Gene Symbol: fng
Description: fringe
Alias: CG10580, D-Fng, D-fng, Dfng, Dmel\CG10580, Fng, Frg, frg, l(3)rG554, fringe, CG10580-PA, fng-PA
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Grammont M, Irvine K. fringe and Notch specify polar cell fate during Drosophila oogenesis. Development. 2001;128:2243-53 pubmed
    b>fringe encodes a glycosyltransferase that modulates the ability of the Notch receptor to be activated by its ligands. We describe studies of fringe function during early stages of Drosophila oogenesis...
  2. Jacobsen T, Brennan K, Arias A, Muskavitch M. Cis-interactions between Delta and Notch modulate neurogenic signalling in Drosophila. Development. 1998;125:4531-40 pubmed
    ..Finally, we present evidence that the Fringe protein can interfere with Delta- and Serrate-mediated signalling within developing bristle organs, in contrast to ..
  3. Klein T, Arias A. Interactions among Delta, Serrate and Fringe modulate Notch activity during Drosophila wing development. Development. 1998;125:2951-62 pubmed
    ..the dorsal specific nuclear protein Apterous, which regulates the expression of the Notch ligand, Serrate, and the Fringe signalling molecule...
  4. Milan M, Cohen S. Temporal regulation of apterous activity during development of the Drosophila wing. Development. 2000;127:3069-78 pubmed
    ..Apterous-dependent expression of Serrate and fringe in dorsal cells leads to the restricted activation of Notch along the dorsoventral compartment boundary...
  5. Kim J, Irvine K, Carroll S. Cell recognition, signal induction, and symmetrical gene activation at the dorsal-ventral boundary of the developing Drosophila wing. Cell. 1995;82:795-802 pubmed
    ..of the wing disc, dorsal cell behavior, and the expression of two dorsally expressed putative signaling molecules, fringe (fng) and Serrate (Ser), are regulated by the apterous selector gene...
  6. Okajima T, Xu A, Irvine K. Modulation of notch-ligand binding by protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 and fringe. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:42340-5 pubmed
    ..Intriguingly, they are also opposite to, and are suppressed by, expression of the glycosyltransferase Fringe, which specifically modifies O-linked fucose...
  7. Li Y, Lei L, Irvine K, Baker N, Li L. Notch activity in neural cells triggered by a mutant allele with altered glycosylation. Development. 2003;130:2829-40 pubmed
    ..The O-fucose monosaccharide did not require extension by Fringe to confer the phenotype. Our results suggest functional differences between Notch in neural and non-neural cells...
  8. Fleming R, Gu Y, Hukriede N. Serrate-mediated activation of Notch is specifically blocked by the product of the gene fringe in the dorsal compartment of the Drosophila wing imaginal disc. Development. 1997;124:2973-81 pubmed
    ..which is expressed in the dorsal compartment, does not signal in the dorsal regions due to the action of the fringe gene product...
  9. Brückner K, Perez L, Clausen H, Cohen S. Glycosyltransferase activity of Fringe modulates Notch-Delta interactions. Nature. 2000;406:411-5 pubmed
    ..Members of the fringe gene family have been implicated in limiting Notch activation during boundary formation, but the mechanism of ..

More Information


  1. Singh A, Choi K. Initial state of the Drosophila eye before dorsoventral specification is equivalent to ventral. Development. 2003;130:6351-60 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we propose that early state of the eye prior to DV lineage restriction is equivalent to ventral and requires L and Ser gene function. ..
  2. de Celis J, Bray S. The Abruptex domain of Notch regulates negative interactions between Notch, its ligands and Fringe. Development. 2000;127:1291-302 pubmed
    ..The interactions between Notch and its ligands are modulated by Fringe via a mechanism that may involve post-transcriptional modifications of Notch...
  3. Bachmann A, Knust E. Positive and negative control of Serrate expression during early development of the Drosophila wing. Mech Dev. 1998;76:67-78 pubmed
    ..The results clearly show that some of the previously described transactivators of Serrate protein expression, e.g. fringe, act on elements required for later aspects of Serrate expression.
  4. Levine B, Jean Francois M, Bernardi F, Gargiulo G, Dobens L. Notch signaling links interactions between the C/EBP homolog slow border cells and the GILZ homolog bunched during cell migration. Dev Biol. 2007;305:217-31 pubmed
    ..Interactions among Notch, slbo and bun resemble a conserved signaling cassette that regulates mammalian adipocyte differentiation. ..
  5. Troost T, Klein T. Sequential Notch signalling at the boundary of fringe expressing and non-expressing cells. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e49007 pubmed publisher
    Wing development in Drosophila requires the activation of Wingless (Wg) in a small stripe along the boundary of Fringe (Fng) expressing and non-expressing cells (FB), which coincides with the dorso-ventral (D/V) boundary of the wing ..
  6. Zhao D, Clyde D, Bownes M. Expression of fringe is down regulated by Gurken/Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor signalling and is required for the morphogenesis of ovarian follicle cells. J Cell Sci. 2000;113 Pt 21:3781-94 pubmed
    ..One of them is a known gene, called fringe (fng)...
  7. Dobens L, Jaeger A, Peterson J, Raftery L. Bunched sets a boundary for Notch signaling to pattern anterior eggshell structures during Drosophila oogenesis. Dev Biol. 2005;287:425-37 pubmed
  8. Cavodeassi F, Diez Del Corral R, Campuzano S, Dominguez M. Compartments and organising boundaries in the Drosophila eye: the role of the homeodomain Iroquois proteins. Development. 1999;126:4933-42 pubmed
  9. Artavanis Tsakonas S, Rand M, Lake R. Notch signaling: cell fate control and signal integration in development. Science. 1999;284:770-6 pubmed
    ..Notch activity affects the implementation of differentiation, proliferation, and apoptotic programs, providing a general developmental tool to influence organ formation and morphogenesis. ..
  10. Irvine K, Wieschaus E. fringe, a Boundary-specific signaling molecule, mediates interactions between dorsal and ventral cells during Drosophila wing development. Cell. 1994;79:595-606 pubmed
    Wing formation in Drosophila requires interactions between dorsal and ventral cells. We describe a new gene, fringe, which is expressed in dorsal cells and encodes for a novel protein that is predicted to be secreted...
  11. Milan M, Diaz Benjumea F, Cohen S. Beadex encodes an LMO protein that regulates Apterous LIM-homeodomain activity in Drosophila wing development: a model for LMO oncogene function. Genes Dev. 1998;12:2912-20 pubmed
    ..The dominant interference mechanism of dLMO action may serve as a model for the mechanism by which LMO oncogenes cause cancer when misexpressed in T cells. ..
  12. Yang S, Wang W, Chen C, Tseng C, Chen Y, Hsu H. FOXO/Fringe is necessary for maintenance of the germline stem cell niche in response to insulin insufficiency. Dev Biol. 2013;382:124-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that FOXO directly activates transcription of fringe, a gene encoding a glycosyltransferase that modulates Notch glycosylation...
  13. Deng W, Althauser C, Ruohola Baker H. Notch-Delta signaling induces a transition from mitotic cell cycle to endocycle in Drosophila follicle cells. Development. 2001;128:4737-46 pubmed
  14. Dominguez M, Ferres Marco D, Gutiérrez Aviñó F, Speicher S, Beneyto M. Growth and specification of the eye are controlled independently by Eyegone and Eyeless in Drosophila melanogaster. Nat Genet. 2004;36:31-9 pubmed
    ..These results show that growth and eye specification are subject to independent control and explain hyperplasia in a new way. ..
  15. Munro S, Freeman M. The notch signalling regulator fringe acts in the Golgi apparatus and requires the glycosyltransferase signature motif DXD. Curr Biol. 2000;10:813-20 pubmed
    ..The differential responsiveness of Notch-expressing cells to the ligands Delta and Serrate is controlled by Fringe, itself essential for normal patterning in Drosophila and vertebrates...
  16. Lei L, Xu A, Panin V, Irvine K. An O-fucose site in the ligand binding domain inhibits Notch activation. Development. 2003;130:6411-21 pubmed
    Two glycosyltransferases that transfer sugars to EGF domains, OFUT1 and Fringe, regulate Notch signaling. However, sites of O-fucosylation on Notch that influence Notch activation have not been previously identified...
  17. Roth S. Drosophila oogenesis: coordinating germ line and soma. Curr Biol. 2001;11:R779-81 pubmed
  18. Grammont M, Irvine K. Organizer activity of the polar cells during Drosophila oogenesis. Development. 2002;129:5131-40 pubmed
    ..We have investigated their role in follicle patterning by creating clones of cells mutant for the Notch modulator fringe. This genetic ablation of polar cells results in cell fate defects within surrounding follicle cells...
  19. Panin V, Shao L, Lei L, Moloney D, Irvine K, Haltiwanger R. Notch ligands are substrates for protein O-fucosyltransferase-1 and Fringe. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:29945-52 pubmed
    ..EGF) repeats of Notch, and elongation of O-fucose has been implicated in the modulation of Notch signaling by Fringe. O-Fucose modifications are also predicted to occur on Notch ligands based on the presence of the C(2)XXGG(S/T)C(3)..
  20. Pitsouli C, Delidakis C. The interplay between DSL proteins and ubiquitin ligases in Notch signaling. Development. 2005;132:4041-50 pubmed
    ..Simultaneous absence of neuralized and mib1 completely abolishes Notch signaling in both aforementioned contexts, making it likely that ubiquitination is a prerequisite for Delta/Serrate signaling. ..
  21. Moloney D, Panin V, Johnston S, Chen J, Shao L, Wilson R, et al. Fringe is a glycosyltransferase that modifies Notch. Nature. 2000;406:369-75 pubmed
    ..b>Fringe proteins can positively and negatively modulate the ability of Notch ligands to activate the Notch receptor...
  22. Correia T, Papayannopoulos V, Panin V, Woronoff P, Jiang J, Vogt T, et al. Molecular genetic analysis of the glycosyltransferase Fringe in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:6404-9 pubmed
    b>Fringe proteins are beta1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases that modulate signaling through Notch receptors by modifying O-linked fucose on epidermal growth factor domains...
  23. Cho K, Choi K. Fringe is essential for mirror symmetry and morphogenesis in the Drosophila eye. Nature. 1998;396:272-6 pubmed
    ..Here we show that Fringe is expressed specifically in the ventral half of the undifferentiated eye disc, thus creating a dorsoventral ..
  24. Roignant J, Legent K, Janody F, Treisman J. The transcriptional co-factor Chip acts with LIM-homeodomain proteins to set the boundary of the eye field in Drosophila. Development. 2010;137:273-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Loss-of-function studies support the model that Arrowhead and Lim1 act redundantly, using Chip as a co-factor, to prevent retinal differentiation in regions of the eye disc destined to become ventral head tissue. ..
  25. Kim J, Sebring A, Esch J, Kraus M, Vorwerk K, Magee J, et al. Integration of positional signals and regulation of wing formation and identity by Drosophila vestigial gene. Nature. 1996;382:133-8 pubmed
    ..Signal integration must be a general feature of genes like vestigial, that regulate growth or patterning along more than one axis. ..
  26. Sasamura T, Sasaki N, Miyashita F, Nakao S, Ishikawa H, Ito M, et al. neurotic, a novel maternal neurogenic gene, encodes an O-fucosyltransferase that is essential for Notch-Delta interactions. Development. 2003;130:4785-95 pubmed
    ..Further, we show that neurotic is required for Fringe activity, which encodes a fucose-specific beta1, 3 N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, previously shown to modulate ..
  27. Gutierrez Aviño F, Ferres Marco D, Dominguez M. The position and function of the Notch-mediated eye growth organizer: the roles of JAK/STAT and four-jointed. EMBO Rep. 2009;10:1051-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings redefine the process of organizer formation and function, and they identify four-jointed as a regulatory node, integrating multiple growth-control pathways. ..
  28. Glittenberg M, Pitsouli C, Garvey C, Delidakis C, Bray S. Role of conserved intracellular motifs in Serrate signalling, cis-inhibition and endocytosis. EMBO J. 2006;25:4697-706 pubmed
    ..The balance of ubiquitinated/unubiquitinated ligand will thus affect the signalling capacity of the cell at several levels. ..
  29. Okajima T, Irvine K. Regulation of notch signaling by o-linked fucose. Cell. 2002;111:893-904 pubmed
    ..in Drosophila, we demonstrate that O-linked fucose is positively required for Notch signaling, including both Fringe-dependent and Fringe-independent processes...
  30. Gonzalez A, Chaouiya C, Thieffry D. Dynamical analysis of the regulatory network defining the dorsal-ventral boundary of the Drosophila wing imaginal disc. Genetics. 2006;174:1625-34 pubmed
    ..Finally, another mutant simulation shows that cut expression might be shifted to late larval stages because of a potential interference with the early signaling process. ..
  31. Panin V, Papayannopoulos V, Wilson R, Irvine K. Fringe modulates Notch-ligand interactions. Nature. 1997;387:908-12 pubmed
    ..Three genes, fringe (fng), Serrate (Ser) and Delta (Dl), are involved in the cellular interactions leading to Notch activation...
  32. Liefke R, Oswald F, Alvarado C, Ferres Marco D, Mittler G, Rodriguez P, et al. Histone demethylase KDM5A is an integral part of the core Notch-RBP-J repressor complex. Genes Dev. 2010;24:590-601 pubmed publisher
    ..KDM5A interacts physically with RBP-J; this interaction is conserved in Drosophila and is crucial for Notch-induced growth and tumorigenesis responses. ..
  33. Dominguez M, de Celis J. A dorsal/ventral boundary established by Notch controls growth and polarity in the Drosophila eye. Nature. 1998;396:276-8 pubmed
    ..in the dorsal half of the eye and here we show that they regulate the expression of the secreted molecule Fringe. A boundary between fringe-expressing and fringe-non-expressing cells is essential, from the time of the second ..
  34. Rauskolb C, Correia T, Irvine K. Fringe-dependent separation of dorsal and ventral cells in the Drosophila wing. Nature. 1999;401:476-80 pubmed
    ..b>fringe (fng) is normally expressed by dorsal cells downstream of ap; here we show that fng plays a key role in dorsal-..
  35. Irvine K. Fringe, Notch, and making developmental boundaries. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1999;9:434-41 pubmed
    ..specialized dorsal-ventral border cells in the Drosophila wing, including modulation of Notch signaling by Fringe, autonomous inhibition by Notch ligands, and inhibition of Notch target genes by Nubbin...
  36. Grammont M. Adherens junction remodeling by the Notch pathway in Drosophila melanogaster oogenesis. J Cell Biol. 2007;177:139-50 pubmed
    ..that the rate of AJ disassembly between the StCs is affected in follicles with somatic clones mutant for fringe or Delta and Serrate. This results in abnormal StC flattening and delayed MBFC displacement...
  37. Doherty D, Feger G, Younger Shepherd S, Jan L, Jan Y. Delta is a ventral to dorsal signal complementary to Serrate, another Notch ligand, in Drosophila wing formation. Genes Dev. 1996;10:421-34 pubmed
    ..We propose that Delta and Serrate function as compartment-specific signals in the wing disc, to activate Notch and induce downstream genes required for wing formation. ..
  38. Goff D, Nilson L, Morisato D. Establishment of dorsal-ventral polarity of the Drosophila egg requires capicua action in ovarian follicle cells. Development. 2001;128:4553-62 pubmed
    ..Our experiments reveal that cic controls dorsal-ventral patterning by regulating pipe expression in ovarian follicle cells, before its previously described role in interpreting the Dorsal gradient. ..
  39. Blair S. Compartments and appendage development in Drosophila. Bioessays. 1995;17:299-309 pubmed
    ..Thus, compartments can act as organizing centers for patterning within compartments. Evidence for non-compartmental patterning mechanisms will also be discussed. ..
  40. Grueber W, Ye B, Yang C, Younger S, Borden K, Jan L, et al. Projections of Drosophila multidendritic neurons in the central nervous system: links with peripheral dendrite morphology. Development. 2007;134:55-64 pubmed
  41. Kiritooshi N, Yorimitsu T, Shirai T, Puli O, Singh A, Nakagoshi H. A vertex specific dorsal selector Dve represses the ventral appendage identity in Drosophila head. Mech Dev. 2014;133:54-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results clearly indicate that not only the activation of effector genes to execute developmental program but also the repression of inappropriate program is crucial for establishment of the organ identity. ..
  42. Zacharogianni M, Rabouille C. Trafficking along the secretory pathway in Drosophila cell line and tissues: a light and electron microscopy approach. Methods Cell Biol. 2013;118:35-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review light and electron microscopy techniques applied to Drosophila that allow gaining insight into the secretory pathway, and can easily be extended to other cell biology-related fields. ..
  43. Robins H, Li Y, Padgett R. Incorporating structure to predict microRNA targets. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:4006-9 pubmed
    ..One of these validated genes is mad as a target for bantam. Furthermore, our computational and experimental data suggest that miRNAs have fewer targets than previously reported. ..
  44. Blair S. Eye development: Notch lends a handedness. Curr Biol. 1999;9:R356-60 pubmed
    ..Notch signalling helps determine this handedness, first by establishing a signalling center at the eye equator, and second by mediating a choice between two photoreceptor fates ..
  45. Tsai Y, Grimm S, Chao J, Wang S, Hofmeyer K, Shen J, et al. Optomotor-blind negatively regulates Drosophila eye development by blocking Jak/STAT signaling. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0120236 pubmed publisher
    ..These effects occur predominantly in the ventral margin. Our results suggest that the primary effect of Omb is the blocking of Jak/STAT signaling by repressing transcription of upd which encodes the Jak receptor ligand Unpaired. ..
  46. Ishikawa H, Ayukawa T, Nakayama M, Higashi S, Kamiyama S, Nishihara S, et al. Two pathways for importing GDP-fucose into the endoplasmic reticulum lumen function redundantly in the O-fucosylation of Notch in Drosophila. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:4122-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that two pathways for the nucleotide sugar supply, involving two nucleotide sugar transporters with distinct characteristics and distributions, contribute to the O-fucosylation of Notch. ..
  47. Gaunt S. Chick limbs, fly wings and homology at the fringe. Nature. 1997;386:324-5 pubmed
  48. Ishikawa H, Higashi S, Ayukawa T, Sasamura T, Kitagawa M, Harigaya K, et al. Notch deficiency implicated in the pathogenesis of congenital disorder of glycosylation IIc. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:18532-7 pubmed
    ..Finally, we found that mammalian Gfr is required for N signaling in mammalian cultured cells. Therefore, our results implicate reduced N signaling in the pathology of CDG IIc. ..
  49. Blair S. Cell lineage: compartments and Capricious. Curr Biol. 2001;11:R1017-21 pubmed
    ..A new report suggests that the lineage restriction between the dorsal and ventral compartments of the developing wing relies in part on the transmembrane proteins, Capricious and Tartan. ..
  50. Jordan K, Clegg N, Blasi J, Morimoto A, Sen J, Stein D, et al. The homeobox gene mirror links EGF signalling to embryonic dorso-ventral axis formation through notch activation. Nat Genet. 2000;24:429-33 pubmed
    Recent studies in vertebrates and Drosophila melanogaster have revealed that Fringe-mediated activation of the Notch pathway has a role in patterning cell layers during organogenesis...
  51. Klein T, Couso J, Martinez Arias A. Wing development and specification of dorsal cell fates in the absence of apterous in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 1998;8:417-20 pubmed
    ..a dorsal selector gene [5], mediating cell interactions by regulating the expression of Serrate (Ser) [6] [7] and fringe (fng) [8]...
  52. Althauser C, Jordan K, Deng W, Ruohola Baker H. Fringe-dependent notch activation and tramtrack function are required for specification of the polar cells in Drosophila oogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2005;232:1013-20 pubmed
    ..The glycosyltransferase Fringe is expressed and required cell-autonomously in prepolar cells for this process...
  53. Chang W, Chang C, Chang Y, Sung H, Lin M, Chang S, et al. The Drosophila GOLPH3 homolog regulates the biosynthesis of heparan sulfate proteoglycans by modulating the retrograde trafficking of exostosins. Development. 2013;140:2798-807 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data demonstrate that GOLPH3 modulates the activities of EXTs, thus implicating a putative role for GOLPH3 in the formation of MO. ..
  54. Fetchko M, Huang W, Li Y, Lai Z. Drosophila Gp150 is required for early ommatidial development through modulation of Notch signaling. EMBO J. 2002;21:1074-83 pubmed
    ..Therefore, Gp150 might function in intracellular vesicles to modulate Delta-Notch signaling for cell fate control and tissue morphogenesis. ..
  55. Singh A, Kango Singh M, Choi K, Sun Y. Dorso-ventral asymmetric functions of teashirt in Drosophila eye development depend on spatial cues provided by early DV patterning genes. Mech Dev. 2004;121:365-70 pubmed
    ..The ventral Serrate (Ser), but not fringe (fng) or Lobe (L), is required and sufficient for the tsh ventral function...
  56. Blair S. Lineage compartments in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2003;13:R548-51 pubmed
  57. Baena López L, García Bellido A. Genetic requirements of vestigial in the regulation of Drosophila wing development. Development. 2003;130:197-208 pubmed
    ..These non-autonomous effects in surrounding cells result from recruitment or 'inductive assimilation' of vestigial or wingless-vestigial overexpressing cells. ..
  58. Carroll S. From pattern to gene, from gene to pattern. Int J Dev Biol. 1998;42:305-9 pubmed
  59. Fuss B, Josten F, Feix M, Hoch M. Cell movements controlled by the Notch signalling cascade during foregut development in Drosophila. Development. 2004;131:1587-95 pubmed
    ..Our results provide a novel link between the Notch signalling pathway and cytoskeletal reorganisation controlling cell movement during the development of foregut-associated organs. ..
  60. Da Ros V, Gutiérrez Pérez I, Ferres Marco D, Dominguez M. Dampening the signals transduced through hedgehog via microRNA miR-7 facilitates notch-induced tumourigenesis. PLoS Biol. 2013;11:e1001554 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings uncover a hitherto unsuspected tumour suppressor role for the Hedgehog signalling and reveal an unanticipated cooperative antagonism between two pathways extensively used in growth control and cancer. ..
  61. Papayannopoulos V, Tomlinson A, Panin V, Rauskolb C, Irvine K. Dorsal-ventral signaling in the Drosophila eye. Science. 1998;281:2031-4 pubmed
    ..These observations imply that the developmental homology between Drosophila wings and vertebrate limbs extends to Drosophila eyes. ..
  62. Lai E. Developmental signaling: shrimp and strawberries help flies make cones. Curr Biol. 2002;12:R722-4 pubmed
    ..A new study has revealed a serial linkage between them, via Ebi and Strawberry Notch, which is important in determining the cone cell fate in the Drosophila eye. ..
  63. Perdigoto C, Schweisguth F, Bardin A. Distinct levels of Notch activity for commitment and terminal differentiation of stem cells in the adult fly intestine. Development. 2011;138:4585-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work suggests that a commitment requirement for high-level Notch activity safeguards the stem cells from loss through differentiation, revealing a novel role for the importance of Notch signaling levels in this system. ..
  64. Goto S, Taniguchi M, Muraoka M, Toyoda H, Sado Y, Kawakita M, et al. UDP-sugar transporter implicated in glycosylation and processing of Notch. Nat Cell Biol. 2001;3:816-22 pubmed
    ..Here, we report the functions of a novel UDP-sugar transporter (UST74C, an alternative name for Fringe connection (Frc)) localized to the Golgi apparatus in cellular signalling of Drosophila...
  65. Neumann C, Cohen S. Boundary formation in Drosophila wing: Notch activity attenuated by the POU protein Nubbin. Science. 1998;281:409-13 pubmed
    ..Nubbin represses Notch-dependent target genes and sets a threshold for Notch activity that defines the spatial domain of boundary-specific gene expression. ..
  66. Goode S, Perrimon N. Brainiac and fringe are similar pioneer proteins that impart specificity to notch signaling during Drosophila development. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1997;62:177-84 pubmed
  67. Blair S. Limb development: marginal fringe benefits. Curr Biol. 1997;7:R686-90 pubmed
    Recent results show that in the developing Drosophila wing, the secreted pioneer protein Fringe regulates the sensitivity of the Notch signaling pathway to different ligands...
  68. Barrios N, González Pérez E, Hernández R, Campuzano S. The Homeodomain Iroquois Proteins Control Cell Cycle Progression and Regulate the Size of Developmental Fields. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005463 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Drosophila Iroquois proteins are able to regulate cell-autonomously the growth of the territories they specify. Moreover, our results provide a molecular mechanism for a role of Iroquois/Irx genes as tumour suppressors. ..