Gene Symbol: FMRFaR
Description: FMRFamide Receptor
Alias: CG2114, Dm FMRFa-R, Dmel\CG2114, DrmFMRFa-R, FMRFa-R, FMRFamide receptor, CG2114-PA, CG2114-PB, CG2114-PC, FMRFa-receptor, FMRFaR-PA, FMRFaR-PB, FMRFaR-PC, dFMRFa receptor, fmrf receptor, larval-opioid-receptor
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Cazzamali G, Grimmelikhuijzen C. Molecular cloning and functional expression of the first insect FMRFamide receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:12073-8 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this article is the first report on the molecular identification of an invertebrate FMRFamide receptor.
  2. Meeusen T, Mertens I, Clynen E, Baggerman G, Nichols R, Nachman R, et al. Identification in Drosophila melanogaster of the invertebrate G protein-coupled FMRFamide receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:15363-8 pubmed
    We here describe the cloning and characterization of the functionally active Drosophila melanogaster (Drm) FMRFamide receptor, which we designated as DrmFMRFa-R. The full-length ORF of a D...
  3. Klose M, Dason J, Atwood H, Boulianne G, Mercier A. Peptide-induced modulation of synaptic transmission and escape response in Drosophila requires two G-protein-coupled receptors. J Neurosci. 2010;30:14724-34 pubmed publisher that DPKQDFMRFamide enhanced synaptic transmission through activation of two G-protein-coupled receptors, Fmrf Receptor (FR) and Dromyosupressin Receptor-2 (DmsR-2)...
  4. Johnson E, Tift F, McCauley A, Liu L, Roman G. Functional characterization of kurtz, a Drosophila non-visual arrestin, reveals conservation of GPCR desensitization mechanisms. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2008;38:1016-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we report that kurtz mutants exhibit hypersensitivity to osmotic stress, implicating GPCR desensitization as an important feature of the endocrine events that shape this stress response. ..
  5. Hamanaka Y, Park D, Yin P, Annangudi S, Edwards T, Sweedler J, et al. Transcriptional orchestration of the regulated secretory pathway in neurons by the bHLH protein DIMM. Curr Biol. 2010;20:9-18 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that DIMM normally provides a comprehensive transcriptional control to direct the differentiation of dedicated neuroendocrine neurons. ..
  6. Bendena W, Campbell J, Zara L, Tobe S, Chin Sang I. Select Neuropeptides and their G-Protein Coupled Receptors in Caenorhabditis Elegans and Drosophila Melanogaster. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2012;3:93 pubmed publisher
    ..melanogaster and C. elegans and the behaviors that have been uncovered through genetic manipulation. ..
  7. Bass C, Katanski C, Maynard B, Zurro I, Mariane E, Matta M, et al. Conserved residues in RF-NH? receptor models identify predicted contact sites in ligand-receptor binding. Peptides. 2014;53:278-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Our novel results predicted conserved residues as RF-NH2 ligand-receptor contact sites and identified unique and classic structural features. These discoveries will aid antagonist design to modulate RF-NH2 signaling. ..
  8. Agrawal T, Sadaf S, Hasan G. A genetic RNAi screen for IP?/Ca²? coupled GPCRs in Drosophila identifies the PdfR as a regulator of insect flight. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003849 pubmed publisher
  9. Milakovic M, Ormerod K, Klose M, Mercier A. Mode of action of a Drosophila FMRFamide in inducing muscle contraction. J Exp Biol. 2014;217:1725-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, DPKQDFMRFamide induces contractions via a G-protein coupled FMRFamide receptor in muscle cells but does not appear to act via cAMP, cGMP, IP3, PLC, CaMKII or arachidonic acid.

More Information


  1. Ormerod K, Krans J, Mercier A. Cell-selective modulation of the Drosophila neuromuscular system by a neuropeptide. J Neurophysiol. 2015;113:1631-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Knocking down FMRFamide receptor (FR) expression separately in nerve and muscle indicate that both presynaptic and postsynaptic FR expression ..
  2. Collin C, Hauser F, Krogh Meyer P, Hansen K, González de Valdivia E, Williamson M, et al. Identification of the Drosophila and Tribolium receptors for the recently discovered insect RYamide neuropeptides. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;412:578-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Gene expression data published in Flybase ( show that the Drosophila CG5811 gene is significantly expressed in the hindgut of adult flies, suggesting a role of insect RYamides in digestion or water reabsorption...
  3. Kiss B, Szlanka T, Zvara A, Zurovec M, Sery M, Kakaš S, et al. Selective elimination/RNAi silencing of FMRF-related peptides and their receptors decreases the locomotor activity in Drosophila melanogaster. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2013;191:137-45 pubmed publisher
    ..RNAi silencing of the FaRP and FaRP-receptor genes effectively decreased the startle-induced locomotor activity of flies. Ablation of FMRF-positive neurons by the RS8-Gal4 and/or RS17-Gal4 drivers also decreased the flies' activity. ..
  4. Lenz O, Xiong J, Nelson M, Raizen D, Williams J. FMRFamide signaling promotes stress-induced sleep in Drosophila. Brain Behav Immun. 2015;47:141-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Animals mutant for either FMRFamide or for the FMRFamide receptor (FR) have a reduced recovery sleep in response to heat stress...
  5. Rasmussen M, Leander M, Ons S, Nichols R. Conserved molecular switch interactions in modeled cardioactive RF-NH2 peptide receptors: Ligand binding and activation. Peptides. 2015;71:259-67 pubmed publisher
    ..AKH receptor motifs were not representative of a RF-NH2 subfamily. The motifs and interactions of switches in the RFa-Rs were consistent with receptor activation and ligand-specific binding. ..
  6. Jayakumar S, Richhariya S, Reddy O, Texada M, Hasan G. Drosophila larval to pupal switch under nutrient stress requires IP3R/Ca(2+) signalling in glutamatergic interneurons. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    ..Activity in this circuit is thus likely to be an adaptation that provides a layer of regulation to help surpass nutritional stress during development. ..