15:462-9 pubmed publisher
    The Frizzled (Fz) receptor is required cell autonomously in Wnt/beta-catenin and planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling...
  5. Shulman J, Perrimon N, Axelrod J. Frizzled signaling and the developmental control of cell polarity. Trends Genet. 1998;14:452-8 pubmed
    Within the last three years, Frizzled receptors have risen from obscurity to celebrity status owing to their functional identification as receptors for the ubiquitous family of secreted WNT signaling factors...
  6. Wu J, Jenny A, Mirkovic I, Mlodzik M. Frizzled-Dishevelled signaling specificity outcome can be modulated by Diego in Drosophila. Mech Dev. 2008;125:30-42 pubmed
    Members of the Frizzled (Fz) family of seven-pass transmembrane receptors are required for the transduction of both Wnt-Fz/beta-catenin and Fz/planar cell polarity (PCP) signals...
  7. Doyle K, Hogan J, Lester M, Collier S. The Frizzled Planar Cell Polarity signaling pathway controls Drosophila wing topography. Dev Biol. 2008;317:354-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Each wing epithelial cell produces a distally pointing hair under the control of the Frizzled (Fz) PCP signaling pathway...
  8. Huang H, Klein P. The Frizzled family: receptors for multiple signal transduction pathways. Genome Biol. 2004;5:234 pubmed
    b>Frizzled genes encode integral membrane proteins that function in multiple signal transduction pathways. They have been identified in diverse animals, from sponges to humans...
  9. Wu J, Klein T, Mlodzik M. Subcellular localization of frizzled receptors, mediated by their cytoplasmic tails, regulates signaling pathway specificity. PLoS Biol. 2004;2:E158 pubmed
    The Frizzled (Fz; called here Fz1) and Fz2 receptors have distinct signaling specificities activating either the canonical Wnt/beta-catenin pathway or Fz/planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling in Drosophila...
  10. Segalen M, Johnston C, Martin C, Dumortier J, Prehoda K, David N, et al. The Fz-Dsh planar cell polarity pathway induces oriented cell division via Mud/NuMA in Drosophila and zebrafish. Dev Cell. 2010;19:740-52 pubmed publisher
    The Frizzled receptor and Dishevelled effector regulate mitotic spindle orientation in both vertebrates and invertebrates, but how Dishevelled orients the mitotic spindle is unknown...
  11. Adler P, Charlton J, Liu J. Mutations in the cadherin superfamily member gene dachsous cause a tissue polarity phenotype by altering frizzled signaling. Development. 1998;125:959-68 pubmed
    ..We report here that mutations in dachsous disrupt this regular pattern, and do so by affecting frizzled signaling...
  12. Bellaiche Y, Beaudoin Massiani O, Stuttem I, Schweisguth F. The planar cell polarity protein Strabismus promotes Pins anterior localization during asymmetric division of sensory organ precursor cells in Drosophila. Development. 2004;131:469-78 pubmed
    ..bristle lineage, the sensory organ precursor (pI) cell is polarized along the anteroposterior (AP) axis by Frizzled (Fz) receptor signaling...
  13. Chae J, Kim M, Goo J, Collier S, Gubb D, Charlton J, et al. The Drosophila tissue polarity gene starry night encodes a member of the protocadherin family. Development. 1999;126:5421-9 pubmed
    ..The detailed polarity phenotype of stan on the wing suggested that it is most likely a component of the frizzled (fz) pathway. Consistent with this hypothesis, stan appears to be downstream of and required for fz function...
  14. Villano J, Katz F. four-jointed is required for intermediate growth in the proximal-distal axis in Drosophila. Development. 1995;121:2767-77 pubmed
    ..We propose that fj encodes a secreted signal that functions as a positive regulator of regional growth and differentiation along the PD axis of the imaginal discs. ..
  15. Adler P, Zhu C, Stone D. Inturned localizes to the proximal side of wing cells under the instruction of upstream planar polarity proteins. Curr Biol. 2004;14:2046-51 pubmed
    Planar polarity development in the Drosophila wing is under the control of the frizzled (fz) pathway...
  16. Vinson C, Adler P. Directional non-cell autonomy and the transmission of polarity information by the frizzled gene of Drosophila. Nature. 1987;329:549-51 pubmed
    The function of the frizzled (fz) locus is required for the development of a parallel array of bristles and hairs on the adult cuticle of Drosophila melanogaster...
  17. Lee H, Adler P. The function of the frizzled pathway in the Drosophila wing is dependent on inturned and fuzzy. Genetics. 2002;160:1535-47 pubmed
    The Drosophila epidermis is characterized by a dramatic planar or tissue polarity. The frizzled pathway has been shown to be a key regulator of planar polarity for hairs on the wing, ommatidia in the eye, and sensory bristles on the notum...
  18. Brittle A, Thomas C, Strutt D. Planar polarity specification through asymmetric subcellular localization of Fat and Dachsous. Curr Biol. 2012;22:907-14 pubmed publisher
  19. Das G, Jenny A, Klein T, Eaton S, Mlodzik M. Diego interacts with Prickle and Strabismus/Van Gogh to localize planar cell polarity complexes. Development. 2004;131:4467-76 pubmed
    ..eye is established by the distinct fate specifications of photoreceptors R3 and R4, and is regulated by the Frizzled (Fz)/PCP signaling pathway...
  20. Wong L, Adler P. Tissue polarity genes of Drosophila regulate the subcellular location for prehair initiation in pupal wing cells. J Cell Biol. 1993;123:209-21 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the tissue polarity genes function in or on a pathway that controls hair polarity by regulating the subcellular location for prehair formation. ..
  21. Taylor J, Abramova N, Charlton J, Adler P. Van Gogh: a new Drosophila tissue polarity gene. Genetics. 1998;150:199-210 pubmed
    ..the wing, Van Gogh mutations cause an altered polarity pattern that is typical of mutations that inactivate the frizzled signaling/signal transduction pathway...
  22. Fetting J, Spencer S, Wolff T. The cell adhesion molecules Echinoid and Friend of Echinoid coordinate cell adhesion and cell signaling to regulate the fidelity of ommatidial rotation in the Drosophila eye. Development. 2009;136:3323-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Significantly, we demonstrate that at least one PCP protein, Stbm, is required in R7 to control the degree of ommatidial rotation. ..
  23. Weber U, Paricio N, Mlodzik M. Jun mediates Frizzled-induced R3/R4 cell fate distinction and planar polarity determination in the Drosophila eye. Development. 2000;127:3619-29 pubmed
    ..Genetic interaction studies have suggested that Jun and JNK signaling are involved in Frizzled (Fz)-mediated planar polarity generation in the Drosophila eye...
  24. Donoughe S, Dinardo S. dachsous and frizzled contribute separately to planar polarity in the Drosophila ventral epidermis. Development. 2011;138:2751-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Two groups of genes--the Dachsous (Ds) and Frizzled (Fz) systems--play key roles in the establishment and maintenance of such polarity...
  25. Strutt D, Johnson R, Cooper K, Bray S. Asymmetric localization of frizzled and the determination of notch-dependent cell fate in the Drosophila eye. Curr Biol. 2002;12:813-24 pubmed
    ..is directed by the activity of the planar polarity genes, and, in particular, higher activity of the receptor Frizzled confers R3 fate...
  26. Strutt H, Strutt D. Polarity determination in the Drosophila eye. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1999;9:442-6 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, important functions have been elucidated for Notch signalling in specifying the position of the axis of symmetry and then later in development in interpreting gradient information. ..
  27. Harumoto T, Ito M, Shimada Y, Kobayashi T, Ueda H, Lu B, et al. Atypical cadherins Dachsous and Fat control dynamics of noncentrosomal microtubules in planar cell polarity. Dev Cell. 2010;19:389-401 pubmed publisher
    ..wing, which develops PCP along its proximal-distal (P-D) axis, we previously proposed that the core PCP mediator Frizzled redistributes distally in a microtubule (MT)-dependent manner...
  28. Strapps W, Tomlinson A. Transducing properties of Drosophila Frizzled proteins. Development. 2001;128:4829-35 pubmed
    In Drosophila, two closely related serpentine receptors, Frizzled (Fz) and D-Frizzled2 (Fz2) are able to act as receptors for the secreted Wnt peptide, Wingless (Wg)...
  29. Llimargas M, Lawrence P. Seven Wnt homologues in Drosophila: a case study of the developing tracheae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:14487-92 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the main advantage of retaining a number of similar genes is that it allows more subtle forms of control and more flexibility during evolution. ..
  30. Srahna M, Leyssen M, Choi C, Fradkin L, Noordermeer J, Hassan B. A signaling network for patterning of neuronal connectivity in the Drosophila brain. PLoS Biol. 2006;4:e348 pubmed
    ..The Rac1 GTPase integrates a Wnt-Frizzled-Disheveled axon-stabilizing signal and a Branchless (FGF)-Breathless (FGF receptor) axon-retracting signal to ..
  31. Katanaev V, Tomlinson A. Multiple roles of a trimeric G protein in Drosophila cell polarization. Cell Cycle. 2006;5:2464-72 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila PCP is under the hierarchical control of Frizzled (Fz)-a serpentine receptor (that also functions in the Wnt signaling pathway)...
  32. Adler P. The genetic control of tissue polarity in Drosophila. Bioessays. 1992;14:735-41 pubmed
    ..Based on their behavior in genetic mosaics, it has proved possible to determine that individual genes are required either for the generation of an intercellular polarity signal and/or the transduction of that signal to the cytoskeleton. ..
  33. Povelones M, Howes R, Fish M, Nusse R. Genetic evidence that Drosophila frizzled controls planar cell polarity and Armadillo signaling by a common mechanism. Genetics. 2005;171:1643-54 pubmed
    The frizzled (fz) gene in Drosophila controls two distinct signaling pathways: it directs the planar cell polarization (PCP) of epithelia and it regulates cell fate decisions through Armadillo (Arm) by acting as a receptor for the Wnt ..
  34. Devenport D. The cell biology of planar cell polarity. J Cell Biol. 2014;207:171-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings are shedding light on how global cues integrate with local cell interactions to organize cellular polarity at the tissue level. ..
  35. Dubois L, Lecourtois M, Alexandre C, Hirst E, Vincent J. Regulated endocytic routing modulates wingless signaling in Drosophila embryos. Cell. 2001;105:613-24 pubmed
  36. Krasnow R, Wong L, Adler P. Dishevelled is a component of the frizzled signaling pathway in Drosophila. Development. 1995;121:4095-102 pubmed
    ..Three of the genes, frizzled (fz), dishevelled (dsh), and prickle (pk) share a similar tissue polarity phenotype, suggesting that they ..
  37. Feiguin F, Hannus M, Mlodzik M, Eaton S. The ankyrin repeat protein Diego mediates Frizzled-dependent planar polarization. Dev Cell. 2001;1:93-101 pubmed
    ..epithelium, the homophilic adhesion molecule Flamingo localizes to proximal/distal cell boundaries in response to Frizzled signaling; perturbing Frizzled signaling alters Flamingo distribution, many cell diameters distant, by a ..
  38. Adler P, Taylor J. Asymmetric cell division: plane but not simple. Curr Biol. 2001;11:R233-6 pubmed
    ..The orientation of these divisions is under the control of the Frizzled pathway that generates planar polarity in a number of cell types.
  39. Strutt H, Strutt D. Nonautonomous planar polarity patterning in Drosophila: dishevelled-independent functions of frizzled. Dev Cell. 2002;3:851-63 pubmed
    The frizzled (fz) gene of Drosophila is required for planar polarity establishment in the adult cuticle, acting both cell autonomously and nonautonomously...
  40. Singh J, Yanfeng W, Grumolato L, Aaronson S, Mlodzik M. Abelson family kinases regulate Frizzled planar cell polarity signaling via Dsh phosphorylation. Genes Dev. 2010;24:2157-68 pubmed publisher
    ..for genes involved in planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling, we identified Drosophila Abl (dAbl) as a modulator of Frizzled(Fz)/PCP signaling...
  41. Lawrence P, Struhl G, Casal J. Planar cell polarity: one or two pathways?. Nat Rev Genet. 2007;8:555-63 pubmed
    ..We argue that the prevailing opinion that planar polarity depends on a single genetic pathway is wrong and conclude that there are (at least) two independently acting processes. This conclusion has major consequences for the PCP field. ..
  42. Gubb D, Garcia Bellido A. A genetic analysis of the determination of cuticular polarity during development in Drosophila melanogaster. J Embryol Exp Morphol. 1982;68:37-57 pubmed
    The polarity mutants pk, sple, mwh, fz and in alter the orientations of cuticular processes in several regions of the body. The mutant polarity patterns are constant and do not result from alterations in cell lineage...
  43. Katanaev V, Ponzielli R, Semeriva M, Tomlinson A. Trimeric G protein-dependent frizzled signaling in Drosophila. Cell. 2005;120:111-22 pubmed
    b>Frizzled (Fz) proteins are serpentine receptors that transduce critical cellular signals during development. Serpentine receptors usually signal to downstream effectors through an associated trimeric G protein complex...
  44. Alcedo J, Ayzenzon M, Von Ohlen T, Noll M, Hooper J. The Drosophila smoothened gene encodes a seven-pass membrane protein, a putative receptor for the hedgehog signal. Cell. 1996;86:221-32 pubmed
    ..membrane protein with characteristics of G protein-coupled receptors and shows homology to the Drosophila Frizzled protein...
  45. Rulifson E, Wu C, Nusse R. Pathway specificity by the bifunctional receptor frizzled is determined by affinity for wingless. Mol Cell. 2000;6:117-26 pubmed
    The Frizzled (Fz) protein in Drosophila is a bifunctional receptor that acts through a GTPase pathway in planar polarity signaling and as a receptor for Wingless (Wg) using the canonical Wnt pathway...
  46. Fanto M, Weber U, Strutt D, Mlodzik M. Nuclear signaling by Rac and Rho GTPases is required in the establishment of epithelial planar polarity in the Drosophila eye. Curr Biol. 2000;10:979-88 pubmed
    ..fly Drosophila, RhoA participates in the establishment of planar polarity, a process mediated by the receptor Frizzled (Fz)...
  47. Ma D, Yang C, McNeill H, Simon M, Axelrod J. Fidelity in planar cell polarity signalling. Nature. 2003;421:543-7 pubmed
    ..The second tier, orchestrated by the 7-pass transmembrane receptor Frizzled, aligns each cell's polarity with that of its neighbours through the action of an intercellular feedback loop, ..
  48. Strutt H, Searle E, Thomas Macarthur V, Brookfield R, Strutt D. A Cul-3-BTB ubiquitylation pathway regulates junctional levels and asymmetry of core planar polarity proteins. Development. 2013;140:1693-702 pubmed publisher
    ..Loss of asymmetry by altered core protein levels can be explained by reference to feedback models for amplification of asymmetry. ..
  49. Shimizu K, Sato M, Tabata T. The Wnt5/planar cell polarity pathway regulates axonal development of the Drosophila mushroom body neuron. J Neurosci. 2011;31:4944-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that essential PCP signaling components, encoded by frizzled (fz), strabismus (stbm), flamingo (fmi), and dishevelled (dsh), are cooperatively required for axonal targeting ..
  50. Hooper J. Smoothened translates Hedgehog levels into distinct responses. Development. 2003;130:3951-63 pubmed
    ..We have used chimeric and deleted forms of Smoothened to explore the signaling functions of Smoothened. A Frizzled/Smoothened chimera containing the Smo cytoplasmic tail (FFS) can induce the full spectrum of Hedgehog responses ..
  51. Kennerdell J, Carthew R. Use of dsRNA-mediated genetic interference to demonstrate that frizzled and frizzled 2 act in the wingless pathway. Cell. 1998;95:1017-26 pubmed
    ..The method was used to determine the reception mechanism of the morphogen Wingless. Interference of the frizzled and Drosophila frizzled 2 genes together produced defects in embryonic patterning that mimic loss of wingless ..
  52. Bastock R, Strutt D. The planar polarity pathway promotes coordinated cell migration during Drosophila oogenesis. Development. 2007;134:3055-64 pubmed
    ..This is apparently due, in part, to a loss of regulation of Rho GTPase activity by the planar polarity receptor Frizzled, which itself becomes localised to the migratory edge of the border cells...
  53. Strutt D. Asymmetric localization of frizzled and the establishment of cell polarity in the Drosophila wing. Mol Cell. 2001;7:367-75 pubmed
    The frizzled gene of Drosophila encodes a transmembrane receptor molecule required for cell polarity decisions in the adult cuticle. In the wing, a single trichome is produced by each cell, which normally points distally...
  54. Ho Y, Lien M, Lin C, Wei S, Chang L, Hsu J. Echinoid regulates Flamingo endocytosis to control ommatidial rotation in the Drosophila eye. Development. 2010;137:745-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, co-endocytosis of Ed and Fmi provides a link between apicobasal polarity and PCP. ..
  55. Shimada Y, Yonemura S, Ohkura H, Strutt D, Uemura T. Polarized transport of Frizzled along the planar microtubule arrays in Drosophila wing epithelium. Dev Cell. 2006;10:209-22 pubmed
    ..Here we pursue the mechanisms that place one of the components, Frizzled (Fz), at the distal side...
  56. Mukai A, Yamamoto Hino M, Awano W, Watanabe W, Komada M, Goto S. Balanced ubiquitylation and deubiquitylation of Frizzled regulate cellular responsiveness to Wg/Wnt. EMBO J. 2010;29:2114-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that a balance of ubiquitylation and deubiquitylation of the Wg/Wnt receptor Frizzled determines the cellular responsiveness to Wg/Wnt both in mammalian cells and in Drosophila, and that the cell ..
  57. Winter C, Wang B, Ballew A, Royou A, Karess R, Axelrod J, et al. Drosophila Rho-associated kinase (Drok) links Frizzled-mediated planar cell polarity signaling to the actin cytoskeleton. Cell. 2001;105:81-91 pubmed
    b>Frizzled (Fz) and Dishevelled (Dsh) are components of an evolutionarily conserved signaling pathway that regulates planar cell polarity...
  58. Bartscherer K, Pelte N, Ingelfinger D, Boutros M. Secretion of Wnt ligands requires Evi, a conserved transmembrane protein. Cell. 2006;125:523-33 pubmed
    ..Our results show that Wg is retained by evi mutant cells and suggest that evi is the founding member of a gene family specifically required for Wg/Wnt secretion. ..
  59. Strutt H, Strutt D. Long-range coordination of planar polarity in Drosophila. Bioessays. 2005;27:1218-27 pubmed
    ..Subsequently, this long-range polarity signal is refined by local cell-cell interactions involving the transmembrane molecules Frizzled, Strabismus and Flamingo. The role of these factors in coordinating polarity will be discussed.
  60. Johnston L, Sanders A. Wingless promotes cell survival but constrains growth during Drosophila wing development. Nat Cell Biol. 2003;5:827-33 pubmed
    ..We propose that the cell-survival- and growth-constraining activities of Wg function to sculpt and delimit final wing size as part of its overall patterning programme. ..
  61. Zhang J, Carthew R. Interactions between Wingless and DFz2 during Drosophila wing development. Development. 1998;125:3075-85 pubmed
    ..to functionally interact with DFz2, a receptor that is structurally related to the tissue polarity protein Frizzled (Fz). However, it has not been determined if DFz2 functions in the Wg signaling pathway during fly development...
  62. Jones K, Liu J, Adler P. Molecular analysis of EMS-induced frizzled mutations in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1996;142:205-15 pubmed
    The frizzled (fz) gene of Drosophila is essential for the development of normal tissue polarity in the adult cuticle of Drosophila. In fz mutants the parallel array of hairs and bristles that decorate the cuticle is disrupted...
  63. Krasnow R, Adler P. A single frizzled protein has a dual function in tissue polarity. Development. 1994;120:1883-93 pubmed
    The Drosophila frizzled (fz) gene is required for the development of normal tissue polarity in the epidermis...
  64. van den Heuvel M, Ingham P. smoothened encodes a receptor-like serpentine protein required for hedgehog signalling. Nature. 1996;382:547-51 pubmed
    ..This structure is typical of G-protein-coupled receptors, suggesting that the Smoothened protein may act as a receptor for the Hedgehog ligand. ..
  65. Adler P, Lee H. Frizzled signaling and cell-cell interactions in planar polarity. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2001;13:635-40 pubmed
    The function of the Frizzled pathway is essential for the formation of the array of distally pointing hairs found on the Drosophila wing...
  66. Ogden S, Ascano M, Stegman M, Suber L, Hooper J, Robbins D. Identification of a functional interaction between the transmembrane protein Smoothened and the kinesin-related protein Costal2. Curr Biol. 2003;13:1998-2003 pubmed
    ..This work fills in the last major gap in our understanding of the Hh signal transduction pathway by suggesting that no intermediate signal is required to connect Smo to the HSC. ..
  67. Sokol S. A role for Wnts in morpho-genesis and tissue polarity. Nat Cell Biol. 2000;2:E124-5 pubmed
    ..The analysis of Dishevelled, a cytoplasmic mediator of Wnt signalling, reveals unexpected similarity between gastrulation in vertebrates and polarization of cells in Drosophila epithelia. ..
  68. Marois E, Mahmoud A, Eaton S. The endocytic pathway and formation of the Wingless morphogen gradient. Development. 2006;133:307-17 pubmed
    ..As previously shown for Frizzled receptors, depleting Arrow does not prevent Wingless from entering endosomes...
  69. Wu C, Nusse R. Ligand receptor interactions in the Wnt signaling pathway in Drosophila. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:41762-9 pubmed
    Secreted Wnt proteins have numerous signaling functions during development, mediated by Frizzled molecules that act as Wnt receptors on the cell surface...
  70. Adler P, Taylor J, Charlton J. The domineering non-autonomy of frizzled and van Gogh clones in the Drosophila wing is a consequence of a disruption in local signaling. Mech Dev. 2000;96:197-207 pubmed
    The frizzled (fz) gene is required for the development of distally pointing hairs on the Drosophila wing. It has been suggested that fz is needed for the propagation of a signal along the proximal distal axis of the wing...
  71. Vinson C, Conover S, Adler P. A Drosophila tissue polarity locus encodes a protein containing seven potential transmembrane domains. Nature. 1989;338:263-4 pubmed
    The function of the frizzled (fz) locus in Drosophilia melanogaster is required to coordinate the cytoskeletons of epidermal cells to produce a parallel array of cuticular hairs and bristles (for example on the wild-type wing all hairs ..
  72. Lim J, Norga K, Chen Z, Choi K. Control of planar cell polarity by interaction of DWnt4 and four-jointed. Genesis. 2005;42:150-61 pubmed
    The Drosophila eye and the wing display specific planar cell polarity. Although Frizzled (Fz) signaling has been implicated in the establishment of ommatidial and wing hair polarity, evidence for the Wnt gene function has been limited...
  73. Tolwinski N, Wehrli M, Rives A, Erdeniz N, Dinardo S, Wieschaus E. Wg/Wnt signal can be transmitted through arrow/LRP5,6 and Axin independently of Zw3/Gsk3beta activity. Dev Cell. 2003;4:407-18 pubmed
    ..receptor with ligand-independent signaling activity, that physical proximity of Arrow (LRP) to the Wnt receptor Frizzled-2 triggers the intracellular signaling cascade...
  74. He X, Semenov M, Tamai K, Zeng X. LDL receptor-related proteins 5 and 6 in Wnt/beta-catenin signaling: arrows point the way. Development. 2004;131:1663-77 pubmed
    ..We discuss Arrow/Lrp5/Lrp6 interactions with Wnt and the Frizzled family of Wnt receptors, and with the intracellular beta-catenin degradation apparatus...
  75. Piddini E, Vincent J. Interpretation of the wingless gradient requires signaling-induced self-inhibition. Cell. 2009;136:296-307 pubmed publisher
    ..Without lateral inhibition, some cells acquire ectopic fates. Lateral inhibition may be a general mechanism behind the interpretation of morphogen gradients. ..
  76. Cordero J, Cagan R. Canonical wingless signaling regulates cone cell specification in the Drosophila retina. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:875-84 pubmed publisher
    ..This activity requires canonical Wg signaling and is linked with Notch pathway activity. Our work broadens the role of canonical Wg signaling to encompass multiple patterning steps in the emerging Drosophila retina. ..
  77. Casal J, Lawrence P, Struhl G. Two separate molecular systems, Dachsous/Fat and Starry night/Frizzled, act independently to confer planar cell polarity. Development. 2006;133:4561-72 pubmed
    ..The other set, the Stan system, encodes Starry night (Stan or Flamingo) and Frizzled. The prevailing view is that the Ds system acts via the Stan system to orient cells...
  78. Axelrod J. Unipolar membrane association of Dishevelled mediates Frizzled planar cell polarity signaling. Genes Dev. 2001;15:1182-7 pubmed
    Drosophila epithelia acquire a planar cell polarity (PCP) orthogonal to their apical-basal axes. Frizzled (Fz) is the receptor for the PCP signal, and Dishevelled (Dsh) transduces the signal...
  79. Cho K. Wolbachia bacteria, the cause for false vesicular staining pattern in Drosophila melanogaster. Gene Expr Patterns. 2004;5:167-70 pubmed
    ..Thus, combinatorial use of contaminated antisera and Wolbachia-infected flies can result in serious misinterpretations, which can be avoided by curing laboratory strains of Wolbachia. ..
  80. Gho M, Schweisguth F. Frizzled signalling controls orientation of asymmetric sense organ precursor cell divisions in Drosophila. Nature. 1998;393:178-81 pubmed
    ..We show that signalling mediated by the Frizzled receptor polarizes pI along this axis, thereby specifying the orientation of the mitotic spindle and positioning ..
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