Gene Symbol: fru
Description: fruitless
Alias: BTB-VI, BtbVI, CG14307, CG14307/CG33541, CG7688, CG7689, CG7690, CT22773, Dmel\CG14307, Dmfru, FRU, FRU-PI, Fru, cg7688, cg7689, fruC, fty, ms(3)06411, sat, fruitless, BTB-protein-VI, CG14307-PA, CG14307-PB, CG14307-PC, CG14307-PD, CG14307-PE, CG14307-PF, CG14307-PG, CG14307-PH, CG14307-PI, CG14307-PJ, CG14307-PK, CG14307-PL, CG14307-PM, CG14307-PN, CG14307-PO, fru-PA, fru-PB, fru-PC, fru-PD, fru-PE, fru-PF, fru-PG, fru-PH, fru-PI, fru-PJ, fru-PK, fru-PL, fru-PM, fru-PN, fru-PO, fru-satori, fruity, satori
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Demir E, Dickson B. fruitless splicing specifies male courtship behavior in Drosophila. Cell. 2005;121:785-94 pubmed
    ..Male courtship requires products of the fruitless (fru) gene, which is spliced differently in males and females...
  2. Yamamoto D, Nakano Y. Genes for sexual behavior. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998;246:1-6 pubmed
    ..This strategy of artificial control of fly behavior opens up an avenue for studies to identify the neural center for individual behavioral actions. ..
  3. Dankert H, Wang L, Hoopfer E, Anderson D, Perona P. Automated monitoring and analysis of social behavior in Drosophila. Nat Methods. 2009;6:297-303 pubmed publisher
    ..Ethograms may be constructed automatically from these measurements, saving considerable time and effort. This technology should enable large-scale screens for genes and neural circuits controlling courtship and aggression. ..
  4. Kvitsiani D, Dickson B. Shared neural circuitry for female and male sexual behaviours in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2006;16:R355-6 pubmed
  5. Potter C, Tasic B, Russler E, Liang L, Luo L. The Q system: a repressible binary system for transgene expression, lineage tracing, and mosaic analysis. Cell. 2010;141:536-48 pubmed publisher
    ..The Q system can be expanded to other uses in Drosophila and to any organism conducive to transgenesis...
  6. Yamamoto D, Nakano Y. Sexual behavior mutants revisited: molecular and cellular basis of Drosophila mating. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999;56:634-46 pubmed
    ..Mutations in the tra target gene fruitless (fru), which is expressed in the antennal lobe as well as the suboesophageal ganglion (the gustatory inputs are ..
  7. Usui Aoki K, Ito H, Ui Tei K, Takahashi K, Lukacsovich T, Awano W, et al. Formation of the male-specific muscle in female Drosophila by ectopic fruitless expression. Nat Cell Biol. 2000;2:500-6 pubmed
    The Drosophila fruitless (fru) gene product Fru has been postulated to be a neural sex-determination factor that directs the development of at least two male-specific characteristics, namely courtship behaviour and formation of the ..
  8. Kohatsu S, Koganezawa M, Yamamoto D. Female contact activates male-specific interneurons that trigger stereotypic courtship behavior in Drosophila. Neuron. 2011;69:498-508 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation of fruitless (fru)-expressing neurons via stimulation of thermosensitive dTrpA1 channels induced an entire series of ..
  9. Anand A, Villella A, Ryner L, Carlo T, Goodwin S, Song H, et al. Molecular genetic dissection of the sex-specific and vital functions of the Drosophila melanogaster sex determination gene fruitless. Genetics. 2001;158:1569-95 pubmed
    ..One branch of this hierarchy is headed by the fruitless (fru) gene and functions in the central nervous system, where it is necessary for male courtship behavior as ..

More Information


  1. Baker B, Taylor B, Hall J. Are complex behaviors specified by dedicated regulatory genes? Reasoning from Drosophila. Cell. 2001;105:13-24 pubmed
  2. Gailey D, Hall J. Behavior and cytogenetics of fruitless in Drosophila melanogaster: different courtship defects caused by separate, closely linked lesions. Genetics. 1989;121:773-85 pubmed
    The fruitless (fru) courtship mutant was dissected into three defects of male reproductive behavior, which were separable as to their genetic etiologies by application of existing and newly induced chromosomal aberrations...
  3. Lopez A. Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA: developmental consequences and mechanisms of regulation. Annu Rev Genet. 1998;32:279-305 pubmed
    ..Cooperative and antagonistic effects integrated at regulatory elements are likely to be important for specificity and for finely tuned differences in cell-type-specific alternative splicing patterns. ..
  4. Dauwalder B. The roles of fruitless and doublesex in the control of male courtship. Int Rev Neurobiol. 2011;99:87-105 pubmed publisher
    ..It is regulated by the general sex-determination pathway through the sex-specific forms of fruitless and doublesex. Recent findings have shown that both fruitless and doublesex are required for courtship...
  5. Yamamoto D. Brain sex differences and function of the fruitless gene in Drosophila. J Neurogenet. 2008;22:309-32 pubmed publisher
    The fruitless (fru) gene in Drosophila plays a pivotal role in the formation of neural circuits underlying gender-specific behaviors...
  6. Liu T, Starostina E, Vijayan V, Pikielny C. Two Drosophila DEG/ENaC channel subunits have distinct functions in gustatory neurons that activate male courtship. J Neurosci. 2012;32:11879-89 pubmed publisher
  7. Koganezawa M, Haba D, Matsuo T, Yamamoto D. The shaping of male courtship posture by lateralized gustatory inputs to male-specific interneurons. Curr Biol. 2010;20:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..project to the subesophageal ganglion, where their terminals unilaterally contact mAL, which are male-specific fruitless (fru)-expressing interneurons that have bilateral branches...
  8. Lazareva A, Roman G, Mattox W, Hardin P, Dauwalder B. A role for the adult fat body in Drosophila male courtship behavior. PLoS Genet. 2007;3:e16 pubmed
    ..In support of this idea, we demonstrate that Takeout, a protein known to influence mating, is present in the hemolymph of adult males but not females and acts as a secreted protein. ..
  9. Villella A, Ferri S, Krystal J, Hall J. Functional analysis of fruitless gene expression by transgenic manipulations of Drosophila courtship. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:16550-7 pubmed
    ..In the context of singing defects and homosexual courtship affected by mutations in the fru gene, a tra-regulated component of the sex-determination hierarchy, we found a C309/tra(F) combination also to ..
  10. Grosjean Y, Rytz R, Farine J, Abuin L, Cortot J, Jefferis G, et al. An olfactory receptor for food-derived odours promotes male courtship in Drosophila. Nature. 2011;478:236-40 pubmed publisher
    ..behaviours are controlled by the neural circuitry expressing male-specific isoforms of the transcription factor Fruitless (FRU(M))...
  11. Lu B, Lamora A, Sun Y, Welsh M, Ben Shahar Y. ppk23-Dependent chemosensory functions contribute to courtship behavior in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002587 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data indicate that ppk23 and the cells expressing it play an important role in the peripheral sensory system that determines sexual behavior in Drosophila. ..
  12. Ito H, Fujitani K, Usui K, Shimizu Nishikawa K, Tanaka S, Yamamoto D. Sexual orientation in Drosophila is altered by the satori mutation in the sex-determination gene fruitless that encodes a zinc finger protein with a BTB domain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:9687-92 pubmed
    ..The sat mutation comaps with fruitless (fru) at 91B and does not rescue the bisexual phenotype of fru, indicating that sat is allelic to fru (fru(sat))...
  13. Chiang A, Lin C, Chuang C, Chang H, Hsieh C, Yeh C, et al. Three-dimensional reconstruction of brain-wide wiring networks in Drosophila at single-cell resolution. Curr Biol. 2011;21:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the Drosophila brain is assembled from families of multiple LPUs and their interconnections. This provides an essential first step in the analysis of information processing within and between neurons in a complete brain. ..
  14. Finley K, Edeen P, Foss M, Gross E, Ghbeish N, Palmer R, et al. Dissatisfaction encodes a tailless-like nuclear receptor expressed in a subset of CNS neurons controlling Drosophila sexual behavior. Neuron. 1998;21:1363-74 pubmed
    ..Expression of a female transformer cDNA under the control of a dsf enhancer in males leads to dsf-like bisexual behavior. ..
  15. Cline T, Meyer B. Vive la différence: males vs females in flies vs worms. Annu Rev Genet. 1996;30:637-702 pubmed
    ..Although no overlap has been found among the molecules used by flies and worms to achieve sex determination, striking similarities have been found in the genetic strategies used by these two species to differentiate their sexes. ..
  16. Certel S, Leung A, Lin C, Perez P, Chiang A, Kravitz E. Octopamine neuromodulatory effects on a social behavior decision-making network in Drosophila males. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13248 pubmed publisher
    ..Eliminating the expression of the male form of the neural sex determination factor, Fruitless (Fru(M)), in three OA suboesophageal ganglia (SOG) neurons also leads to increased male-male courtship behavior ..
  17. ROBINETT C, Vaughan A, Knapp J, Baker B. Sex and the single cell. II. There is a time and place for sex. PLoS Biol. 2010;8:e1000365 pubmed publisher
    ..differentiation of somatic cells via the activities of the terminal genes in the hierarchy, doublesex (dsx) and fruitless (fru)...
  18. Shirangi T, Stern D, Truman J. Motor control of Drosophila courtship song. Cell Rep. 2013;5:678-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, individual wing motor pathways can control separate aspects of courtship song and may provide a "modular" anatomical substrate for the evolution of diverse songs. ..
  19. Dauwalder B, Mattox W. Analysis of the functional specificity of RS domains in vivo. EMBO J. 1998;17:6049-60 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that RS domains are not all functionally equivalent in vivo. ..
  20. Cachero S, Ostrovsky A, Yu J, Dickson B, Jefferis G. Sexual dimorphism in the fly brain. Curr Biol. 2010;20:1589-601 pubmed publisher
    ..In Drosophila, the action of the male-specific isoform of fruitless in about 2000 neurons appears to be necessary and sufficient for many aspects of male courtship behavior...
  21. Heinrichs V, Ryner L, Baker B. Regulation of sex-specific selection of fruitless 5' splice sites by transformer and transformer-2. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:450-8 pubmed
    In Drosophila melanogaster, the fruitless (fru) gene controls essentially all aspects of male courtship behavior...
  22. Nojima T, Kimura K, Koganezawa M, Yamamoto D. Neuronal synaptic outputs determine the sexual fate of postsynaptic targets. Curr Biol. 2010;20:836-40 pubmed publisher
    ..of the muscle of Lawrence (MOL), the formation of which is male specific and depends on the neural expression of fruitless (fru), a neural sex-determinant gene...
  23. Certel S, Savella M, Schlegel D, Kravitz E. Modulation of Drosophila male behavioral choice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:4706-11 pubmed
    ..region of the adult male brain that coexpress OCT and male forms of the neural sex determination factor, Fruitless (Fru(M))...
  24. Manoli D, Baker B. Median bundle neurons coordinate behaviours during Drosophila male courtship. Nature. 2004;430:564-9 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila melanogaster, analyses of combinations of mutations of the fruitless (fru) gene have shown that male-specific isoforms (Fru(M)) of the Fru transcription factor are necessary for ..
  25. Dalton J, Fear J, Knott S, Baker B, McIntyre L, Arbeitman M. Male-specific Fruitless isoforms have different regulatory roles conferred by distinct zinc finger DNA binding domains. BMC Genomics. 2013;14:659 pubmed publisher
    Drosophila melanogaster adult males perform an elaborate courtship ritual to entice females to mate. fruitless (fru), a gene that is one of the key regulators of male courtship behavior, encodes multiple male-specific isoforms (Fru(M))...
  26. Becnel J, Johnson O, Luo J, Nassel D, Nichols C. The serotonin 5-HT7Dro receptor is expressed in the brain of Drosophila, and is essential for normal courtship and mating. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20800 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first reported evidence of direct involvement of a particular serotonin receptor subtype in courtship and mating in the fly. ..
  27. Billeter J, Rideout E, Dornan A, Goodwin S. Control of male sexual behavior in Drosophila by the sex determination pathway. Curr Biol. 2006;16:R766-76 pubmed
  28. Rideout E, Dornan A, Neville M, Eadie S, Goodwin S. Control of sexual differentiation and behavior by the doublesex gene in Drosophila melanogaster. Nat Neurosci. 2010;13:458-66 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that dsx was required for the development of male-specific neurons that coexpressed fruitless (fru), a regulator of male sexual behavior...
  29. Yamamoto D, Ito H, Fujitani K. Genetic dissection of sexual orientation: behavioral, cellular, and molecular approaches in Drosophila melanogaster. Neurosci Res. 1996;26:95-107 pubmed
    ..chromosomal division, 91B, where one of the inversion breakpoints responsible for the bisexual phenotype of the fruitless (fru) mutant has been mapped...
  30. Starostina E, Liu T, Vijayan V, Zheng Z, Siwicki K, Pikielny C. A Drosophila DEG/ENaC subunit functions specifically in gustatory neurons required for male courtship behavior. J Neurosci. 2012;32:4665-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, our work identifies a small subset of gustatory neurons with an essential role in activation of male courtship behavior, most likely in response to female pheromones. ..
  31. Hall J. The mating of a fly. Science. 1994;264:1702-14 pubmed
    ..Further behavioral mutations seemed originally to be courtship-specific, turned out not to have that property, and have led to a broadened perspective on the nature and action of Drosophila's sex-determination genes. ..
  32. Billeter J, Villella A, Allendorfer J, Dornan A, Richardson M, Gailey D, et al. Isoform-specific control of male neuronal differentiation and behavior in Drosophila by the fruitless gene. Curr Biol. 2006;16:1063-76 pubmed
    ..The male-specific products of fruitless (fru) are pivotal to the emergence of this behavior...
  33. Kimura K, Ote M, Tazawa T, Yamamoto D. Fruitless specifies sexually dimorphic neural circuitry in the Drosophila brain. Nature. 2005;438:229-33 pubmed
    The Drosophila fruitless (fru) gene product Fru has been postulated to be a neural sex determination factor that directs development of the central nervous system (CNS), thereby producing male-typical courtship behaviour and inducing ..
  34. Dauwalder B, Tsujimoto S, Moss J, Mattox W. The Drosophila takeout gene is regulated by the somatic sex-determination pathway and affects male courtship behavior. Genes Dev. 2002;16:2879-92 pubmed
    ..closely associated with the adult brain and are dependent on the sex determination genes doublesex (dsx) and fruitless (fru)...
  35. Branson K, Robie A, Bender J, Perona P, Dickinson M. High-throughput ethomics in large groups of Drosophila. Nat Methods. 2009;6:451-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We expect that our software, which permits high-throughput screening, will complement existing molecular methods available in Drosophila, facilitating new investigations into the genetic and cellular basis of behavior. ..
  36. Sanders L, Arbeitman M. Doublesex establishes sexual dimorphism in the Drosophila central nervous system in an isoform-dependent manner by directing cell number. Dev Biol. 2008;320:378-90 pubmed publisher development, DSX(M) is present in a portion of the neural circuitry in which the male-specific product of fruitless (fru) is produced, in a region that has been shown to be critical for sex-specific behaviors...
  37. Zarkower D. Establishing sexual dimorphism: conservation amidst diversity?. Nat Rev Genet. 2001;2:175-85 pubmed
    ..Studies of sex-determining mechanisms are beginning to reveal how sexual dimorphism arises and evolves. ..
  38. Gailey D, Billeter J, Liu J, Bauzon F, Allendorfer J, Goodwin S. Functional conservation of the fruitless male sex-determination gene across 250 Myr of insect evolution. Mol Biol Evol. 2006;23:633-43 pubmed publisher
    Male sexual behavior in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is regulated by fruitless (fru), a sex-determination gene specifying the synthesis of BTB-Zn finger proteins that likely function as male-specific transcriptional regulators...
  39. Villella A, Peyre J, Aigaki T, Hall J. Defective transfer of seminal-fluid materials during matings of semi-fertile fruitless mutants in Drosophila. J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol. 2006;192:1253-69 pubmed
    In context of the semi-sterility exhibited by Drosophila males expressing certain mating-enabling fruitless (fru) mutant genotypes, we examined the transfer of seminal fluid using a transgene that encodes the Sex Peptide (SP) ..
  40. Ditch L, Shirangi T, Pitman J, Latham K, Finley K, Edeen P, et al. Drosophila retained/dead ringer is necessary for neuronal pathfinding, female receptivity and repression of fruitless independent male courtship behaviors. Development. 2005;132:155-64 pubmed
    ..retn is implicated as a major repressor of male courtship behavior in the absence of the fruitless (fru) male protein...
  41. Graham P, Penn J, Schedl P. Masters change, slaves remain. Bioessays. 2003;25:1-4 pubmed
    ..However, Cctra is not regulated by CcSxl. Instead it appears to autoregulate in a manner similar to the autoregulation seen with DmSxl. ..
  42. Thistle R, Cameron P, Ghorayshi A, Dennison L, Scott K. Contact chemoreceptors mediate male-male repulsion and male-female attraction during Drosophila courtship. Cell. 2012;149:1140-51 pubmed publisher
    ..courtship ritual of Drosophila males is dictated by neural circuitry established by the transcription factor Fruitless and triggered by sex-specific sensory cues...
  43. Mellert D, Knapp J, Manoli D, Meissner G, Baker B. Midline crossing by gustatory receptor neuron axons is regulated by fruitless, doublesex and the Roundabout receptors. Development. 2010;137:323-32 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that the sex determination genes fruitless (fru) and doublesex (dsx) both contribute to establishing this sexual dimorphism...
  44. Pan Y, ROBINETT C, Baker B. Turning males on: activation of male courtship behavior in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21144 pubmed publisher
    ..The potential for male sexual behavior in D. melanogaster is specified by the fruitless (fru) and doublesex (dsx) sex regulatory genes...
  45. Siwicki K, Kravitz E. Fruitless, doublesex and the genetics of social behavior in Drosophila melanogaster. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2009;19:200-6 pubmed publisher
    Two genes coding for transcription factors, fruitless and doublesex, have been suggested to play important roles in the regulation of sexually dimorphic patterns of social behavior in Drosophila melanogaster...
  46. Yang C, Rumpf S, Xiang Y, Gordon M, Song W, Jan L, et al. Control of the postmating behavioral switch in Drosophila females by internal sensory neurons. Neuron. 2009;61:519-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Whereas sex peptide is generally believed to modulate fruitless-GAL4-expressing neurons in the central nervous system to produce behavioral changes, we found that six to eight ..
  47. Clyne J, Miesenbock G. Sex-specific control and tuning of the pattern generator for courtship song in Drosophila. Cell. 2008;133:354-63 pubmed publisher
    The differentially spliced transcription factors encoded by the fruitless (fru) gene are key determinants of sexual behavior in Drosophila...
  48. Song H, Billeter J, Reynaud E, Carlo T, Spana E, Perrimon N, et al. The fruitless gene is required for the proper formation of axonal tracts in the embryonic central nervous system of Drosophila. Genetics. 2002;162:1703-24 pubmed
    The fruitless (fru) gene in Drosophila melanogaster is a multifunctional gene that has sex-specific functions in the regulation of male sexual behavior and sex-nonspecific functions affecting adult viability and external morphology...
  49. von Philipsborn A, Liu T, Yu J, Masser C, Bidaye S, Dickson B. Neuronal control of Drosophila courtship song. Neuron. 2011;69:509-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Singing has been causally linked to the activity of the set of neurons that express the sex-specific fru transcripts, but the specific neurons involved have not been identified...
  50. Casper A, Van Doren M. The control of sexual identity in the Drosophila germline. Development. 2006;133:2783-91 pubmed
    ..Here, we explore how sexual identity is established in the Drosophila germline, how this affects other aspects of germ cell development and what studies in Drosophila can teach us about mammalian germ cells. ..
  51. Kimura K, Hachiya T, Koganezawa M, Tazawa T, Yamamoto D. Fruitless and doublesex coordinate to generate male-specific neurons that can initiate courtship. Neuron. 2008;59:759-69 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified a male-specific, fruitless (fru)/doublesex (dsx)-coexpressing neuronal cluster, P1, in Drosophila...
  52. Häsemeyer M, Yapici N, Heberlein U, Dickson B. Sensory neurons in the Drosophila genital tract regulate female reproductive behavior. Neuron. 2009;61:511-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These neurons express both fruitless (fru), a marker for neurons likely to have sex-specific functions, and pickpocket (ppk), a marker for ..
  53. Billeter J, Goodwin S. Characterization of Drosophila fruitless-gal4 transgenes reveals expression in male-specific fruitless neurons and innervation of male reproductive structures. J Comp Neurol. 2004;475:270-87 pubmed
    The fruitless (fru) gene acts in the central nervous system (CNS) of Drosophila melanogaster to establish male sexual behavior...
  54. Meissner G, Manoli D, Chavez J, Knapp J, Lin T, Stevens R, et al. Functional dissection of the neural substrates for sexual behaviors in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2011;189:195-211 pubmed publisher
    The male-specific Fruitless proteins (FruM) act to establish the potential for male courtship behavior in Drosophila melanogaster and are expressed in small groups of neurons throughout the nervous system...
  55. Ferveur J, Savarit F, O Kane C, Sureau G, Greenspan R, Jallon J. Genetic feminization of pheromones and its behavioral consequences in Drosophila males. Science. 1997;276:1555-8 pubmed
    ..The resulting flies generally exhibited male heterosexual orientation but elicited homosexual courtship from other males. ..
  56. Goodwin S, Taylor B, Villella A, Foss M, Ryner L, Baker B, et al. Aberrant splicing and altered spatial expression patterns in fruitless mutants of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2000;154:725-45 pubmed
    The fruitless (fru) gene functions in Drosophila males to establish the potential for male sexual behaviors...
  57. Chan Y, Kravitz E. Specific subgroups of FruM neurons control sexually dimorphic patterns of aggression in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:19577-82 pubmed
    ..display genetically specified, sexually dimorphic patterns of fighting behavior via sex-specific splicing of the fruitless gene...
  58. Robin C, Daborn P, Hoffmann A. Fighting fly genes. Trends Genet. 2007;23:51-4 pubmed
    ..Here, we describe the study of aggressive behaviour in flies and explore the possibility that cytochrome P450 is involved in aggression. ..
  59. Shirangi T, Taylor B, McKeown M. A double-switch system regulates male courtship behavior in male and female Drosophila melanogaster. Nat Genet. 2006;38:1435-9 pubmed
    Current models describe male-specific fruitless (fruM) as a genetic 'switch' regulating sexual behavior in Drosophila melanogaster, and they postulate that female (F) and male (M) doublesex (dsx) products control body sexual morphology...
  60. Chandler D, Qi J, Mattox W. Direct repression of splicing by transformer-2. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:5174-85 pubmed
    ..melanogaster sex determination factor Tra2 positively regulates the splicing of both doublesex (dsx) and fruitless (fru) pre-mRNAs but negatively affects the splicing of the M1 intron in tra2 pre-mRNA...
  61. Hall J. Courtship among males due to a male-sterile mutation in Drosophila melanogaster. Behav Genet. 1978;8:125-41 pubmed
  62. Dalton J, Lebo M, Sanders L, Sun F, Arbeitman M. Ecdysone receptor acts in fruitless- expressing neurons to mediate drosophila courtship behaviors. Curr Biol. 2009;19:1447-52 pubmed publisher
    In Drosophila melanogaster, fruitless (fru) encodes male-specific transcription factors (FRU(M); encoded by fru P1) required for courtship behaviors (reviewed in)...
  63. Ryner L, Goodwin S, Castrillon D, Anand A, Villella A, Baker B, et al. Control of male sexual behavior and sexual orientation in Drosophila by the fruitless gene. Cell. 1996;87:1079-89 pubmed
    Sexual orientation and courtship behavior in Drosophila are regulated by fruitless (fru), the first gene in a branch of the sex-determination hierarchy functioning specifically in the central nervous system (CNS)...
  64. Lee G, Hall J. A newly uncovered phenotype associated with the fruitless gene of Drosophila melanogaster: aggression-like head interactions between mutant males. Behav Genet. 2000;30:263-75 pubmed
    Male sexual behavior is regulated by the sex-determination hierarchy (SDH) in Drosophila melanogaster. The fruitless (fru) gene, one of the regulatory factors functioning downstream of other SDH factors, plays a prominent role in male ..
  65. Rubinstein C, Rivlin P, Hoy R. Genetic feminization of the thoracic nervous system disrupts courtship song in male Drosophila melanogaster. J Neurogenet. 2010;24:234-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Transgenic expression of an RNAi construct directed against male-specific fruitless (fru(M)) transcripts resulted in normal wing extension, but highly defective courtship song, with 58% of males ..
  66. Ito H, Sato K, Koganezawa M, Ote M, Matsumoto K, Hama C, et al. Fruitless recruits two antagonistic chromatin factors to establish single-neuron sexual dimorphism. Cell. 2012;149:1327-38 pubmed publisher
    The Drosophila fruitless (fru) gene encodes a set of putative transcription factors that promote male sexual behavior by controlling the development of sexually dimorphic neuronal circuitry...
  67. Christiansen A, Keisman E, Ahmad S, Baker B. Sex comes in from the cold: the integration of sex and pattern. Trends Genet. 2002;18:510-6 pubmed
  68. Ruta V, Datta S, Vasconcelos M, Freeland J, Looger L, Axel R. A dimorphic pheromone circuit in Drosophila from sensory input to descending output. Nature. 2010;468:686-90 pubmed publisher
    ..This neural pathway suggests a means by which a single pheromone can elicit different behaviours in the two sexes. ..
  69. Arthur B, Jallon J, Caflisch B, Choffat Y, Nothiger R. Sexual behaviour in Drosophila is irreversibly programmed during a critical period. Curr Biol. 1998;8:1187-90 pubmed
    ..We conclude that sexual behaviour is irreversibly programmed during a critical period as a result of the activity or inactivity of a single control gene. ..
  70. Lee G, Hall J. Abnormalities of male-specific FRU protein and serotonin expression in the CNS of fruitless mutants in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2001;21:513-26 pubmed
    The fruitless gene in Drosophila produces male-specific protein (FRU(M)) involved in the control of courtship. FRU(M) spatial and temporal patterns were examined in fru mutants that exhibit aberrant male courtship...
  71. Datta S, Vasconcelos M, Ruta V, Luo S, Wong A, Demir E, et al. The Drosophila pheromone cVA activates a sexually dimorphic neural circuit. Nature. 2008;452:473-7 pubmed publisher
    ..yet stereotyped array of dimorphic behaviours that are regulated by Fru(M), a male-specific isoform of the fruitless gene...
  72. Mundiyanapurath S, Chan Y, Leung A, Kravitz E. Feminizing cholinergic neurons in a male Drosophila nervous system enhances aggression. Fly (Austin). 2009;3:179-84 pubmed
    ..Neurons that co-express fruitless and choline acetyl transferase are found in varying numbers within different clusters of fruitless-expressing ..
  73. Nilsson E, Asztalos Z, Lukacsovich T, Awano W, Usui Aoki K, Yamamoto D. Fruitless is in the regulatory pathway by which ectopic mini-white and transformer induce bisexual courtship in Drosophila. J Neurogenet. 2000;13:213-32 pubmed
    ..tra) gene, ectopic expression of the mini-white (mw) gene, and the homozygous presence of mutant alleles of the fruitless (fru) gene...
  74. Mar n I, Baker B. The evolutionary dynamics of sex determination. Science. 1998;281:1990-4 pubmed
  75. Lee G, Villella A, Taylor B, Hall J. New reproductive anomalies in fruitless-mutant Drosophila males: extreme lengthening of mating durations and infertility correlated with defective serotonergic innervation of reproductive organs. J Neurobiol. 2001;47:121-49 pubmed
    Several features of male reproductive behavior are under the neural control of fruitless (fru) in Drosophila melanogaster...
  76. Al Anzi B, Sapin V, Waters C, Zinn K, Wyman R, Benzer S. Obesity-blocking neurons in Drosophila. Neuron. 2009;63:329-41 pubmed publisher
    ..the isolation of two distinct neuronal populations in flies that perform a similar function, the c673a-Gal4 and fruitless-Gal4 neurons. When either of these neuronal groups is silenced, fat store levels increase...
  77. Pane A, De Simone A, Saccone G, Polito C. Evolutionary conservation of Ceratitis capitata transformer gene function. Genetics. 2005;171:615-24 pubmed
    ..divergent, CcTRA can functionally substitute for DmTRA and induce the female-specific expression of both Dmdsx and Dmfru genes...
  78. Yamamoto D, Koganezawa M. Genes and circuits of courtship behaviour in Drosophila males. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2013;14:681-92 pubmed publisher
    ..A key player in establishing the male courtship circuitry is the fruitless (fru) gene, the expression of which yields the FruM proteins in a subset of male but not female neurons...
  79. Kido A, Ito K. Mushroom bodies are not required for courtship behavior by normal and sexually mosaic Drosophila. J Neurobiol. 2002;52:302-11 pubmed
    ..Thus, contrary to previous assumptions, the mushroom bodies are not required for the control of courtship. Present evidence supports its mediation by other distributed protocerebral regions. ..
  80. Bownes M. The regulation of the yolk protein genes, a family of sex differentiation genes in Drosophila melanogaster. Bioessays. 1994;16:745-52 pubmed
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