Gene Symbol: FMRFa
Description: FMRFamide
Alias: CG2346, DPKQDFMRF-amide, DPKQDFMRFamide, Dmel\CG2346, Drm-FMRF-1, Drm-FMRF-2, Drm-FMRF-3, Drm-FMRF-4, Drm-FMRF-5, Drm-FMRFa1, Drm-FMRFa2, Drm-FMRFa3, Drm-FMRFa4, FMRF, FMRFa-1, FMRFa-2, FMRFa-3, FMRFa-4, FMRFa-5, FMRFa-6, FMRFa-7, FMRFa-8, FMRFa-like, Fmrf, dFMRF, dFMRFa, dFMRFa-1, dFMRFa-2, dFMRFa-3, dFMRFa-4, dFMRFa-5, dFMRFa-6, dFMRFa-7, dFMRFa-8, dFmrf, dFmrfa, fmrf, FMRFamide, CG2346-PA, DPKQDFMRFamide, Drm-FMRFamide-1, Drm-FMRFamide-2, Drm-FMRFamide-3, Drm-FMRFamide-4, Drm-FMRFamide-5, FMRF amide homologue precursor, FMRF-amide, FMRFa-PA, FMRFamide prohormone, FMRFamide-related, FRMFamide, SDNFMRFamide, TPAEDFMRFamide, amino acid amidated neuropeptide, dFMRFamide
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. O Brien M, Taghert P. A peritracheal neuropeptide system in insects: release of myomodulin-like peptides at ecdysis. J Exp Biol. 1998;201:193-209 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that peritracheal cells release MM-like peptides as part of a conserved feature of the endocrine regulation of insect ecdysis. ..
  2. Benveniste R, Thor S, Thomas J, Taghert P. Cell type-specific regulation of the Drosophila FMRF-NH2 neuropeptide gene by Apterous, a LIM homeodomain transcription factor. Development. 1998;125:4757-65 pubmed
    ..b>dFMRFa and Apterous are expressed in partially overlapping subsets of neurons, including two of the seventeen dFMRFa cell ..
  3. Miguel Aliaga I, Allan D, Thor S. Independent roles of the dachshund and eyes absent genes in BMP signaling, axon pathfinding and neuronal specification. Development. 2004;131:5837-48 pubmed
    In the Drosophila nerve cord, a subset of neurons expresses the neuropeptide FMRFamide related (Fmrf). Fmrf expression is controlled by a combinatorial code of intrinsic factors and an extrinsic BMP signal...
  4. Iversen A, Cazzamali G, Williamson M, Hauser F, Grimmelikhuijzen C. Molecular cloning and functional expression of a Drosophila receptor for the neuropeptides capa-1 and -2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;299:628-33 pubmed
    ..Because capa-1 and -2 and related insect neuropeptides stimulate fluid secretion in insect Malpighian (renal) tubules, the identification of this first insect capa receptor will advance our knowledge on insect renal function. ..
  5. Meeusen T, Mertens I, Clynen E, Baggerman G, Nichols R, Nachman R, et al. Identification in Drosophila melanogaster of the invertebrate G protein-coupled FMRFamide receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:15363-8 pubmed
    ..Nanomolar concentrations of the Drm FMRFamides (DPKQDFMRFamide, TPAEDFMRFamide, SDNFMRFamide, SPKQDFMRFamide, and PDNFMRFamide) activated the cognate receptor in a dose-..
  6. Baumgardt M, Miguel Aliaga I, Karlsson D, Ekman H, Thor S. Specification of neuronal identities by feedforward combinatorial coding. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e37 pubmed
    ..Amongst the progeny of neuroblast 5-6 are two peptidergic neurons: one expresses FMRFamide and the other one expresses Nplp1 and the dopamine receptor DopR...
  7. Hewes R, Park D, Gauthier S, Schaefer A, Taghert P. The bHLH protein Dimmed controls neuroendocrine cell differentiation in Drosophila. Development. 2003;130:1771-81 pubmed
    ..We propose that dimmed encodes an integral component of a novel mechanism by which diverse neuroendocrine lineages differentiate and maintain the pro-secretory state. ..
  8. Klose M, Dason J, Atwood H, Boulianne G, Mercier A. Peptide-induced modulation of synaptic transmission and escape response in Drosophila requires two G-protein-coupled receptors. J Neurosci. 2010;30:14724-34 pubmed publisher
    ..We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model to examine both the cellular and behavioral effects of DPKQDFMRFamide, the most abundant peptide encoded by the dFMRF gene...
  9. Iversen A, Cazzamali G, Williamson M, Hauser F, Grimmelikhuijzen C. Molecular identification of the first insect ecdysis triggering hormone receptors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;299:924-31 pubmed
    ..Ecdysis (cuticle shedding) is an important behaviour, allowing growth and metamorphosis in insects and other arthropods. Our paper is the first report on the molecular identification of ecdysis triggering hormone receptors from insects. ..

More Information


  1. Lundquist T, Nässel D. Substance P-, FMRFamide-, and gastrin/cholecystokinin-like immunoreactive neurons in the thoraco-abdominal ganglia of the flies Drosophila and Calliphora. J Comp Neurol. 1990;294:161-78 pubmed
    ..of the flies Drosophila melanogaster and Calliphora vomitoria revealed neurons displaying substance P- (SPLI), FMRFamide-(FLI), and cholecystokinin-like (CCKLI) immunoreactivity...
  2. Duttlinger A, Berry K, Nichols R. The different effects of three Drosophila melanogaster dFMRFamide-containing peptides on crop contractions suggest these structurally related peptides do not play redundant functions in gut. Peptides. 2002;23:1953-7 pubmed
    A Drosophila melanogaster dFMRFamide gene product, TPAEDFMRFamide, decreased crop contractions...
  3. Hewes R, Snowdeal E, Saitoe M, Taghert P. Functional redundancy of FMRFamide-related peptides at the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction. J Neurosci. 1998;18:7138-51 pubmed
    ..Their targets were distributed widely throughout the somatic musculature. The effects of one peptide, DPKQDFMRFamide, were unchanged after the onset of metamorphosis...
  4. Eade K, Allan D. Neuronal phenotype in the mature nervous system is maintained by persistent retrograde bone morphogenetic protein signaling. J Neurosci. 2009;29:3852-64 pubmed publisher
    ..protein (BMP) signaling induces expression of a phenotypic marker of Drosophila Tv neurons, the neuropeptide FMRFamide (FMRFa)...
  5. Baggerman G, Cerstiaens A, De Loof A, Schoofs L. Peptidomics of the larval Drosophila melanogaster central nervous system. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:40368-74 pubmed
    ..This neuropeptide expression profiling study also opens perspectives for other eukaryotic model systems, for which genome projects are completed or in progress. ..
  6. Dunn T, Mercier A. Synaptic modulation by a Drosophila neuropeptide is motor neuron-specific and requires CaMKII activity. Peptides. 2005;26:269-76 pubmed
    The Drosophila FMRFamide-related peptide, DPKQDFMRFamide modulates synaptic transmission at the larval neuromuscular junction...
  7. Baggerman G, Boonen K, Verleyen P, De Loof A, Schoofs L. Peptidomic analysis of the larval Drosophila melanogaster central nervous system by two-dimensional capillary liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. J Mass Spectrom. 2005;40:250-60 pubmed
    ..This clearly demonstrates that the two-dimensional capillary LC approach enhances the coverage of the peptidomic analysis. ..
  8. Taghert P, Schneider L. Interspecific comparison of a Drosophila gene encoding FMRFamide-related neuropeptides. J Neurosci. 1990;10:1929-42 pubmed
    ..The melanogaster gene encodes a precursor that contains 13 neuropeptides related to the molluscan tetrapeptide FMRFamide (Nambu et al., 1988; Schneider and Taghert, 1988)...
  9. Clark J, Milakovic M, Cull A, Klose M, Mercier A. Evidence for postsynaptic modulation of muscle contraction by a Drosophila neuropeptide. Peptides. 2008;29:1140-9 pubmed publisher
    b>DPKQDFMRFamide, the most abundant FMRFamide-like peptide in Drosophila melanogaster, has been shown previously to enhance contractions of larval body wall muscles elicited by nerve stimulation and to increase excitatory junction ..
  10. White K, Hurteau T, Punsal P. Neuropeptide-FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity in Drosophila: development and distribution. J Comp Neurol. 1986;247:430-8 pubmed
    Neuropeptide-FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity was characterized in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster...
  11. Nambu J, Murphy Erdosh C, Andrews P, Feistner G, Scheller R. Isolation and characterization of a Drosophila neuropeptide gene. Neuron. 1988;1:55-61 pubmed
    We have purified a 9 amino acid amidated neuropeptide, DPKQDFMRFamide, from whole adult D. melanogaster...
  12. Vogler G, Urban J. The transcription factor Zfh1 is involved in the regulation of neuropeptide expression and growth of larval neuromuscular junctions in Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 2008;319:78-85 pubmed publisher
    ..First, we show that late larval expression of the neuropeptide FMRFamide is dependent on correct levels of Zfh1 and that this regulation is presumably direct via a conserved zfh1 ..
  13. Wegener C, Reinl T, Jänsch L, Predel R. Direct mass spectrometric peptide profiling and fragmentation of larval peptide hormone release sites in Drosophila melanogaster reveals tagma-specific peptide expression and differential processing. J Neurochem. 2006;96:1362-74 pubmed
    ..Our results show that the peptidome of the neurohaemal organs is tagma-specific and does not change during metamorphosis. We also provide evidence for the first case of differential prohormone processing in Drosophila. ..
  14. Mertens I, Meeusen T, Huybrechts R, De Loof A, Schoofs L. Characterization of the short neuropeptide F receptor from Drosophila melanogaster. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;297:1140-8 pubmed
    ..The short NPF receptor was not activated by any of the other tested arthropod peptides, not even by FMRFamide-related peptides (also ending in RFamide), indicating that the Arg residue at position 4 from the amidated C-..
  15. Renn S, Park J, Rosbash M, Hall J, Taghert P. A pdf neuropeptide gene mutation and ablation of PDF neurons each cause severe abnormalities of behavioral circadian rhythms in Drosophila. Cell. 1999;99:791-802 pubmed
    ..These results confirm the assignment of LNv neurons as the principal circadian pacemakers controlling daily locomotion in Drosophila. They also implicate PDF as the principal circadian transmitter. ..
  16. Karlsson D, Baumgardt M, Thor S. Segment-specific neuronal subtype specification by the integration of anteroposterior and temporal cues. PLoS Biol. 2010;8:e1000368 pubmed publisher
    ..This study reveals a surprisingly restricted, yet multifaceted, function of both anteroposterior and temporal cues with respect to lineage control and cell fate specification...
  17. Yoon J, Stay B. Immunocytochemical localization of Diploptera punctata allatostatin-like peptide in Drosophila melanogaster. J Comp Neurol. 1995;363:475-88 pubmed
  18. Birse R, Johnson E, Taghert P, Nassel D. Widely distributed Drosophila G-protein-coupled receptor (CG7887) is activated by endogenous tachykinin-related peptides. J Neurobiol. 2006;66:33-46 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that DTKR is a DTK receptor in Drosophila and that this ligand-receptor system plays multiple functional roles. ..
  19. Rosenkilde C, Cazzamali G, Williamson M, Hauser F, Søndergaard L, DeLotto R, et al. Molecular cloning, functional expression, and gene silencing of two Drosophila receptors for the Drosophila neuropeptide pyrokinin-2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;309:485-94 pubmed
    ..The two Drosophila pyrokinin receptors are, to our knowledge, the first invertebrate pyrokinin receptors to be identified. ..
  20. Schneider L, Sun E, Garland D, Taghert P. An immunocytochemical study of the FMRFamide neuropeptide gene products in Drosophila. J Comp Neurol. 1993;337:446-60 pubmed
    We have mapped protein expression of the FMRFamide neuropeptide gene in Drosophila with polyclonal antisera against three small peptides whose sequences were derived from the Drosophila proFMRFamide precursor...
  21. Allan D, St Pierre S, Miguel Aliaga I, Thor S. Specification of neuropeptide cell identity by the integration of retrograde BMP signaling and a combinatorial transcription factor code. Cell. 2003;113:73-86 pubmed
    ..In the Drosophila ventral nerve cord, the six Tv neurons express the neuropeptide gene FMRFamide. Each Tv neuron resides within a neuronal cell group specified by the LIM-homeodomain gene apterous...
  22. Johnson E, Shafer O, Trigg J, Park J, Schooley D, Dow J, et al. A novel diuretic hormone receptor in Drosophila: evidence for conservation of CGRP signaling. J Exp Biol. 2005;208:1239-46 pubmed
    ..Therefore, it appears that both the molecular details as well as the functional organization of CGRP signaling have been conserved. ..
  23. Nichols R. Isolation and structural characterization of Drosophila TDVDHVFLRFamide and FMRFamide-containing neural peptides. J Mol Neurosci. 1992;3:213-8 pubmed
    ..Three of the peptides are encoded by Drosophila proFMRFamide: AspProLysGlnAspPheMetArgPheNH2 (DPKQDFMRFamide), ThrProAlaGluAspPheMetArgPheNH2 (TPAEDFMRFamide), and SerAspAsnPheMetArgPheNH2 (SDNFMRFamide)...
  24. Baumgardt M, Karlsson D, Terriente J, Diaz Benjumea F, Thor S. Neuronal subtype specification within a lineage by opposing temporal feed-forward loops. Cell. 2009;139:969-82 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism of temporal and "subtemporal" genes acting in opposing feed-forward loops may be used by many stem cell lineages to generate diversity. ..
  25. Chin A, Reynolds E, Scheller R. Organization and expression of the Drosophila FMRFamide-related prohormone gene. DNA Cell Biol. 1990;9:263-71 pubmed
    The Drosophila FMRFamide gene is comprised of two exons separated by a 2.8-kb intervening sequence. The first exon consists of the 5' untranslated region and is spliced to the initiator methionine codon...
  26. Schneider L, O Brien M, Taghert P. In situ hybridization analysis of the FMRFamide neuropeptide gene in Drosophila. I. Restricted expression in embryonic and larval stages. J Comp Neurol. 1991;304:608-22 pubmed
    ..techniques to describe the cellular distribution of transcripts from a Drosophila gene that encodes multiple FMRFamide-related neuropeptides...
  27. McCormick J, Lim I, Nichols R. Neuropeptide precursor processing detected by triple immunolabeling. Cell Tissue Res. 1999;297:197-202 pubmed
    ..We have isolated SDNFMRFamide, DPKQDFMRFamide, and TPAEDFMRFamide from Drosophila melanogaster...
  28. Cazzamali G, Grimmelikhuijzen C. Molecular cloning and functional expression of the first insect FMRFamide receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:12073-8 pubmed
    ..PDNFMRFamide) (EC50, 9 x 10(-10) M), whereas it had a somewhat lower affinity to Drosophila FMRFamide-2 (DPKQDFMRFamide) (EC50, 3 x 10(-9) M) and considerably less affinity to the other Drosophila FMRFamide-related peptides...
  29. Kim Y, Zitnan D, Galizia C, Cho K, Adams M. A command chemical triggers an innate behavior by sequential activation of multiple peptidergic ensembles. Curr Biol. 2006;16:1395-407 pubmed
    ..Specifically, FMRFamide neurons are activated during pre-ecdysis; EH, CCAP, and CCAP/MIP neurons are active prior to and during ecdysis; ..
  30. Schneider L, Taghert P. Isolation and characterization of a Drosophila gene that encodes multiple neuropeptides related to Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2 (FMRFamide). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:1993-7 pubmed
    A Drosophila gene that encodes neuropeptides related to molluscan Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2 (FMRFamide) was isolated by screening a genomic library with a fragment of an Aplysia Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2 cDNA and with synthetic oligonucleotides...
  31. Predel R, Wegener C, Russell W, Tichy S, Russell D, Nachman R. Peptidomics of CNS-associated neurohemal systems of adult Drosophila melanogaster: a mass spectrometric survey of peptides from individual flies. J Comp Neurol. 2004;474:379-92 pubmed
  32. Marques G, Haerry T, Crotty M, Xue M, Zhang B, O Connor M. Retrograde Gbb signaling through the Bmp type 2 receptor wishful thinking regulates systemic FMRFa expression in Drosophila. Development. 2003;130:5457-70 pubmed
    Amidated neuropeptides of the FMRFamide class regulate numerous physiological processes including synaptic efficacy at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ)...
  33. Johnson -, Ringo -, Dowse -. Native and heterologous neuropeptides are cardioactive in Drosophila melanogaster. J Insect Physiol. 2000;46:1229-1236 pubmed
    ..Of the native peptides, TDVDHVFLRF-NH(2) (Dromyosuppressin), DPKQDFMRFamide, and PDNFMRFamide significantly slowed the heart...
  34. Yew J, Wang Y, Barteneva N, Dikler S, Kutz Naber K, Li L, et al. Analysis of neuropeptide expression and localization in adult drosophila melanogaster central nervous system by affinity cell-capture mass spectrometry. J Proteome Res. 2009;8:1271-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Neuropeptide profiling also was performed on targeted populations of cells which were enriched with immunoaffinity purification using a genetically expressed marker. ..
  35. Benveniste R, Taghert P. Cell type-specific regulatory sequences control expression of the Drosophila FMRF-NH2 neuropeptide gene. J Neurobiol. 1999;38:507-20 pubmed
    The FMRFamide (dFMRFa) neuropeptide gene is expressed in about 17 diverse cell types in the Drosophila central nervous system...
  36. Iliadi K, Avivi A, Iliadi N, Knight D, Korol A, Nevo E, et al. nemy encodes a cytochrome b561 that is required for Drosophila learning and memory. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:19986-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, the data are consistent with a model whereby cytochrome B561-mediated electron transport plays a role in memory formation by regulating intravesicular PHM activity and the formation of amidated neuropeptides. ..
  37. Losada Pérez M, Gabilondo H, Molina I, Turiegano E, Torroja L, Thor S, et al. Klumpfuss controls FMRFamide expression by enabling BMP signaling within the NB5-6 lineage. Development. 2013;140:2181-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that Klu is expressed specifically in the postmitotic Ap4/FMRFa neuron, promoting its differentiation through the initiation of BMP signaling...
  38. Ewer J. Behavioral endocrinology: lighting up peptidergic neurons that mediate a complex behavior. Curr Biol. 2006;16:R682-4 pubmed
  39. De Velasco B, Erclik T, Shy D, Sclafani J, Lipshitz H, McInnes R, et al. Specification and development of the pars intercerebralis and pars lateralis, neuroendocrine command centers in the Drosophila brain. Dev Biol. 2007;302:309-23 pubmed
    ..NSCs labeled by the expression of Drosophila insulin-like peptide (Dilp), FMRF, and myomodulin form part of the Dchx1 expressing PI domain...
  40. Schneider L, Taghert P. Organization and expression of the Drosophila Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2 neuropeptide gene. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:6890-5 pubmed
    We have studied a Drosophila gene that encodes multiple neuropeptides related to Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2 (FMRFamide)...
  41. Santos J, Vömel M, Struck R, Homberg U, Nässel D, Wegener C. Neuroarchitecture of peptidergic systems in the larval ventral ganglion of Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e695 pubmed
    ..The data can further be useful to identify colocalized transmitters and receptors, and develop peptidergic neurons as new landmarks. ..
  42. Martín Peña A, Acebes A, Rodriguez J, Chevalier V, Casas Tinto S, Triphan T, et al. Cell types and coincident synapses in the ellipsoid body of Drosophila. Eur J Neurosci. 2014;39:1586-601 pubmed publisher
  43. Collin C, Hauser F, Krogh Meyer P, Hansen K, González de Valdivia E, Williamson M, et al. Identification of the Drosophila and Tribolium receptors for the recently discovered insect RYamide neuropeptides. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;412:578-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Gene expression data published in Flybase ( show that the Drosophila CG5811 gene is significantly expressed in the hindgut of adult flies, suggesting a role of insect RYamides in digestion or water reabsorption...
  44. Kiss B, Szlanka T, Zvara A, Zurovec M, Sery M, Kakaš S, et al. Selective elimination/RNAi silencing of FMRF-related peptides and their receptors decreases the locomotor activity in Drosophila melanogaster. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2013;191:137-45 pubmed publisher
    Five neuropeptide genes are classified in the FMRF-related (FaRP) group: the Fmrf, dromyosuppressin (Dms), drosulfakinin (Dsk), neuropeptide F (npf) and short neuropeptide F (sNPF) genes coding for 8, 1, 2, 1 and 4 peptides, respectively...
  45. Wegener C, Gorbashov A. Molecular evolution of neuropeptides in the genus Drosophila. Genome Biol. 2008;9:R131 pubmed publisher
    ..The last common ancestor of Drosophila obviously had a set of neuropeptides and peptide hormones identical to that of modern fruit flies. This is remarkable, since drosophilid flies have adapted to very different environments. ..
  46. Johnson E, Bohn L, Taghert P. Drosophila CG8422 encodes a functional diuretic hormone receptor. J Exp Biol. 2004;207:743-8 pubmed
    ..The identification of a Drosophila receptor for the DH neuropeptide provides a basis for genetic analysis of this critical factor's roles in maintaining physiological homeostasis. ..
  47. Nichols R, McCormick J, Lim I, Caserta L. Cellular expression of the Drosophila melanogaster FMRFamide neuropeptide gene product DPKQDFMRFamide. Evidence for differential processing of the FMRFamide polypeptide precursor. J Mol Neurosci. 1995;6:1-10 pubmed
    b>DPKQDFMRFamide is one of five different FMRFamide-containing peptides encoded in the Drosophila FMRFamide gene...
  48. Nichols R, McCormick J, Lim I, Starkman J. Spatial and temporal analysis of the Drosophila FMRFamide neuropeptide gene product SDNFMRFamide: evidence for a restricted expression pattern. Neuropeptides. 1995;29:205-13 pubmed
    The expression of SDNFMRFamide, one of five different FMRFamide-containing peptides encoded by the Drosophila melanogaster FMRFamide gene, has been determined...
  49. Keshishian H, Kim Y. Orchestrating development and function: retrograde BMP signaling in the Drosophila nervous system. Trends Neurosci. 2004;27:143-7 pubmed
    ..Together, the results suggest that retrograde growth factor signaling by BMPs integrates neuromuscular development and function at both local and global levels in the animal. ..
  50. Jones R. Combinatorial coding for Drosophila neurons. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e51 pubmed publisher
  51. Lenz O, Xiong J, Nelson M, Raizen D, Williams J. FMRFamide signaling promotes stress-induced sleep in Drosophila. Brain Behav Immun. 2015;47:141-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We identify a sleep-regulating role for a signaling pathway involving FMRFamide neuropeptides and their receptor FR...
  52. Chen J, Condron B. Branch architecture of the fly larval abdominal serotonergic neurons. Dev Biol. 2008;320:30-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the basic branching pattern of serotonergic neurons within the neuropil remains unchanged despite alterations of initial axonal trajectories. ..
  53. O Brien M, Roberts M, Taghert P. A genetic and molecular analysis of the 46C chromosomal region surrounding the FMRFamide neuropeptide gene in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1994;137:121-37 pubmed
    We have analyzed the FMRFamide neuropeptide gene region of Drosophila melanogaster. This gene maps to the 46C region of chromosome 2R; this interval previously was not well characterized...
  54. Ulvklo C, Macdonald R, Bivik C, Baumgardt M, Karlsson D, Thor S. Control of neuronal cell fate and number by integration of distinct daughter cell proliferation modes with temporal progression. Development. 2012;139:678-89 pubmed publisher
    ..This demonstrates that different daughter cell proliferation modes can be integrated with temporal competence changes, and suggests a novel mechanism for coordinately controlling neuronal subtype numbers. ..
  55. Cazzamali G, Hauser F, Kobberup S, Williamson M, Grimmelikhuijzen C. Molecular identification of a Drosophila G protein-coupled receptor specific for crustacean cardioactive peptide. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;303:146-52 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we identified a gene sequence in the genomic database from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae that very likely codes for a crustacean cardioactive peptide receptor. ..
  56. Rahman M, Fromm B, Neupert S, Kreusch S, Predel R. Extended FMRFamides in dipteran insects: conservative expression in the neuroendocrine system is accompanied by rapid sequence evolution. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2009;162:52-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We could unambiguously verify, that all predictable products of the extended FMRFamide precursor are expressed in neurohemal tissues of the thoracic neuromers of these flies and can easily be ..
  57. Zhou B, Williams D, Altman J, Riddiford L, Truman J. Temporal patterns of broad isoform expression during the development of neuronal lineages in Drosophila. Neural Dev. 2009;4:39 pubmed publisher
    ..Two other Broad isoforms, by contrast, are stably expressed in cohorts of neurons in all lineages and are the first examples of persisting molecular 'time-stamps' for Drosophila postembryonic neurons. ..
  58. Benito Sipos J, Ulvklo C, Gabilondo H, Baumgardt M, Angel A, Torroja L, et al. Seven up acts as a temporal factor during two different stages of neuroblast 5-6 development. Development. 2011;138:5311-20 pubmed publisher
    ..In a genetic screen for mutants affecting the last-born cell in the embryonic NB5-6T lineage, the Ap4/FMRFamide neuron, we have isolated a novel allele of svp...
  59. De Loof A, Schoofs L. Homologies between the amino acid sequences of some vertebrate peptide hormones and peptides isolated from invertebrate sources. Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1990;95:459-68 pubmed
    ..3. Members of the FMRFamide family are found in vertebrates as well as in invertebrates. 4...
  60. Hamanaka Y, Park D, Yin P, Annangudi S, Edwards T, Sweedler J, et al. Transcriptional orchestration of the regulated secretory pathway in neurons by the bHLH protein DIMM. Curr Biol. 2010;20:9-18 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that DIMM normally provides a comprehensive transcriptional control to direct the differentiation of dedicated neuroendocrine neurons. ..
  61. Hector C, Bretz C, Zhao Y, Johnson E. Functional differences between two CRF-related diuretic hormone receptors in Drosophila. J Exp Biol. 2009;212:3142-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The functional characterization of this diuretic hormone receptor in Drosophila demonstrates a high degree of conservation of CRF-like signaling. ..
  62. Friedman J, Starkman J, Nichols R. DPKQDFMRFamide expression is similar in two distantly related Drosophila species. Peptides. 2001;22:235-9 pubmed
    Drosophila melanogaster DPKQDFMRFamide was isolated and its expression reported. Distribution of DPKQDFMRFamide immunoreactivity is now described in Drosophila virilis...
  63. Nichols R, McCormick J, Lim I. Regulation of Drosophila FMRFamide neuropeptide gene expression. J Neurobiol. 1999;39:347-58 pubmed
    ..We have isolated SDNFMRFamide, DPKQDFMRFamide, and TPAEDFMRFamide contained in the Drosophila FMRFamide gene...
  64. Kaminski S, Orlowski E, Berry K, Nichols R. The effects of three Drosophila melanogaster myotropins on the frequency of foregut contractions differ. J Neurogenet. 2002;16:125-34 pubmed
    ..dromyosuppressin (DMS), pEVRYRQCYFNPISCF, an allatostatin C-type peptide named flatline (FLT), and SDNFMRFamide, a FMRFamide-containing peptide...
  65. Johnson E, Tift F, McCauley A, Liu L, Roman G. Functional characterization of kurtz, a Drosophila non-visual arrestin, reveals conservation of GPCR desensitization mechanisms. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2008;38:1016-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we report that kurtz mutants exhibit hypersensitivity to osmotic stress, implicating GPCR desensitization as an important feature of the endocrine events that shape this stress response. ..
  66. Turski M, Thiele D. Drosophila Ctr1A functions as a copper transporter essential for development. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:24017-26 pubmed
  67. Cazzamali G, Saxild N, Grimmelikhuijzen C. Molecular cloning and functional expression of a Drosophila corazonin receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;298:31-6 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, a receptor that is structurally very similar to the Drosophila corazonin receptor can be found in the genomic database from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. ..
  68. Dimitriadi M, Sleigh J, Walker A, Chang H, Sen A, Kalloo G, et al. Conserved genes act as modifiers of invertebrate SMN loss of function defects. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1001172 pubmed publisher