ftz

Summary

Gene Symbol: ftz
Description: fushi tarazu
Alias: BG:DS07876.1, CG2047, Dm-Ftz, Dm-ftz, DmFtz, Dmel\CG2047, Dmftz, FTZ, Ftz, Ual, l(3)84Ag, fushi tarazu, CG2047-PA, Fushi-Tarazu, Ultra-abdominal-like, ftz-PA, fushitarazu
Species: fruit fly
Products:     ftz

Top Publications

  1. Gindhart J, King A, Kaufman T. Characterization of the cis-regulatory region of the Drosophila homeotic gene Sex combs reduced. Genetics. 1995;139:781-95 pubmed
    ..pattern in the anterior and posterior midgut are imbedded in the regulatory region of the segmentation gene fushi tarazu (ftz), which is normally located between 10 and 20 kb 5' of the Scr transcription start site...
  2. Walter J, Biggin M. DNA binding specificity of two homeodomain proteins in vitro and in Drosophila embryos. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:2680-5 pubmed
  3. Nambu P, Nambu J. The Drosophila fish-hook gene encodes a HMG domain protein essential for segmentation and CNS development. Development. 1996;122:3467-75 pubmed
    ..These results indicate an essential role for fish in anterior/posterior pattern formation and nervous system development, and suggest a potential function in modulating the activities of gap and pair-rule proteins. ..
  4. Florence B, Guichet A, Ephrussi A, Laughon A. Ftz-F1 is a cofactor in Ftz activation of the Drosophila engrailed gene. Development. 1997;124:839-47 pubmed
    The fushi tarazu pair-rule gene is required for the formation of alternating parasegmental boundaries in the Drosophila embryo...
  5. Ohtsuki S, Levine M, Cai H. Different core promoters possess distinct regulatory activities in the Drosophila embryo. Genes Dev. 1998;12:547-56 pubmed
    ..Thus, certain upstream activators, such as Ftz, prefer TATA-containing promoters, whereas other activators, including Dorsal, work equally well on both classes of ..
  6. Carroll S, Winslow G, Twombly V, Scott M. Genes that control dorsoventral polarity affect gene expression along the anteroposterior axis of the Drosophila embryo. Development. 1987;99:327-32 pubmed
    ..We have used the expression of the fushi tarazu (ftz) segmentation gene as a positional marker to investigate the relationship between the dorsoventral and ..
  7. Busturia A, Bienz M. Silencers in abdominal-B, a homeotic Drosophila gene. EMBO J. 1993;12:1415-25 pubmed
    ..The striking similarities between the control of Abd-B and of Ultrabithorax, another homeotic Drosophila gene, may point to a universal principle underlying homeotic gene regulation. ..
  8. Li L, Gergen J. Differential interactions between Brother proteins and Runt domain proteins in the Drosophila embryo and eye. Development. 1999;126:3313-22 pubmed
    ..Our results firmly establish the importance of the Brother and Big brother proteins for the biological activities of Runt and Lozenge, and further suggest that Brother protein function is not restricted to enhancing DNA-binding. ..
  9. Dienstbier M, Boehl F, Li X, Bullock S. Egalitarian is a selective RNA-binding protein linking mRNA localization signals to the dynein motor. Genes Dev. 2009;23:1546-58 pubmed publisher
  10. Löhr U, Pick L. Cofactor-interaction motifs and the cooption of a homeotic Hox protein into the segmentation pathway of Drosophila melanogaster. Curr Biol. 2005;15:643-9 pubmed
    Some Drosophila Hox-complex members, including the segmentation gene fushi tarazu (Dm-ftz), have nonhomeotic functions...

Detail Information

Publications84

  1. Gindhart J, King A, Kaufman T. Characterization of the cis-regulatory region of the Drosophila homeotic gene Sex combs reduced. Genetics. 1995;139:781-95 pubmed
    ..pattern in the anterior and posterior midgut are imbedded in the regulatory region of the segmentation gene fushi tarazu (ftz), which is normally located between 10 and 20 kb 5' of the Scr transcription start site...
  2. Walter J, Biggin M. DNA binding specificity of two homeodomain proteins in vitro and in Drosophila embryos. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:2680-5 pubmed
  3. Nambu P, Nambu J. The Drosophila fish-hook gene encodes a HMG domain protein essential for segmentation and CNS development. Development. 1996;122:3467-75 pubmed
    ..These results indicate an essential role for fish in anterior/posterior pattern formation and nervous system development, and suggest a potential function in modulating the activities of gap and pair-rule proteins. ..
  4. Florence B, Guichet A, Ephrussi A, Laughon A. Ftz-F1 is a cofactor in Ftz activation of the Drosophila engrailed gene. Development. 1997;124:839-47 pubmed
    The fushi tarazu pair-rule gene is required for the formation of alternating parasegmental boundaries in the Drosophila embryo...
  5. Ohtsuki S, Levine M, Cai H. Different core promoters possess distinct regulatory activities in the Drosophila embryo. Genes Dev. 1998;12:547-56 pubmed
    ..Thus, certain upstream activators, such as Ftz, prefer TATA-containing promoters, whereas other activators, including Dorsal, work equally well on both classes of ..
  6. Carroll S, Winslow G, Twombly V, Scott M. Genes that control dorsoventral polarity affect gene expression along the anteroposterior axis of the Drosophila embryo. Development. 1987;99:327-32 pubmed
    ..We have used the expression of the fushi tarazu (ftz) segmentation gene as a positional marker to investigate the relationship between the dorsoventral and ..
  7. Busturia A, Bienz M. Silencers in abdominal-B, a homeotic Drosophila gene. EMBO J. 1993;12:1415-25 pubmed
    ..The striking similarities between the control of Abd-B and of Ultrabithorax, another homeotic Drosophila gene, may point to a universal principle underlying homeotic gene regulation. ..
  8. Li L, Gergen J. Differential interactions between Brother proteins and Runt domain proteins in the Drosophila embryo and eye. Development. 1999;126:3313-22 pubmed
    ..Our results firmly establish the importance of the Brother and Big brother proteins for the biological activities of Runt and Lozenge, and further suggest that Brother protein function is not restricted to enhancing DNA-binding. ..
  9. Dienstbier M, Boehl F, Li X, Bullock S. Egalitarian is a selective RNA-binding protein linking mRNA localization signals to the dynein motor. Genes Dev. 2009;23:1546-58 pubmed publisher
  10. Löhr U, Pick L. Cofactor-interaction motifs and the cooption of a homeotic Hox protein into the segmentation pathway of Drosophila melanogaster. Curr Biol. 2005;15:643-9 pubmed
    Some Drosophila Hox-complex members, including the segmentation gene fushi tarazu (Dm-ftz), have nonhomeotic functions...
  11. Luengo Hendriks C, Keränen S, Fowlkes C, Simirenko L, Weber G, DePace A, et al. Three-dimensional morphology and gene expression in the Drosophila blastoderm at cellular resolution I: data acquisition pipeline. Genome Biol. 2006;7:R123 pubmed
    ..The application of these quantitative methods to other developmental systems will likely reveal many other previously unknown features and provide a more rigorous understanding of developmental regulatory networks. ..
  12. MacArthur S, Li X, Li J, Brown J, Chu H, Zeng L, et al. Developmental roles of 21 Drosophila transcription factors are determined by quantitative differences in binding to an overlapping set of thousands of genomic regions. Genome Biol. 2009;10:R80 pubmed publisher
  13. Prazak L, Fujioka M, Gergen J. Non-additive interactions involving two distinct elements mediate sloppy-paired regulation by pair-rule transcription factors. Dev Biol. 2010;344:1048-59 pubmed publisher
    ..stripes and mediates repression by Even-skipped (Eve) as well as by the combination of Runt and Fushi-tarazu (Ftz)...
  14. Shu J, Li Y. A statistical fat-tail test of predicting regulatory regions in the Drosophila genome. Comput Biol Med. 2012;42:935-41 pubmed publisher
    ..These two fatness coefficients may serve as valuable filtering indexes to predict CRMs experimentally. ..
  15. Wang X, Hang S, Prazak L, Gergen J. NELF potentiates gene transcription in the Drosophila embryo. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11498 pubmed publisher
  16. Russell S, Sanchez Soriano N, Wright C, Ashburner M. The Dichaete gene of Drosophila melanogaster encodes a SOX-domain protein required for embryonic segmentation. Development. 1996;122:3669-76 pubmed
  17. Jennings B, Wainwright S, Ish Horowicz D. Differential in vivo requirements for oligomerization during Groucho-mediated repression. EMBO Rep. 2008;9:76-83 pubmed
    ..Our results show that homo-oligomerization of Gro is not obligatory for its action in vivo, and that Gro represses transcription through more than one molecular mechanism. ..
  18. Belozerov V, Majumder P, Shen P, Cai H. A novel boundary element may facilitate independent gene regulation in the Antennapedia complex of Drosophila. EMBO J. 2003;22:3113-21 pubmed
    ..The regulatory region of the Scr gene in the Drosophila Antennapedia complex is interrupted by the neighboring ftz transcription unit, yet both genes are specifically activated by their respective enhancers from such juxtaposed ..
  19. Phippen T, Sweigart A, Moniwa M, Krumm A, Davie J, Parkhurst S. Drosophila C-terminal binding protein functions as a context-dependent transcriptional co-factor and interferes with both mad and groucho transcriptional repression. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:37628-37 pubmed
    ..Hairy defines a new class of proteins that requires both CtBP and Groucho co-factors for proper function. ..
  20. Makeev V, Lifanov A, Nazina A, Papatsenko D. Distance preferences in the arrangement of binding motifs and hierarchical levels in organization of transcription regulatory information. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:6016-26 pubmed
    ..We discuss the role of the hierarchy in understanding transcriptional regulation and in detection of transcription regulatory regions in genomes. ..
  21. Walrad P, Hang S, Joseph G, Salas J, Gergen J. Distinct contributions of conserved modules to Runt transcription factor activity. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:2315-26 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide a foundation for further studies on the molecular interactions that contribute to the context-dependent properties of Runx proteins as developmental regulators...
  22. Kaplan T, Li X, Sabo P, Thomas S, Stamatoyannopoulos J, Biggin M, et al. Quantitative models of the mechanisms that control genome-wide patterns of transcription factor binding during early Drosophila development. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1001290 pubmed publisher
  23. Fowlkes C, Eckenrode K, Bragdon M, Meyer M, Wunderlich Z, Simirenko L, et al. A conserved developmental patterning network produces quantitatively different output in multiple species of Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002346 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results emphasize that transcriptional networks can diverge over short evolutionary timescales and that even small changes can lead to distinct output in terms of the placement and number of equivalent cells. ..
  24. Jenkins D, Ortori C, Brookfield J. A test for adaptive change in DNA sequences controlling transcription. Proc Biol Sci. 1995;261:203-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This is despite highly significant evidence that all parts of the sequence have been subject to strong selective constraint). The test can be applied generally to investigate adaptive evolution in the control of gene expression...
  25. Li X, Thomas S, Sabo P, Eisen M, Stamatoyannopoulos J, Biggin M. The role of chromatin accessibility in directing the widespread, overlapping patterns of Drosophila transcription factor binding. Genome Biol. 2011;12:R34 pubmed publisher
  26. Sanchez L, Thieffry D. Segmenting the fly embryo: a logical analysis of the pair-rule cross-regulatory module. J Theor Biol. 2003;224:517-37 pubmed
    ..Finally, it provides new insights into the roles and evolutionary origins of the apparent redundancies in the regulatory architecture of the pair-rule module. ..
  27. Han W, Yu Y, Su K, Kohanski R, Pick L. A binding site for multiple transcriptional activators in the fushi tarazu proximal enhancer is essential for gene expression in vivo. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:3384-94 pubmed
    The Drosophila homeobox gene fushi tarazu (ftz) is expressed in a highly dynamic striped pattern in early embryos...
  28. Wang X, Lee C, Gilmour D, Gergen J. Transcription elongation controls cell fate specification in the Drosophila embryo. Genes Dev. 2007;21:1031-6 pubmed
    ..We find that the initial repression of slp1 in response to Runt and Fushi-tarazu (Ftz) does not involve chromatin remodeling, or histone modification...
  29. Ip Y, Levine M, Bier E. Neurogenic expression of snail is controlled by separable CNS and PNS promoter elements. Development. 1994;120:199-207 pubmed
    ..The separate control of CNS and PNS sna expression and independence of proneural gene regulation add to a growing body of evidence that current genetic models of neurogenesis are substantially incomplete. ..
  30. Carr A, Biggin M. A comparison of in vivo and in vitro DNA-binding specificities suggests a new model for homeoprotein DNA binding in Drosophila embryos. EMBO J. 1999;18:1598-608 pubmed
    ..These genes are bound poorly in vivo, even though they contain many high affinity homeoprotein-binding sites. Based on these results, we suggest how the in vivo pattern of homeoprotein DNA binding is determined. ..
  31. Calhoun V, Levine M. Long-range enhancer-promoter interactions in the Scr-Antp interval of the Drosophila Antennapedia complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:9878-83 pubmed
    ..In the case of the Drosophila Antennapedia complex, the T1 enhancer bypasses the neighboring ftz gene and interacts with the distant Scr promoter to activate expression in posterior head segments...
  32. Carr A, Biggin M. Accessibility of transcriptionally inactive genes is specifically reduced at homeoprotein-DNA binding sites in Drosophila. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000;28:2839-46 pubmed
  33. Samee A, Sinha S. Evaluating thermodynamic models of enhancer activity on cellular resolution gene expression data. Methods. 2013;62:79-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show how fitting quantitative models on data sets comprising a handful of enhancers, as reported in earlier work, may lead to unreliable models. ..
  34. Pepling M, Gergen J. Conservation and function of the transcriptional regulatory protein Runt. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:9087-91 pubmed
    ..Ectopic expression experiments indicated that proteins containing the AML1 Runt domain function in Drosophila embryos and that sequences outside of this domain are important in vivo. ..
  35. Surkova S, Golubkova E, Manu -, Panok L, Mamon L, Reinitz J, et al. Quantitative dynamics and increased variability of segmentation gene expression in the Drosophila Krüppel and knirps mutants. Dev Biol. 2013;376:99-112 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that throughout cycle 14A the relative levels of eve and ftz expression in stripes 2 and 3 are variable among individual embryos...
  36. Scott M, Weiner A. Structural relationships among genes that control development: sequence homology between the Antennapedia, Ultrabithorax, and fushi tarazu loci of Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984;81:4115-9 pubmed
    ..DNA from each of these 3' exons also hybridized weakly to DNA from the fushi tarazu locus of the ANT-C...
  37. Yu Y, Li W, Su K, Yussa M, Han W, Perrimon N, et al. The nuclear hormone receptor Ftz-F1 is a cofactor for the Drosophila homeodomain protein Ftz. Nature. 1997;385:552-5 pubmed
    ..Here we use a native binding site for the homeodomain protein Fushi tarazu (Ftz) to isolate Ftz-F1, a protein of the nuclear hormone-receptor superfamily and a new Ftz cofactor...
  38. Berman B, Nibu Y, Pfeiffer B, Tomancak P, Celniker S, Levine M, et al. Exploiting transcription factor binding site clustering to identify cis-regulatory modules involved in pattern formation in the Drosophila genome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:757-62 pubmed
    ..We tested one of the newly identified clusters, mapping upstream of the gap gene giant (gt), and show that it acts as an enhancer that recapitulates the posterior expression pattern of gt. ..
  39. Bullock S, Ish Horowicz D. Conserved signals and machinery for RNA transport in Drosophila oogenesis and embryogenesis. Nature. 2001;414:611-6 pubmed
    ..We propose that Egl and BicD are core components of a selective dynein motor complex that drives transcript localization in a variety of tissues. ..
  40. Wilkie G, Davis I. Drosophila wingless and pair-rule transcripts localize apically by dynein-mediated transport of RNA particles. Cell. 2001;105:209-19 pubmed
    ..We propose that dynein-dependent movement of RNA particles is a widely deployed mechanism for mRNA localization. ..
  41. Delanoue R, Davis I. Dynein anchors its mRNA cargo after apical transport in the Drosophila blastoderm embryo. Cell. 2005;122:97-106 pubmed
    ..We propose a general principle that could also apply to other dynein cargo and to some other molecular motors, whereby cargo transport and anchoring reside in the same molecule. ..
  42. Kosman D, Mizutani C, Lemons D, Cox W, McGinnis W, Bier E. Multiplex detection of RNA expression in Drosophila embryos. Science. 2004;305:846 pubmed
  43. Swantek D, Gergen J. Ftz modulates Runt-dependent activation and repression of segment-polarity gene transcription. Development. 2004;131:2281-90 pubmed
    ..is both necessary and sufficient for slp1 activation in all somatic blastoderm nuclei that do not express the Fushi tarazu (Ftz) transcription factor...
  44. Andrioli L, Oberstein A, Corado M, Yu D, Small S. Groucho-dependent repression by sloppy-paired 1 differentially positions anterior pair-rule stripes in the Drosophila embryo. Dev Biol. 2004;276:541-51 pubmed
    ..The Slp1 protein contains a protein motif (EH1) which mediates binding to the transcriptional corepressor Groucho (Gro). We show that this domain is required for Slp1-mediated repression in vivo. ..
  45. Han W, Yu Y, Altan N, Pick L. Multiple proteins interact with the fushi tarazu proximal enhancer. Mol Cell Biol. 1993;13:5549-59 pubmed
    The expression of the Drosophila segmentation gene fushi tarazu (ftz) is controlled at the level of transcription. The proximal enhancer, located approximately 3...
  46. Thomas S, Li X, Sabo P, Sandstrom R, Thurman R, Canfield T, et al. Dynamic reprogramming of chromatin accessibility during Drosophila embryo development. Genome Biol. 2011;12:R43 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide a global view of the rich and dynamic chromatin landscape of early animal development, as well as novel insights into the organization of developmentally regulated chromatin features. ..
  47. Nasiadka A, Krause H. Kinetic analysis of segmentation gene interactions in Drosophila embryos. Development. 1999;126:1515-26 pubmed
    ..at one of the best-characterized components of this pathway, the homeodomain-containing transcription factor Fushi tarazu (Ftz), and analyze the response kinetics of known and putative target genes...
  48. Saulier Le Dréan B, Nasiadka A, Dong J, Krause H. Dynamic changes in the functions of Odd-skipped during early Drosophila embryogenesis. Development. 1998;125:4851-61 pubmed
    ..Moreover, one target gene, fushi tarazu, is both repressed and activated by Odd, the outcome depending upon the stage of development...
  49. Jimenez G, Paroush Z, Ish Horowicz D. Groucho acts as a corepressor for a subset of negative regulators, including Hairy and Engrailed. Genes Dev. 1997;11:3072-82 pubmed
    ..These results show that Gro is not generally required for repression, but acts as a specific corepressor for a fraction of negative regulators, including Hairy and En. ..
  50. Paroush Z, Finley R, Kidd T, Wainwright S, Ingham P, Brent R, et al. Groucho is required for Drosophila neurogenesis, segmentation, and sex determination and interacts directly with hairy-related bHLH proteins. Cell. 1994;79:805-15 pubmed
  51. Schroeder M, Pearce M, Fak J, Fan H, Unnerstall U, Emberly E, et al. Transcriptional control in the segmentation gene network of Drosophila. PLoS Biol. 2004;2:E271 pubmed
    ..The study demonstrates that computational methods are a powerful complement to experimental approaches in the analysis of transcription networks. ..
  52. Jennings B, Pickles L, Wainwright S, Roe S, Pearl L, Ish Horowicz D. Molecular recognition of transcriptional repressor motifs by the WD domain of the Groucho/TLE corepressor. Mol Cell. 2006;22:645-55 pubmed
    ..Our structural and functional analysis explains the rigid conservation of the WRPW motif, the sequence flexibility of eh1 motifs, and other aspects of repressor recognition by Gro in vivo. ..
  53. Vendra G, Hamilton R, Davis I. Dynactin suppresses the retrograde movement of apically localized mRNA in Drosophila blastoderm embryos. RNA. 2007;13:1860-7 pubmed
  54. Carroll S, Laughon A, Thalley B. Expression, function, and regulation of the hairy segmentation protein in the Drosophila embryo. Genes Dev. 1988;2:883-90 pubmed
    ..of alternate embryonic segment primordia and the normal spatial expression of another pair-rule gene, fushi tarazu (ftz)...
  55. Berman B, Pfeiffer B, Laverty T, Salzberg S, Rubin G, Eisen M, et al. Computational identification of developmental enhancers: conservation and function of transcription factor binding-site clusters in Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila pseudoobscura. Genome Biol. 2004;5:R61 pubmed
    ..Six clusters are enhancers of adjacent genes: giant, fushi tarazu, odd-skipped, nubbin, squeeze and pdm2; three drive expression in patterns unrelated to those of neighboring ..
  56. Yu Y, Pick L. Non-periodic cues generate seven ftz stripes in the Drosophila embryo. Mech Dev. 1995;50:163-75 pubmed
    We have examined the expression pattern of the segmentation gene fushi tarazu (ftz) by in situ hybridization to whole mount embryos using digoxygenin labeled probes...
  57. Hughes S, Krause H. Establishment and maintenance of parasegmental compartments. Development. 2001;128:1109-18 pubmed
    ..The establishment and maintenance of vertebrate metameres may be governed by similar processes and properties. ..
  58. Bullock S, Stauber M, Prell A, Hughes J, Ish Horowicz D, Schmidt Ott U. Differential cytoplasmic mRNA localisation adjusts pair-rule transcription factor activity to cytoarchitecture in dipteran evolution. Development. 2004;131:4251-61 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that mRNA localisation signals in pair-rule transcripts affect nuclear protein uptake and thereby adjust gene activity to a variety of dipteran blastoderm cytoarchitectures. ..
  59. Fujioka M, Emi Sarker Y, Yusibova G, Goto T, Jaynes J. Analysis of an even-skipped rescue transgene reveals both composite and discrete neuronal and early blastoderm enhancers, and multi-stripe positioning by gap gene repressor gradients. Development. 1999;126:2527-38 pubmed
    ..Additionally, a strong pairing-sensitive repression element was localized to the 3' end of the locus, but was not found to contribute to efficient functional rescue. ..
  60. Dearolf C, Topol J, Parker C. The caudal gene product is a direct activator of fushi tarazu transcription during Drosophila embryogenesis. Nature. 1989;341:340-3 pubmed
    A drosophila pair-rule segmentation gene, fushi tarazu (ftz), encodes a protein which is expressed in a characteristic seven-stripe pattern...
  61. Keränen S, Fowlkes C, Luengo Hendriks C, Sudar D, Knowles D, Malik J, et al. Three-dimensional morphology and gene expression in the Drosophila blastoderm at cellular resolution II: dynamics. Genome Biol. 2006;7:R124 pubmed
    ..It also provides a coordinate framework for the blastoderm embryo that will allow increasingly accurate spatio-temporal modeling of both the transcriptional control network and morphogenesis. ..
  62. Walter J, Dever C, Biggin M. Two homeo domain proteins bind with similar specificity to a wide range of DNA sites in Drosophila embryos. Genes Dev. 1994;8:1678-92 pubmed
    ..in vivo UV cross-linking to directly measure DNA binding by the homeo domain proteins even-skipped (eve) and fushi tarazu (ftz) in Drosophila embryos...
  63. Hughes S, Krause H. Double labeling with fluorescence in situ hybridization in Drosophila whole-mount embryos. Biotechniques. 1998;24:530-2 pubmed
  64. Zhou J, Cai H, Ohtsuki S, Levine M. The regulation of enhancer-promoter interactions in the Drosophila embryo. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1997;62:307-12 pubmed
  65. Tsai C, Gergen P. Pair-rule expression of the Drosophila fushi tarazu gene: a nuclear receptor response element mediates the opposing regulatory effects of runt and hairy. Development. 1995;121:453-62 pubmed
    ..segmentation genes runt and hairy are required for the proper transcriptional regulation of the pair-rule gene fushi tarazu during the blastoderm stage of Drosophila embryogenesis...
  66. Duboule D. The rise and fall of Hox gene clusters. Development. 2007;134:2549-60 pubmed
    ..By integrating these parameters, general conclusions emerge that can help solve the aforementioned dilemma. ..
  67. Surkova S, Kosman D, Kozlov K, Manu -, Myasnikova E, Samsonova A, et al. Characterization of the Drosophila segment determination morphome. Dev Biol. 2008;313:844-62 pubmed
    ..As the first quantitatively characterized morphogenetic field, this system and its behavior constitute an extraordinarily rich set of materials for the study of canalization and embryonic regulation at the molecular level...
  68. Biggin M, McGinnis W. Regulation of segmentation and segmental identity by Drosophila homeoproteins: the role of DNA binding in functional activity and specificity. Development. 1997;124:4425-33 pubmed
    ..In this 'widespread binding' model, cofactors act mainly by helping to distinguish the way in which homeoproteins regulate targets to which they are already bound. ..
  69. Ho M, Johnsen H, Goetz S, Schiller B, Bae E, Tran D, et al. Functional evolution of cis-regulatory modules at a homeotic gene in Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000709 pubmed publisher
    ..These results have implications for understanding mechanisms of gene expression during embryonic development, enhancer function, and the molecular evolution of eukaryotic regulatory modules...
  70. Kennerdell J, Carthew R. Use of dsRNA-mediated genetic interference to demonstrate that frizzled and frizzled 2 act in the wingless pathway. Cell. 1998;95:1017-26 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that dsRNA interference can be used to analyze many aspects of gene function. ..
  71. Frasch M, Levine M. Complementary patterns of even-skipped and fushi tarazu expression involve their differential regulation by a common set of segmentation genes in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 1987;1:981-95 pubmed
    ..the position-dependent expression of two segmentation genes that contain a homeo box, even-skipped (eve) and fushi tarazu (ftz)...
  72. Tsai C, Gergen J. Gap gene properties of the pair-rule gene runt during Drosophila segmentation. Development. 1994;120:1671-83 pubmed
    ..of the pair-rule genes hairy and even-skipped but had a more uniform effect on the secondary pair-rule gene fushi tarazu. Surprisingly, the expression of the gap segmentation genes, which are upstream of runt in the segmentation ..
  73. Krause H, Klemenz R, Gehring W. Expression, modification, and localization of the fushi tarazu protein in Drosophila embryos. Genes Dev. 1988;2:1021-36 pubmed
    The fushi tarazu (ftz) protein of Drosophila is required during embryogenesis for the process of body segmentation...
  74. Doe C, Hiromi Y, Gehring W, Goodman C. Expression and function of the segmentation gene fushi tarazu during Drosophila neurogenesis. Science. 1988;239:170-5 pubmed
    Segmentation genes control cell identities during early pattern formation in Drosophila. One of these genes, fushi tarazu (ftz), is now shown also to control cell fate during neurogenesis...
  75. Manoukian A, Krause H. Control of segmental asymmetry in Drosophila embryos. Development. 1993;118:785-96 pubmed
    ..are first defined at the blastoderm stage by alternating stripes of transcripts encoded by the pair-rule genes fushi tarazu (ftz) and even-skipped (eve) and later by stripes encoded by the segment polarity genes engrailed (en) and ..
  76. Myasnikova E, Surkova S, Panok L, Samsonova M, Reinitz J. Estimation of errors introduced by confocal imaging into the data on segmentation gene expression in Drosophila. Bioinformatics. 2009;25:346-52 pubmed publisher
    ..This article deals with errors introduced by confocal microscope...
  77. Fowlkes C, Hendriks C, Keränen S, Weber G, Rübel O, Huang M, et al. A quantitative spatiotemporal atlas of gene expression in the Drosophila blastoderm. Cell. 2008;133:364-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We present a VirtualEmbryo containing data for 95 genes at six time cohorts. We show that known gene-regulatory interactions can be automatically recovered from this data set and predict hundreds of new interactions...
  78. Pick L. Segmentation: painting stripes from flies to vertebrates. Dev Genet. 1998;23:1-10 pubmed
  79. Kosman D, Small S, Reinitz J. Rapid preparation of a panel of polyclonal antibodies to Drosophila segmentation proteins. Dev Genes Evol. 1998;208:290-4 pubmed
    ..Antigenicity of the purified recombinant proteins may be increased by precipitation in double-distilled water. The results of using the serums obtained for fluorescent staining of Drosophila embryos are shown. ..
  80. Pisarev A, Poustelnikova E, Samsonova M, Reinitz J. FlyEx, the quantitative atlas on segmentation gene expression at cellular resolution. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:D560-6 pubmed publisher
    ..5 h of development. FlyEx supports the data downloads and construction of personal reference datasets, that makes it possible to more effectively use and analyze data. ..
  81. Kosman D, Small S. Concentration-dependent patterning by an ectopic expression domain of the Drosophila gap gene knirps. Development. 1997;124:1343-54 pubmed
    ..Evidence is presented that the level and timing of expression, as well as protein diffusion, are important for determining the specific responses of target genes. ..
  82. Tracey W, Ning X, Klingler M, Kramer S, Gergen J. Quantitative analysis of gene function in the Drosophila embryo. Genetics. 2000;154:273-84 pubmed
    ..The maternal GAL4 system will have applications both for the measurement of gene activity in reverse genetic experiments as well as for the identification of genetic factors that have quantitative effects on gene function in vivo. ..