Gene Symbol: ftz-f1
Description: ftz transcription factor 1
Alias: BFTZ-F1, CG13378, CG4059, DEP1, DmFTZ-F1, Dmel\CG4059, FIP1, FTZ-F1, FTZ-F1A, FTZ-F1alpha, FTZ-Fl, FTZF1, FTZf1alpha, Ftz-F1, Ftz-f1, NR5A3, alphaFTZ-F1, alphaFTZF1, alphaftz-f1, bFTZ-F1, beta FTZ-F1, beta Ftz-f1, beta-FTZ-F1, beta-Ftz-F1, betaFTZ-F1, betaFTZF1, betaFtz-F1, betaFtz-f1, betaftz-F1, betaftz-f1, betaftzf1, dFTZ-F1alpha, dFtz-F1alpha, dmFTZ-f1, ftz-F1, ftz-f1alpha, ftzf1, l(3)03649, ftz transcription factor 1, CG4059-PA, CG4059-PB, CG4059-PC, CG4059-PD, Ftz interacting protein 1, beta-Ftz transcription factor 1, ftz factor 1, ftz-f1-PA, ftz-f1-PB, ftz-f1-PC, ftz-f1-PD, ftz-transcription factor 1, fushi tarazu transcription factor 1
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Broadus J, McCabe J, Endrizzi B, Thummel C, Woodard C. The Drosophila beta FTZ-F1 orphan nuclear receptor provides competence for stage-specific responses to the steroid hormone ecdysone. Mol Cell. 1999;3:143-9 pubmed
    ..This study define beta FTZ-F1 as an essential competence factor for stage-specific responses to a steroid signal and implicates interplay among nuclear receptors as a mechanism for achieving hormonal competence. ..
  2. Huet F, Ruiz C, Richards G. Sequential gene activation by ecdysone in Drosophila melanogaster: the hierarchical equivalence of early and early late genes. Development. 1995;121:1195-204 pubmed
  3. Ruaud A, Lam G, Thummel C. The Drosophila nuclear receptors DHR3 and betaFTZ-F1 control overlapping developmental responses in late embryos. Development. 2010;137:123-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these studies define the lethal phenotypes of DHR3 and betaFTZ-F1 mutants, and provide evidence for functional bifurcation in the 20E-responsive transcriptional cascade. ..
  4. Thummel C. Flies on steroids--Drosophila metamorphosis and the mechanisms of steroid hormone action. Trends Genet. 1996;12:306-10 pubmed
    ..It seems likely that similar hormone-triggered regulatory hierarchies exist in other higher organisms and that Drosophila is providing our first glimpses of the complexities of these gene networks. ..
  5. Schubiger M, Truman J. The RXR ortholog USP suppresses early metamorphic processes in Drosophila in the absence of ecdysteroids. Development. 2000;127:1151-9 pubmed
    ..Our observations suggest that silencing by the unliganded EcR/USP receptor and the subsequent release of silencing by moderate steroid levels may play an important role in coordinating early phases of steroid driven development. ..
  6. Agawa Y, Sarhan M, Kageyama Y, Akagi K, Takai M, Hashiyama K, et al. Drosophila Blimp-1 is a transient transcriptional repressor that controls timing of the ecdysone-induced developmental pathway. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:8739-47 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, its prolonged expression results in delay of pupation timing. These results suggest that the transient transcriptional repressor dBlimp-1 is important for determining developmental timing in the ecdysone-induced pathway. ..
  7. Reinking J, Lam M, Pardee K, Sampson H, Liu S, Yang P, et al. The Drosophila nuclear receptor e75 contains heme and is gas responsive. Cell. 2005;122:195-207 pubmed
    ..Further, the E75-DHR3 interaction is also regulated by the binding of NO or CO to the heme center, suggesting that E75 may also function as a diatomic gas sensor. Possible mechanisms and roles for these interactions are discussed. ..
  8. Boulanger A, Clouet Redt C, Farge M, Flandre A, Guignard T, Fernando C, et al. ftz-f1 and Hr39 opposing roles on EcR expression during Drosophila mushroom body neuron remodeling. Nat Neurosci. 2011;14:37-44 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the ftz-f1 and Hr39 pathway apparently acts independently of TGF? signaling, suggesting that EcR-B1 is the target of two parallel molecular pathways that act during ? neuron remodeling...
  9. Talamillo A, Herboso L, Pirone L, P rez C, Gonz lez M, S nchez J, et al. Scavenger receptors mediate the role of SUMO and Ftz-f1 in Drosophila steroidogenesis. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003473 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Kageyama Y, Masuda S, Hirose S, Ueda H. Temporal regulation of the mid-prepupal gene FTZ-F1: DHR3 early late gene product is one of the plural positive regulators. Genes Cells. 1997;2:559-69 pubmed
    ..These DHR3 binding sites confer high level expression while other elements are also involved in stage-specific expression. ..
  2. White K, Hurban P, Watanabe T, Hogness D. Coordination of Drosophila metamorphosis by two ecdysone-induced nuclear receptors. Science. 1997;276:114-7 pubmed
    ..It also induces betaFTZF1, an orphan nuclear receptor that is essential for the appropriate response to the subsequent prepupal pulse of ..
  3. Cáceres L, Necakov A, Schwartz C, Kimber S, Roberts I, Krause H. Nitric oxide coordinates metabolism, growth, and development via the nuclear receptor E75. Genes Dev. 2011;25:1476-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Manipulation of these interactions leads to gross alterations in feeding behavior, fat deposition, and developmental timing. These neuroendocrine interactions and consequences appear to be conserved in vertebrates. ..
  4. Lee C, Simon C, Woodard C, Baehrecke E. Genetic mechanism for the stage- and tissue-specific regulation of steroid triggered programmed cell death in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2002;252:138-48 pubmed
    ..Together, these observations indicate that betaFTZ-F1 regulates the timing of hormone-induced cell responses, while E93 functions to specify programmed cell death. ..
  5. Yamada M, Murata T, Hirose S, Lavorgna G, Suzuki E, Ueda H. Temporally restricted expression of transcription factor betaFTZ-F1: significance for embryogenesis, molting and metamorphosis in Drosophila melanogaster. Development. 2000;127:5083-92 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that betaFTZ-F1 regulates genes associated with ecdysis and metamorphosis, and that the exact timing of its action in the ecdysone-induced gene cascade is important for proper development. ..
  6. Guichet A, Copeland J, Erdelyi M, Hlousek D, Zavorszky P, Ho J, et al. The nuclear receptor homologue Ftz-F1 and the homeodomain protein Ftz are mutually dependent cofactors. Nature. 1997;385:548-52 pubmed
    ..This interaction suggests that other nuclear receptor/homeodomain protein interactions maybe important and common in developing organisms. ..
  7. King Jones K, Thummel C. Nuclear receptors--a perspective from Drosophila. Nat Rev Genet. 2005;6:311-23 pubmed
    ..Here, we review recent breakthroughs in our understanding of D. melanogaster nuclear receptors, and interpret these results in light of findings from their evolutionarily conserved vertebrate homologues. ..
  8. Parvy J, Blais C, Bernard F, Warren J, Petryk A, Gilbert L, et al. A role for betaFTZ-F1 in regulating ecdysteroid titers during post-embryonic development in Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 2005;282:84-94 pubmed
    ..of two steroidogenic enzymes, Phantom (PHM) and Disembodied (DIB), were shown to be very reduced in ftz transcription factor 1 (ftz-f1) mutant ring gland cells whereas there was no effect of the without children (woc) mutation, ..
  9. Lee C, Wendel D, Reid P, Lam G, Thummel C, Baehrecke E. E93 directs steroid-triggered programmed cell death in Drosophila. Mol Cell. 2000;6:433-43 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, expression of E93 is sufficient to induce programmed cell death. We propose that the steroid induction of E93 determines a programmed cell death response during development. ..
  10. Schwartz C, Sampson H, Hlousek D, Percival Smith A, Copeland J, Simmonds A, et al. FTZ-Factor1 and Fushi tarazu interact via conserved nuclear receptor and coactivator motifs. EMBO J. 2001;20:510-9 pubmed
    ..These unexpected findings have important implications for the conserved homologs of the two proteins. ..
  11. Talamillo A, Sánchez J, Cantera R, Pérez C, Martin D, Caminero E, et al. Smt3 is required for Drosophila melanogaster metamorphosis. Development. 2008;135:1659-68 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our study indicates that Smt3 is required for the ecdysteroid synthesis pathway at the time of puparium formation. ..
  12. Fahrbach S, Smagghe G, Velarde R. Insect nuclear receptors. Annu Rev Entomol. 2012;57:83-106 pubmed publisher
    ..An exciting new technology allows EcR to be used in chimeric, ligand-inducible gene-switch systems with applications in pest management and medicine. ..
  13. Laudet V, Hanni C, Coll J, Catzeflis F, Stehelin D. Evolution of the nuclear receptor gene superfamily. EMBO J. 1992;11:1003-13 pubmed
    ..These data suggest a complex evolutionary history for nuclear receptor genes in which gene duplication events and swapping between domains of different origins took place. ..
  14. Escriva H, Safi R, Hanni C, Langlois M, Saumitou Laprade P, Stehelin D, et al. Ligand binding was acquired during evolution of nuclear receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:6803-8 pubmed
    ..Strikingly, our results suggest that the ancestral NR was an orphan receptor that acquired ligand-binding ability during subsequent evolution. ..
  15. Lam G, Jiang C, Thummel C. Coordination of larval and prepupal gene expression by the DHR3 orphan receptor during Drosophila metamorphosis. Development. 1997;124:1757-69 pubmed
  16. . A unified nomenclature system for the nuclear receptor superfamily. Cell. 1999;97:161-3 pubmed
  17. Jiang C, Lamblin A, Steller H, Thummel C. A steroid-triggered transcriptional hierarchy controls salivary gland cell death during Drosophila metamorphosis. Mol Cell. 2000;5:445-55 pubmed
    ..This study identifies transcriptional regulators of programmed cell death in Drosophila and provides a direct link between a steroid signal and a programmed cell death response. ..
  18. Fortier T, Vasa P, Woodard C. Orphan nuclear receptor betaFTZ-F1 is required for muscle-driven morphogenetic events at the prepupal-pupal transition in Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 2003;257:153-65 pubmed
    ..Our findings indicate that betaFTZ-F1 directs the muscle contraction events that drive the major morphogenetic processes during the prepupal-pupal transition in Drosophila. ..
  19. Thummel C. Dueling orphans--interacting nuclear receptors coordinate Drosophila metamorphosis. Bioessays. 1997;19:669-72 pubmed
    ..This study provides a biological function for orphan receptor interactions during development. ..
  20. Palanker L, Necakov A, Sampson H, Ni R, Hu C, Thummel C, et al. Dynamic regulation of Drosophila nuclear receptor activity in vivo. Development. 2006;133:3549-62 pubmed
  21. Woodard C, Baehrecke E, Thummel C. A molecular mechanism for the stage specificity of the Drosophila prepupal genetic response to ecdysone. Cell. 1994;79:607-15 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that beta FTZ-F1 plays a central role in the prepupal genetic response to ecdysone and provide a molecular mechanism for stage-specific responses to steroid hormones. ..
  22. Lavorgna G, Karim F, Thummel C, Wu C. Potential role for a FTZ-F1 steroid receptor superfamily member in the control of Drosophila metamorphosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:3004-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a role for FTZ-F1 as a regulator of insect metamorphosis and underscore the repeated utilization of a regulatory protein for widely separate developmental pathways. ..
  23. Mannervik M. Target genes of homeodomain proteins. Bioessays. 1999;21:267-70 pubmed
    ..An alternative view, that most genes are only indirectly affected by homeodomain proteins is also discussed. ..
  24. Thummel C. From embryogenesis to metamorphosis: the regulation and function of Drosophila nuclear receptor superfamily members. Cell. 1995;83:871-7 pubmed
  25. Cho K, Daubnerova I, Park Y, Zitnan D, Adams M. Secretory competence in a gateway endocrine cell conferred by the nuclear receptor ?FTZ-F1 enables stage-specific ecdysone responses throughout development in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2014;385:253-62 pubmed publisher
    ..This secretory function depends on transient and precisely timed ?FTZ-F1 expression late in the molt as steroids decline. ..
  26. Lee C, Baehrecke E. Steroid regulation of autophagic programmed cell death during development. Development. 2001;128:1443-55 pubmed
    ..In contrast, E93 expression is sufficient to induce the removal of cells by phagocytes in the absence of the H99 genes. These studies indicate that apoptosis and autophagy utilize some common regulatory mechanisms. ..
  27. Wang L, Lam G, Thummel C. Med24 and Mdh2 are required for Drosophila larval salivary gland cell death. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:954-64 pubmed publisher
    ..This study identifies novel mechanisms for controlling the destruction of larval tissues during Drosophila metamorphosis and provides new directions for our understanding of steroid-triggered programmed cell death. ..
  28. King Jones K, Charles J, Lam G, Thummel C. The ecdysone-induced DHR4 orphan nuclear receptor coordinates growth and maturation in Drosophila. Cell. 2005;121:773-84 pubmed
    ..We propose that DHR4 coordinates growth and maturation in Drosophila by mediating endocrine responses to the attainment of critical weight during larval development. ..
  29. Xiang Y, Liu Z, Huang X. br regulates the expression of the ecdysone biosynthesis gene npc1. Dev Biol. 2010;344:800-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results imply that ecdysone could potentially act through its early response gene br to achieve positive feedback regulation of ecdysone biosynthesis during development. ..
  30. Francis V, Zorzano A, Teleman A. dDOR is an EcR coactivator that forms a feed-forward loop connecting insulin and ecdysone signaling. Curr Biol. 2010;20:1799-808 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, because ecdysone signaling inhibits insulin signaling in the fat body, this also uncovers a feed-forward mechanism whereby ecdysone potentiates its own signaling via dDOR. ..
  31. Yoshikane N, Nakamura N, Ueda R, Ueno N, Yamanaka S, Nakamura M. Drosophila NAT1, a homolog of the vertebrate translational regulator NAT1/DAP5/p97, is required for embryonic germband extension and metamorphosis. Dev Growth Differ. 2007;49:623-34 pubmed
    ..A phenotypic analysis of dNAT1 mutants suggests that dNAT protein plays a specific rather than general role in translational regulation. ..
  32. Kawasaki H, Hirose S, Ueda H. BetaFTZ-F1 dependent and independent activation of Edg78E, a pupal cuticle gene, during the early metamorphic period in Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Growth Differ. 2002;44:419-25 pubmed
    ..The findings suggest that betaFTZ-F1 is a regulator for temporal gene expression at the onset of metamorphosis, and that complex mechanisms regulate the temporal and spatial regulation of gene expression during metamorphosis. ..
  33. Ihry R, Sapiro A, Bashirullah A. Translational control by the DEAD Box RNA helicase belle regulates ecdysone-triggered transcriptional cascades. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1003085 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that translational control plays a critical, and previously unknown, role in refining transcriptional responses to the steroid hormone ecdysone...
  34. Papantonis A, Swevers L, Iatrou K. Chorion genes: a landscape of their evolution, structure, and regulation. Annu Rev Entomol. 2015;60:177-94 pubmed publisher
  35. Chen J, Wang H, Wang Y. Overexpression of HmgD causes the failure of pupariation in Drosophila by affecting ecdysone receptor pathway. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2008;68:123-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol. 2008. ..
  36. Bashirullah A, Lam G, Yin V, Thummel C. dTrf2 is required for transcriptional and developmental responses to ecdysone during Drosophila metamorphosis. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:3173-9 pubmed
    ..The transcription of key ecdysone-regulated target genes is delayed and reduced in dTrf2 mutants. dTrf2 appears to be required for the proper timing and levels of ecdysone-regulated gene expression required for entry into metamorphosis. ..
  37. Segraves W. Steroid receptors and orphan receptors in Drosophila development. Semin Cell Biol. 1994;5:105-13 pubmed
    ..This has suggested a number of models based on competitive, cooperative and inter-regulatory interactions between these proteins. ..
  38. Fichelson P, Brigui A, Pichaud F. Orthodenticle and Kruppel homolog 1 regulate Drosophila photoreceptor maturation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:7893-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore conclude that repression of this transcription factor represents a key step, enabling remodeling and maturation in a wide variety of neurons. ..
  39. Yu Y, Li W, Su K, Yussa M, Han W, Perrimon N, et al. The nuclear hormone receptor Ftz-F1 is a cofactor for the Drosophila homeodomain protein Ftz. Nature. 1997;385:552-5 pubmed
    ..Cooperative interaction between homeodomain proteins and cofactors of different classes may serve as a general mechanism to increase HOX protein specificity and to broaden the range of target sites they regulate. ..
  40. Neuman S, Ihry R, Gruetzmacher K, Bashirullah A. INO80-dependent regression of ecdysone-induced transcriptional responses regulates developmental timing in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2014;387:229-39 pubmed publisher
  41. Lecci M, Malta T, Flausino V, Gitaí D, Ruiz J, Monesi N. Functional and bioinformatics analyses reveal conservation of cis-regulatory elements between sciaridae and drosophilidae. Genesis. 2008;46:43-51 pubmed publisher
  42. Baehrecke E. Steroid regulation of programmed cell death during Drosophila development. Cell Death Differ. 2000;7:1057-62 pubmed
    ..This article reviews the current knowledge of steroid signaling and the regulation of programmed cell death during development of Drosophila. ..
  43. Florence B, Guichet A, Ephrussi A, Laughon A. Ftz-F1 is a cofactor in Ftz activation of the Drosophila engrailed gene. Development. 1997;124:839-47 pubmed
    ..We also report the existence of a separate negative regulatory element that apparently responds to odd-skipped. ..
  44. Akdemir F, Farkas R, Chen P, Juhasz G, Medved ová L, Sass M, et al. Autophagy occurs upstream or parallel to the apoptosome during histolytic cell death. Development. 2006;133:1457-65 pubmed
  45. Sutherland J, Kozlova T, Tzertzinis G, Kafatos F. Drosophila hormone receptor 38: a second partner for Drosophila USP suggests an unexpected role for nuclear receptors of the nerve growth factor-induced protein B type. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:7966-70 pubmed
    ..This suggests that DHR38 plays a role in the ecdysone response and that more generally NGFI-B type receptors may be able to function as heterodimers with retinoid X receptor type receptors in regulating transcription...
  46. Lin S, Huang Y, Lee T. Nuclear receptor unfulfilled regulates axonal guidance and cell identity of Drosophila mushroom body neurons. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8392 pubmed publisher
    ..In sum, unf governs axonal morphogenesis of multiple MB neuron types, possibly through regulating neuronal subtype identity...
  47. Hsu T, Schulz R. Sequence and functional properties of Ets genes in the model organism Drosophila. Oncogene. 2000;19:6409-16 pubmed
    ..The information should be of significant value to the study of related processes in higher organisms due to the growing evidence for the cross species conservation of developmental mechanisms. ..
  48. Nikolenko J, Krasnov A, Mazina M, Georgieva S, Vorobyeva N. Studying a novel ecdysone-dependent enhancer. Dokl Biochem Biophys. 2017;474:236-238 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the results of this study indicate that the studied genomic element exhibits the properties of an enhancer and functions at the stage of active gene transcription. ..
  49. Ritter A, Beckstead R. Sox14 is required for transcriptional and developmental responses to 20-hydroxyecdysone at the onset of drosophila metamorphosis. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:2685-94 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that the Sox14-regulated gene set correlates well with Sox14 expression in a variety of larval and adult tissues. Thus, Sox14 is a critical transcription factor required for 20E signaling at the onset of metamorphosis. ..
  50. Yu Y, Yussa M, Song J, Hirsch J, Pick L. A double interaction screen identifies positive and negative ftz gene regulators and ftz-interacting proteins. Mech Dev. 1999;83:95-105 pubmed
    ..The DIS should be a generally useful method to identify DNA binding transcriptional regulators and protein partners of previously characterized DNA binding proteins. ..
  51. Suzuki T, Kawasaki H, Yu R, Ueda H, Umesono K. Segmentation gene product Fushi tarazu is an LXXLL motif-dependent coactivator for orphan receptor FTZ-F1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:12403-8 pubmed
    ..might regulate transcription, we analyzed the mode of interaction between the Drosophila orphan receptor FTZ-F1 (NR5A3) and a segmentation gene product Fushi tarazu (FTZ)...
  52. Yussa M, Löhr U, Su K, Pick L. The nuclear receptor Ftz-F1 and homeodomain protein Ftz interact through evolutionarily conserved protein domains. Mech Dev. 2001;107:39-53 pubmed
    ..Ftz, on the other hand, influences Ftz-F1 activity by interacting with its AF-2 domain in a manner that mimics a nuclear receptor coactivator. ..
  53. Sultan A, Oish Y, Ueda H. Function of the nuclear receptor FTZ-F1 during the pupal stage in Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Growth Differ. 2014;56:245-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that ?FTZ-F1 is expressed in most cells at the late pupal stage, under the control of ecdysteroids and plays important roles during pupal development. ..
  54. Lavorgna G, Ueda H, Clos J, Wu C. FTZ-F1, a steroid hormone receptor-like protein implicated in the activation of fushi tarazu. Science. 1991;252:848-51 pubmed
    ..This finding raises the possibility that a hormonal ligand affects the expression of a homeobox segmentation gene early in embryonic development. ..
  55. Lu Y, Anderson W, Zhang H, Feng S, Pick L. Functional conservation of Drosophila FTZ-F1 and its mammalian homologs suggests ligand-independent regulation of NR5A family transcriptional activity. Dev Genes Evol. 2013;223:199-205 pubmed publisher
    ..The functional equivalence of ftz-f1 orthologs in these sensitive in vivo assays argues against specific activating ligands for NR5A family members. ..
  56. Sun X, Song Q. PKC-mediated USP phosphorylation is required for 20E-induced gene expression in the salivary glands of Drosophila melanogaster. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2006;62:116-27 pubmed
    ..The composite data suggest that PKC-mediated USP phosphorylation is required for 20E-induced gene expression in the salivary glands of Drosophila melanogaster. ..
  57. Lam G, Thummel C. Inducible expression of double-stranded RNA directs specific genetic interference in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2000;10:957-63 pubmed
    ..They also demonstrate that dsRNA expression can inactivate Drosophila gene function at later stages of development, providing a new tool for functional genomic studies in Drosophila. ..
  58. Ohno S. The one-to-four rule and paralogues of sex-determining genes. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999;55:824-30 pubmed
    ..It is likely that one of them plays a pivotal role in the estrogen-dependent sex-determining mechanism so commonly found among reptiles, amphibians and fish. ..
  59. Rewitz K, Yamanaka N, O Connor M. Steroid hormone inactivation is required during the juvenile-adult transition in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2010;19:895-902 pubmed publisher
    ..The coupling of hormone clearance to ?FTZ-F1 expression suggests a general mechanism by which transient signaling drives unidirectional progression through a multistep process. ..
  60. Argiropoulos B, Ho J, Blachuta B, Tayyab I, Percival Smith A. Low-level ectopic expression of Fushi tarazu in Drosophila melanogaster results in ftz(Ual/Rpl)-like phenotypes and rescues ftz phenotypes. Mech Dev. 2003;120:1443-53 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the region encompassing amino acids 151-209 of FTZ is required in some manner for repression of FTZ activity. These results are discussed in relation to the current understanding of the mechanism of FTZ action. ..
  61. Akagi K, Kageyama Y, Kayashima Y, Takakura Y, Hirose S, Ueda H. The binding of multiple nuclear receptors to a single regulatory region is important for the proper expression of EDG84A in Drosophila melanogaster. J Mol Biol. 2013;425:71-81 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show the complicated regulatory mechanisms utilized by multiple nuclear receptors to properly regulate the expression of their target gene through a single target site. ..
  62. Han W, Yu Y, Su K, Kohanski R, Pick L. A binding site for multiple transcriptional activators in the fushi tarazu proximal enhancer is essential for gene expression in vivo. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:3384-94 pubmed
    ..The finding of repeated binding sites for multiple nuclear proteins underscores the high degree of redundancy built into embryonic gene regulatory networks. ..
  63. Hou H, Heffer A, Anderson W, Liu J, Bowler T, Pick L. Stripy Ftz target genes are coordinately regulated by Ftz-F1. Dev Biol. 2009;335:442-53 pubmed publisher
  64. Fisk G, Thummel C. Isolation, regulation, and DNA-binding properties of three Drosophila nuclear hormone receptor superfamily members. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:10604-8 pubmed
    ..The 20E receptor can bind to each of the sequences recognized by DHR78 and DHR96, indicating that these proteins may compete with the receptor for binding to a common set of target sequences. ..
  65. Lengil T, Gancz D, Gilboa L. Activin signaling balances proliferation and differentiation of ovarian niche precursors and enables adjustment of niche numbers. Development. 2015;142:883-92 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that this mode of function allows Activin to balance proliferation and differentiation, and to equilibrate niche numbers. These results suggest a novel model for how niche numbers are corrected during development. ..
  66. Kopp A, Duncan I, Godt D, Carroll S. Genetic control and evolution of sexually dimorphic characters in Drosophila. Nature. 2000;408:553-9 pubmed
    ..Pigmentation patterns specified by bab affect mating preferences, suggesting that sexual selection has contributed to the evolution of bab regulation. ..
  67. Ueda H, Hirose S. Identification and purification of a Bombyx mori homologue of FTZ-F1. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990;18:7229-34 pubmed
    ..The mobility of the factor-DNA complex formed in the silk gland extract changes depending on the developmental stages. Purification of BmFTZF1 to an almost homogeneous state reveals that the factor is a 73 kd protein. ..
  68. Hara Y, Hirai K, Togane Y, Akagawa H, Iwabuchi K, Tsujimura H. Ecdysone-dependent and ecdysone-independent programmed cell death in the developing optic lobe of Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2013;374:127-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The acquisition of ecdysone-dependence was not directly correlated with the initiation or increase of EcR-B1 expression. ..
  69. Ueda H, Sonoda S, Brown J, Scott M, Wu C. A sequence-specific DNA-binding protein that activates fushi tarazu segmentation gene expression. Genes Dev. 1990;4:624-35 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that FTZ-F1 is a transcriptional activator necessary for the proper expression of the ftz gene. ..
  70. Ayer S, Walker N, Mosammaparast M, Nelson J, Shilo B, Benyajati C. Activation and repression of Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenase distal transcription by two steroid hormone receptor superfamily members binding to a common response element. Nucleic Acids Res. 1993;21:1619-27 pubmed
    ..Over expression of an alternative DHR39 open reading frame that lacks part of the putative ligand binding domain does not alter Adh expression. In contrast, over expression of FTZ-F1 specifically activates distal Adh expression. ..
  71. Buszczak M, Segraves W. Insect metamorphosis: out with the old, in with the new. Curr Biol. 2000;10:R830-3 pubmed
    ..Recent studies suggest that the E93 gene is both necessary and sufficient to target tissues for ecdysone-induced apoptosis. ..
  72. Ueda H, Sun G, Murata T, Hirose S. A novel DNA-binding motif abuts the zinc finger domain of insect nuclear hormone receptor FTZ-F1 and mouse embryonal long terminal repeat-binding protein. Mol Cell Biol. 1992;12:5667-72 pubmed
    ..Occurrence of the FTZ-F1 box sequence in other members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily raises the possibility that these receptors constitute a unique subfamily which binds to DNA as a monomer. ..
  73. Bond N, Nelliot A, Bernardo M, Ayerh M, Gorski K, Hoshizaki D, et al. ßFTZ-F1 and Matrix metalloproteinase 2 are required for fat-body remodeling in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2011;360:286-96 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that induction of MMP2 expression in the fat body requires 20E signaling, and that MMP2 is necessary and sufficient to induce fat-body remodeling. ..
  74. Ohno C, Ueda H, Petkovich M. The Drosophila nuclear receptors FTZ-F1 alpha and FTZ-F1 beta compete as monomers for binding to a site in the fushi tarazu gene. Mol Cell Biol. 1994;14:3166-75 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that FTZ-F1 alpha and FTZ-F1 beta likely coregulate common target genes by competition for binding to a 9-bp recognition element. ..
  75. Dubrovsky E, Dubrovskaya V, Bernardo T, Otte V, Difilippo R, Bryan H. The Drosophila FTZ-F1 nuclear receptor mediates juvenile hormone activation of E75A gene expression through an intracellular pathway. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:33689-700 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that FTZ-F1 functions as a competence factor by loading JH signaling components to the promoter, thus facilitating the direct regulation of E75A gene expression by JH. ..
  76. Yoo J, Ko S, Kim H, Sampson H, Yun J, Choe K, et al. Crystal structure of Fushi tarazu factor 1 ligand binding domain/Fushi tarazu peptide complex identifies new class of nuclear receptors. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:31225-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings are intriguing given that the highly homologous human steroidogenic factor-1 and liver receptor homolog-1 LBDs exhibit sizable ligand-binding pockets occupied by putative ligand molecules. ..
  77. Hsia C, McGinnis W. Evolution of transcription factor function. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2003;13:199-206 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, recent studies provide evidence that changes in transcription factor protein sequence can affect the regulation of only a subset of target genes, even in the same cells of a developing animal. ..
  78. Field A, Xiang J, Anderson W, Graham P, Pick L. Activation of Ftz-F1-Responsive Genes through Ftz/Ftz-F1 Dependent Enhancers. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0163128 pubmed publisher
    ..These targets include other regulatory factors as well as genes involved directly in morphogenesis, providing insight into how pair-rule genes establish the body pattern. ..