Gene Symbol: fwe
Description: flower
Alias: CG6151, Dmel\CG6151, anon-WO0118547.242, dFwe, flower, CG6151-PA, CG6151-PB, CG6151-PC, fwe-PA, fwe-PB, fwe-PC
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Rhiner C, López Gay J, Soldini D, Casas Tinto S, Martín F, Lombardia L, et al. Flower forms an extracellular code that reveals the fitness of a cell to its neighbors in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2010;18:985-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Using genomic and functional assays, we have identified several factors implicated in the process, including Flower (Fwe), a cell membrane protein conserved in multicellular animals...
  2. Portela M, Casas Tinto S, Rhiner C, López Gay J, Dominguez O, Soldini D, et al. Drosophila SPARC is a self-protective signal expressed by loser cells during cell competition. Dev Cell. 2010;19:562-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, we describe the unexpected existence of a physiological mechanism that counteracts cell competition during development. ..
  3. Petrova E, López Gay J, Rhiner C, Moreno E. Flower-deficient mice have reduced susceptibility to skin papilloma formation. Dis Model Mech. 2012;5:553-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies in Drosophila describe a clonal selection process mediated by the Flower (Fwe) protein, whereby cells that express certain Fwe isoforms are recognized and forced to undergo apoptosis...
  4. Merino M, Rhiner C, Portela M, Moreno E. "Fitness fingerprints" mediate physiological culling of unwanted neurons in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2013;23:1300-9 pubmed publisher
    The flower gene has been previously linked to the elimination of slow dividing epithelial cells during development in a process known as "cell competition...
  5. Yao C, Lin Y, Ly C, Ohyama T, Haueter C, Moiseenkova Bell V, et al. A synaptic vesicle-associated Ca2+ channel promotes endocytosis and couples exocytosis to endocytosis. Cell. 2009;138:947-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Loss of Flower results in impaired intracellular resting Ca(2+) levels and impaired endocytosis...
  6. Moreno E, Rhiner C. Darwin's multicellularity: from neurotrophic theories and cell competition to fitness fingerprints. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2014;31:16-22 pubmed publisher
  7. Marinari E, Mehonic A, Curran S, Gale J, Duke T, Baum B. Live-cell delamination counterbalances epithelial growth to limit tissue overcrowding. Nature. 2012;484:542-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Because live-cell delamination constitutes a mechanistic link between epithelial hyperplasia and cell invasion, this is likely to have important implications for our understanding of the early stages of cancer development. ..
  8. Baxter S, Allard D, Crowl C, Sherwood N. Cold temperature improves mobility and survival in Drosophila models of autosomal-dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (AD-HSP). Dis Model Mech. 2014;7:1005-12 pubmed publisher
    ..We find further that cold treatment rescues larval synaptic defects in flies with mutations in Flower (a protein with no known relation to Spastin) and mobility defects in flies lacking Kat60-L1, another microtubule-..
  9. Levayer R, Hauert B, Moreno E. Cell mixing induced by myc is required for competitive tissue invasion and destruction. Nature. 2015;524:476-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results establish the first link between cell-cell intercalation induced by a proto-oncogene and how it promotes invasiveness and destruction of healthy tissues. ..

More Information


  1. Merino M, Rhiner C, López Gay J, Buechel D, Hauert B, Moreno E. Elimination of unfit cells maintains tissue health and prolongs lifespan. Cell. 2015;160:461-76 pubmed publisher
    ..On the contrary, improving the efficiency of cell selection is beneficial for tissue health and extends lifespan. ..
  2. Moreno E, Fernández Marrero Y, Meyer P, Rhiner C. Brain regeneration in Drosophila involves comparison of neuronal fitness. Curr Biol. 2015;25:955-63 pubmed publisher
    ..In Drosophila, cells compare their fitness via several isoforms of the transmembrane protein Flower [12, 13]. Here, we studied the role of intercellular fitness comparisons during regeneration...
  3. Casas Tintó S, Lolo F, Moreno E. Active JNK-dependent secretion of Drosophila Tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase by loser cells recruits haemocytes during cell competition. Nat Commun. 2015;6:10022 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, this mechanism guarantees effective removal of unfit cells from the growing tissue. ..
  4. Yao C, Liu Y, Lee I, Wang Y, Wu P. A Ca2+ channel differentially regulates Clathrin-mediated and activity-dependent bulk endocytosis. PLoS Biol. 2017;15:e2000931 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the underlying mechanisms are ill defined. We previously reported that the Flower (Fwe) Ca2+ channel present in SVs is incorporated into the periactive zone upon SV fusion, where it triggers CME, ..