Gene Symbol: fkh
Description: fork head
Alias: CG10002, Dmel\CG10002, Dmfkh, FKH, Fkh, Sebp2, dFoxA, fork head, CG10002-PA, CG10002-PB, CG10002-PC, CG10002-PD, CG10002-PE, fkh-PA, fkh-PB, fkh-PC, fkh-PD, fkh-PE, forkhead, secretion enhancer-binding protein 2
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Hacker U, Grossniklaus U, Gehring W, Jackle H. Developmentally regulated Drosophila gene family encoding the fork head domain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:8754-8 pubmed
    ..nuclear transcription factor HNF3A (alpha) and the product of the Drosophila region-specific homeotic gene fork head (fkh)...
  2. Chandrasekaran V, Beckendorf S. senseless is necessary for the survival of embryonic salivary glands in Drosophila. Development. 2003;130:4719-28 pubmed
    ..We have shown that sens expression is initiated in the salivary placodes by fork head (fkh), a winged helix transcription factor...
  3. Moran E, Jiménez G. The tailless nuclear receptor acts as a dedicated repressor in the early Drosophila embryo. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:3446-54 pubmed
  4. Kühnlein R, Bronner G, Taubert H, Schuh R. Regulation of Drosophila spalt gene expression. Mech Dev. 1997;66:107-18 pubmed
    ..In addition, we provide evidence that a zygotic gene product of the terminal system, Tailless, cooperates with the maternal gene product Caudal and thereby activates gene expression in the terminal region of the embryo. ..
  5. Lehmann M, Korge G. The fork head product directly specifies the tissue-specific hormone responsiveness of the Drosophila Sgs-4 gene. EMBO J. 1996;15:4825-34 pubmed
    Here we describe the identification of four binding sites of secretion enhancer binding protein 2 (SEBP2) in the regulatory region of the Drosophila salivary gland secretion protein gene 4 (Sgs-4) and show that despite these sites' ..
  6. Myat M, Andrew D. Fork head prevents apoptosis and promotes cell shape change during formation of the Drosophila salivary glands. Development. 2000;127:4217-26 pubmed
    ..In embryos mutant for fork head (fkh), which encodes a transcription factor homologous to mammalian hepatocyte nuclear factor 3beta (HNF-3beta), ..
  7. Renault N, King Jones K, Lehmann M. Downregulation of the tissue-specific transcription factor Fork head by Broad-Complex mediates a stage-specific hormone response. Development. 2001;128:3729-37 pubmed
    ..repression of Sgs expression is indirectly controlled by the BR-C through transcriptional down-regulation of fork head, a tissue-specific gene that plays a central role in salivary gland development and is required for Sgs ..
  8. Weigel D, Jurgens G, Küttner F, Seifert E, Jackle H. The homeotic gene fork head encodes a nuclear protein and is expressed in the terminal regions of the Drosophila embryo. Cell. 1989;57:645-58 pubmed
    The region-specific homeotic gene fork head (fkh) promotes terminal as opposed to segmental development in the Drosophila embryo. We have cloned the fkh region by chromosomal walking...
  9. Ryoo H, Mann R. The control of trunk Hox specificity and activity by Extradenticle. Genes Dev. 1999;13:1704-16 pubmed
    We characterize a 37-bp element (fkh[250]) derived from the fork head (fkh) gene, a natural target of the Hox gene Sex combs reduced (Scr)...

More Information


  1. Hoch M, Pankratz M. Control of gut development by fork head and cell signaling molecules in Drosophila. Mech Dev. 1996;58:3-14 pubmed
    ..The activation of these genes in the developing as well as in the foregut requires fork head, which encodes a transcription factor...
  2. Mazet F, Yu J, Liberles D, Holland L, Shimeld S. Phylogenetic relationships of the Fox (Forkhead) gene family in the Bilateria. Gene. 2003;316:79-89 pubmed
    The Forkhead or Fox gene family encodes putative transcription factors. There are at least four Fox genes in yeast, 16 in Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) and 42 in humans...
  3. Lelli K, Noro B, Mann R. Variable motif utilization in homeotic selector (Hox)-cofactor complex formation controls specificity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:21122-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that using different binding mechanisms with the same cofactor may be one strategy to achieve functional specificity in vivo. ..
  4. Joshi R, Passner J, Rohs R, Jain R, Sosinsky A, Crickmore M, et al. Functional specificity of a Hox protein mediated by the recognition of minor groove structure. Cell. 2007;131:530-43 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that these residues, which are conserved in a paralog-specific manner, confer specificity by recognizing a sequence-dependent DNA structure instead of directly reading a specific DNA sequence. ..
  5. Schroeder M, Pearce M, Fak J, Fan H, Unnerstall U, Emberly E, et al. Transcriptional control in the segmentation gene network of Drosophila. PLoS Biol. 2004;2:E271 pubmed
    ..The study demonstrates that computational methods are a powerful complement to experimental approaches in the analysis of transcription networks. ..
  6. Fowlkes C, Eckenrode K, Bragdon M, Meyer M, Wunderlich Z, Simirenko L, et al. A conserved developmental patterning network produces quantitatively different output in multiple species of Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002346 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results emphasize that transcriptional networks can diverge over short evolutionary timescales and that even small changes can lead to distinct output in terms of the placement and number of equivalent cells. ..
  7. Takiya S, Gazi M, Mach V. The DNA binding of insect Fork head factors is strongly influenced by the negative cooperation of neighbouring bases. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2003;33:1145-54 pubmed
    The Drosophila melanogaster Fork head and Bombyx mori SGF1/Fork head proteins are key regulators of tissue specific gene expression in the modified larval labial glands...
  8. Haberman A, Isaac D, Andrew D. Specification of cell fates within the salivary gland primordium. Dev Biol. 2003;258:443-53 pubmed, at least in part, by repressing expression of secretory cell genes in the duct primordium, including fork head (fkh), which encodes a winged-helix transcription factor...
  9. Gaul U, Weigel D. Regulation of Krüppel expression in the anlage of the Malpighian tubules in the Drosophila embryo. Mech Dev. 1990;33:57-67 pubmed
    ..on the posterior Krüppel expression is achieved by the interposition of another factor, the homeotic gene fork head, which is not involved in the control of the central domain...
  10. Mach V, Ohno K, Kokubo H, Suzuki Y. The Drosophila fork head factor directly controls larval salivary gland-specific expression of the glue protein gene Sgs3. Nucleic Acids Res. 1996;24:2387-94 pubmed
    The Drosophila Fork head protein participates in salivary gland formation, since salivary glands are missing in fork head embryos...
  11. Roth G, Wattler S, Bornschein H, Lehmann M, Korge G. Structure and regulation of the salivary gland secretion protein gene Sgs-1 of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1999;153:753-62 pubmed
    ..Band shift assays revealed binding sites for the transcription factor fork head (FKH) and the factor secretion enhancer binding protein 3 (SEBP3) at positions that are functionally relevant...
  12. Bülow M, Aebersold R, Pankratz M, Jünger M. The Drosophila FoxA ortholog Fork head regulates growth and gene expression downstream of Target of rapamycin. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15171 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we present evidence that outlines a similar connection in Drosophila, in which the FoxA protein Fork head (FKH) regulates cellular and organismal size downstream of TOR...
  13. Noro B, Culi J, Mckay D, Zhang W, Mann R. Distinct functions of homeodomain-containing and homeodomain-less isoforms encoded by homothorax. Genes Dev. 2006;20:1636-50 pubmed publisher
    ..We further demonstrate that the mouse ortholog of hth, Meis1, also encodes a HDless isoform, suggesting that homeodomain-less variants of this gene family are evolutionarily ancient...
  14. Lee H, Frasch M. Survey of forkhead domain encoding genes in the Drosophila genome: Classification and embryonic expression patterns. Dev Dyn. 2004;229:357-66 pubmed
    Genetic approaches in Drosophila led to the identification of Forkhead, the prototype of forkhead domain transcription factors that are now known to comprise an evolutionarily conserved family of proteins with essential roles in ..
  15. Kuo Y, Jones N, Zhou B, Panzer S, Larson V, Beckendorf S. Salivary duct determination in Drosophila: roles of the EGF receptor signalling pathway and the transcription factors fork head and trachealess. Development. 1996;122:1909-17 pubmed
    ..We show that it is the opposing activities of the Drosophila EGF receptor (DER) signaling pathway and the Fork head transcription factor that distinguish these cell types and set up the boundary between them...
  16. Isaac D, Andrew D. Tubulogenesis in Drosophila: a requirement for the trachealess gene product. Genes Dev. 1996;10:103-17 pubmed
    ..salivary duct is controlled by the homeotic gene, Sex combs reduced (Scr), and by another salivary gland gene, fork head (fkh)...
  17. Henderson K, Andrew D. Regulation and function of Scr, exd, and hth in the Drosophila salivary gland. Dev Biol. 2000;217:362-74 pubmed
  18. Kuzin B, Tillib S, Sedkov Y, Mizrokhi L, Mazo A. The Drosophila trithorax gene encodes a chromosomal protein and directly regulates the region-specific homeotic gene fork head. Genes Dev. 1994;8:2478-90 pubmed
    ..A strong trithorax binding site was found at the cytological location of the fork head gene, a region-specific homeotic gene not located within a homeotic complex...
  19. Gebelein B, Culi J, Ryoo H, Zhang W, Mann R. Specificity of Distalless repression and limb primordia development by abdominal Hox proteins. Dev Cell. 2002;3:487-98 pubmed
    ..Instead, an additional alternatively spliced domain in Ubx is required for Distalless repression but not DNA binding. Thus, the functional specificities of Hox proteins depend on both DNA binding-dependent and -independent mechanisms. ..
  20. Joshi R, Sun L, Mann R. Dissecting the functional specificities of two Hox proteins. Genes Dev. 2010;24:1533-45 pubmed publisher
  21. Cao C, Liu Y, Lehmann M. Fork head controls the timing and tissue selectivity of steroid-induced developmental cell death. J Cell Biol. 2007;176:843-52 pubmed
    ..We found that loss of the tissue-specific transcription factor Fork head (Fkh) is both required and sufficient to specify a death response to 20E in the larval salivary glands...
  22. Kusch T, Reuter R. Functions for Drosophila brachyenteron and forkhead in mesoderm specification and cell signalling. Development. 1999;126:3991-4003 pubmed
    ..Supported by fork head, brachyenteron mediates the early specification of the CVM along with zinc-finger homeodomain protein-1...
  23. Zhou B, Bagri A, Beckendorf S. Salivary gland determination in Drosophila: a salivary-specific, fork head enhancer integrates spatial pattern and allows fork head autoregulation. Dev Biol. 2001;237:54-67 pubmed publisher
    ..begin understanding this process for a single organ, we have studied how one of the first salivary gland genes, fork head (fkh), is turned on in the primordium of this organ, the salivary placode...
  24. Xu N, Keung B, Myat M. Rho GTPase controls invagination and cohesive migration of the Drosophila salivary gland through Crumbs and Rho-kinase. Dev Biol. 2008;321:88-100 pubmed publisher
    ..Our genetic and live-imaging analyses provide novel evidence that the proximal gland cells play an essential and active role in salivary gland migration that propels the entire gland to turn and migrate posteriorly. ..
  25. Lehmann M, Wattler F, Korge G. Two new regulatory elements controlling the Drosophila Sgs-3 gene are potential ecdysone receptor and fork head binding sites. Mech Dev. 1997;62:15-27 pubmed
    ..of the Drosophila Sgs-3 gene which are both able to bind the ecdysone receptor (EcR/USP) and the product of the fork head gene...
  26. San Martin B, Bate M. Hindgut visceral mesoderm requires an ectodermal template for normal development in Drosophila. Development. 2001;128:233-42 pubmed
    ..Wingless is required to establish the primordium and to enhance Heartless expression. Later, Heartless is required to promote the proper differentiation of the hindgut visceral mesoderm itself. ..
  27. De Velasco B, Shen J, Go S, Hartenstein V. Embryonic development of the Drosophila corpus cardiacum, a neuroendocrine gland with similarity to the vertebrate pituitary, is controlled by sine oculis and glass. Dev Biol. 2004;274:280-94 pubmed
    ..We discuss the parallels between neuroendocrine development in Drosophila and vertebrates. ..
  28. Lan Q, Cao M, Kollipara R, Rosa J, Kittler R, Jiang H. FoxA transcription factor Fork head maintains the intestinal stem/progenitor cell identities in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2018;433:324-343 pubmed publisher
    ..that regulate intestinal regeneration, we uncovered a requirement for the Drosophila FoxA transcription factor Fork head (Fkh) in the maintenance of intestinal stem/progenitor cell identities...
  29. Sivanantharajah L, Percival Smith A. Differential pleiotropy and HOX functional organization. Dev Biol. 2015;398:1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Given a new structural model for HOX functional domain organization, the properties of the archetypic TF may require reassessment. ..
  30. Hacker U, Kaufmann E, Hartmann C, Jurgens G, Knochel W, Jackle H. The Drosophila fork head domain protein crocodile is required for the establishment of head structures. EMBO J. 1995;14:5306-17 pubmed
    The fork head (fkh) domain defines the DNA-binding region of a family of transcription factors which has been implicated in regulating cell fate decisions across species lines...
  31. Mohler J, Mahaffey J, Deutsch E, Vani K. Control of Drosophila head segment identity by the bZIP homeotic gene cnc. Development. 1995;121:237-47 pubmed
    ..The role of cnc in labral development is reciprocal to the role of homeotic gene forkhead, which has an identical function in the maintenance of the esophageal primordium...
  32. Zallen J, Wieschaus E. Patterned gene expression directs bipolar planar polarity in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2004;6:343-55 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that spatial patterns of gene expression coordinate planar polarity across a multicellular population through the localized distribution of proteins required for cell movement. ..
  33. Nikulova A, Favorov A, Sutormin R, Makeev V, Mironov A. CORECLUST: identification of the conserved CRM grammar together with prediction of gene regulation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:e93 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared with related methods, CORECLUST shows better performance at identification of CRMs conferring muscle-specific gene expression in vertebrates and early-developmental CRMs in Drosophila. ..
  34. Perkins L, Larsen I, Perrimon N. corkscrew encodes a putative protein tyrosine phosphatase that functions to transduce the terminal signal from the receptor tyrosine kinase torso. Cell. 1992;70:225-36 pubmed
    ..The csw gene encodes a putative nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatase covalently linked to two N-terminal SH2 domains, which is similar to the mammalian PTP1C protein. ..
  35. Juven Gershon T, Hsu J, Kadonaga J. Caudal, a key developmental regulator, is a DPE-specific transcriptional factor. Genes Dev. 2008;22:2823-30 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings show that Caudal is a DPE-specific activator and exemplify how core promoter diversity can be used to establish complex regulatory networks...
  36. Srinivasan S, Dorighi K, Tamkun J. Drosophila Kismet regulates histone H3 lysine 27 methylation and early elongation by RNA polymerase II. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000217 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that KIS-L promotes early elongation and counteracts Polycomb group repression by recruiting the ASH1 and TRX histone methyltransferases to chromatin. ..
  37. Crispi S, Giordano E, D Avino P, Peluso I, Furia M. Functional analysis of regulatory elements controlling the expression of the ecdysone-regulated Drosophila ng-1 gene. Mech Dev. 2001;100:25-35 pubmed
    ..This region binds a set of transcriptional factors, including the FKH regulatory protein, which can potentially modulate the ecdysone genetic regulated response.
  38. Fox R, Vaishnavi A, Maruyama R, Andrew D. Organ-specific gene expression: the bHLH protein Sage provides tissue specificity to Drosophila FoxA. Development. 2013;140:2160-71 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Fork head (Fkh), the sole Drosophila FoxA family member, is required for the development of multiple distinct organs, yet ..
  39. Maruyama R, GREVENGOED E, Stempniewicz P, Andrew D. Genome-wide analysis reveals a major role in cell fate maintenance and an unexpected role in endoreduplication for the Drosophila FoxA gene Fork head. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20901 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we explore the role of the single Drosophila FoxA protein Fork head (Fkh) in salivary gland organogenesis using two genome-wide strategies...
  40. Okumura T, Matsumoto A, Tanimura T, Murakami R. An endoderm-specific GATA factor gene, dGATAe, is required for the terminal differentiation of the Drosophila endoderm. Dev Biol. 2005;278:576-86 pubmed
    ..This pathway is triggered by sequential signaling through the maternal torso gene, a terminal gap gene, huckebein (hkb), and finally, two GATA factor genes, srp and dGATAe. ..
  41. Wu L, Lengyel J. Role of caudal in hindgut specification and gastrulation suggests homology between Drosophila amnioproctodeal invagination and vertebrate blastopore. Development. 1998;125:2433-42 pubmed
    ..genes, namely folded gastrulation, which is required for invagination of the posterior gut primordium, and fork head and wingless, which are required to promote development of the internalized hindgut primordium...
  42. Rothe M, Wimmer E, Pankratz M, Gonzalez Gaitan M, Jackle H. Identical transacting factor requirement for knirps and knirps-related Gene expression in the anterior but not in the posterior region of the Drosophila embryo. Mech Dev. 1994;46:169-81 pubmed
  43. Pederson J, Kiehart D, Mahaffey J. The role of HOM-C genes in segmental transformations: reexamination of the Drosophila Sex combs reduced embryonic phenotype. Dev Biol. 1996;180:131-42 pubmed
    ..The observed morphological characteristics and gene expression patterns of various mutant embryos indicate a loss of segmental identity rather than a transformation. ..
  44. Casanova J. Pattern formation under the control of the terminal system in the Drosophila embryo. Development. 1990;110:621-8 pubmed
    ..Moreover, they suggest that different elements of the terminal pattern can be specified in response to distinct levels of graded tailless activity. ..
  45. Gao Q, Wang Y, Finkelstein R. Orthodenticle regulation during embryonic head development in Drosophila. Mech Dev. 1996;56:3-15 pubmed
    ..Finally, we identify a novel pathway mediated by the gap gene huckebein through which three maternal systems cooperate to repress otd expression at the anterior terminus of the embryo. ..
  46. Page D. A function for Egf receptor signaling in expanding the developing brain in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2003;13:474-82 pubmed
  47. Goriely A, Stella M, Coffinier C, Kessler D, Mailhos C, Dessain S, et al. A functional homologue of goosecoid in Drosophila. Development. 1996;122:1641-50 pubmed
    ..The identification of gsc target genes and/or other genes involved in similar developmental processes will allow the definition of the precise phylogenetic relationship among Gsc proteins. ..
  48. Gebelein B, Mckay D, Mann R. Direct integration of Hox and segmentation gene inputs during Drosophila development. Nature. 2004;431:653-9 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that these two classes of proteins may collaborate to directly control gene expression at many downstream target genes. ..
  49. Archbold H, Broussard C, Chang M, Cadigan K. Bipartite recognition of DNA by TCF/Pangolin is remarkably flexible and contributes to transcriptional responsiveness and tissue specificity of wingless signaling. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004591 pubmed publisher
    ..In sum, this work extends the importance of Helper sites in fly W-CRMs and suggests that the type of HMG-Helper pair is a major factor in setting the threshold for Wnt activation and tissue-responsiveness. ..
  50. Clark K, Halay E, Lai E, Burley S. Co-crystal structure of the HNF-3/fork head DNA-recognition motif resembles histone H5. Nature. 1993;364:412-20 pubmed
    The three-dimensional structure of an HNF-3/fork head DNA-recognition motif complexed with DNA has been determined by X-ray crystallography at 2.5 A resolution...
  51. Hudry B, Remacle S, Delfini M, Rezsohazy R, Graba Y, Merabet S. Hox proteins display a common and ancestral ability to diversify their interaction mode with the PBC class cofactors. PLoS Biol. 2012;10:e1001351 pubmed publisher
  52. Cakouros D, Daish T, Martin D, Baehrecke E, Kumar S. Ecdysone-induced expression of the caspase DRONC during hormone-dependent programmed cell death in Drosophila is regulated by Broad-Complex. J Cell Biol. 2002;157:985-95 pubmed
    ..Finally, we show that the dronc promoter has BR-C interaction sites, and that it can be transactivated by a specific isoform of BR-C. These results indicate that BR-C plays a key role in ecdysone-mediated caspase regulation. ..
  53. Lai E, Prezioso V, Tao W, Chen W, Darnell J. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 3 alpha belongs to a gene family in mammals that is homologous to the Drosophila homeotic gene fork head. Genes Dev. 1991;5:416-27 pubmed
    ..3 gamma are identical in 93 of 110 amino acids in this region) but also in Drosophila where the homeotic gene fork head has 88 of the 93 residues that are identical in the three rat genes...
  54. Parras C, García Alonso L, Rodriguez I, Jimenez F. Control of neural precursor specification by proneural proteins in the CNS of Drosophila. EMBO J. 1996;15:6394-9 pubmed
  55. Andrioli L, Vasisht V, Theodosopoulou E, Oberstein A, Small S. Anterior repression of a Drosophila stripe enhancer requires three position-specific mechanisms. Development. 2002;129:4931-40 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a common mechanism for preventing anterior activation of three different eve enhancers. ..
  56. Pani L, Overdier D, Porcella A, Qian X, Lai E, Costa R. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 3 beta contains two transcriptional activation domains, one of which is novel and conserved with the Drosophila fork head protein. Mol Cell Biol. 1992;12:3723-32 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the HNF-3 proteins demonstrate homology with the Drosophila homeotic gene fork head in regions I, II, and III, suggesting that HNF-3 may be its mammalian homolog...
  57. Zhong W, Sladek F, Darnell J. The expression pattern of a Drosophila homolog to the mouse transcription factor HNF-4 suggests a determinative role in gut formation. EMBO J. 1993;12:537-44 pubmed
    ..These findings together with the earlier realization that the rat hepatocyte nuclear factor 3 (HNF-3) and forkhead, a Drosophila gene required for anterior and posterior gut formation, had virtually the identical DNA binding ..
  58. Weigel D, Seifert E, Reuter D, Jackle H. Regulatory elements controlling expression of the Drosophila homeotic gene fork head. EMBO J. 1990;9:1199-207 pubmed
    The region-specific homeotic gene fork head (fkh) is expressed and required in a variety of tissues of the developing Drosophila embryo...
  59. Costa M, Wilson E, Wieschaus E. A putative cell signal encoded by the folded gastrulation gene coordinates cell shape changes during Drosophila gastrulation. Cell. 1994;76:1075-89 pubmed
    ..Our analyses indicate that cell-cell communication ensures the rapid, orderly progression of constriction initiations from the middle of invagination primordia out toward the margins. ..
  60. Dirksen M, Jamrich M. A novel, activin-inducible, blastopore lip-specific gene of Xenopus laevis contains a fork head DNA-binding domain. Genes Dev. 1992;6:599-608 pubmed
    ..We have searched early embryo-specific cDNA libraries for genes containing the fork head box sequence that encodes a DNA-binding domain similar to that of the Drosophila homeotic gene fork head and rat ..
  61. Krasnow M. Genes that control organ form: lessons from bone and branching morphogenesis. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1997;62:235-40 pubmed
  62. Zhang N, Zhang J, Cheng Y, Howard K. Identification and genetic analysis of wunen, a gene guiding Drosophila melanogaster germ cell migration. Genetics. 1996;143:1231-41 pubmed
    ..To characterize this guidance factor, we have mapped wun to within 100 kb of cloned DNA. ..
  63. Lechner H, Josten F, Fuss B, Bauer R, Hoch M. Cross regulation of intercellular gap junction communication and paracrine signaling pathways during organogenesis in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2007;310:23-34 pubmed
    ..We propose that the transcriptional cross regulation of paracrine and gap junction-mediated signaling is essential for organogenesis in Drosophila. ..
  64. Josten F, Fuss B, Feix M, Meissner T, Hoch M. Cooperation of JAK/STAT and Notch signaling in the Drosophila foregut. Dev Biol. 2004;267:181-9 pubmed
    ..Our results provide strong evidence that JAK/STAT and Notch signaling cooperate in the regulation of target genes that control epithelial morphogenesis in the foregut. ..
  65. Howard M, Davidson E. cis-Regulatory control circuits in development. Dev Biol. 2004;271:109-18 pubmed
    ..At this higher level of organization, common bilaterian strategies for specifying progenitor fields, locking down regulatory states, and driving development forward emerge. ..
  66. Jones N, Kuo Y, Sun Y, Beckendorf S. The Drosophila Pax gene eye gone is required for embryonic salivary duct development. Development. 1998;125:4163-74 pubmed
    ..After the initial establishment of the salivary primordium by Sex combs reduced, fork head excludes eye gone expression from the pregland cells so that its salivary expression is restricted to the ..
  67. Hernández K, Myers L, Bowser M, Kidd T. Genetic Tools for the Analysis of Drosophila Stomatogastric Nervous System Development. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0128290 pubmed publisher
    ..Screening of additional GAL4 lines driven by fragments of the Gfrl/Munin, forkhead, twist and goosecoid (Gsc) promoters identified a Gsc fragment with expression from initial selection of SNS ..
  68. Busser B, Huang D, Rogacki K, Lane E, Shokri L, Ni T, et al. Integrative analysis of the zinc finger transcription factor Lame duck in the Drosophila myogenic gene regulatory network. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:20768-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these findings provide insights into the transcriptional codes regulating muscle gene expression and offer a generalizable approach for similar studies in other systems. ..
  69. Reuter R. The gene serpent has homeotic properties and specifies endoderm versus ectoderm within the Drosophila gut. Development. 1994;120:1123-35 pubmed
    ..serpent appears to act as a homeotic gene downstream of the terminal gap gene huckebein and to promote morphogenesis and differentiation of anterior and posterior midgut. ..
  70. Janody F, Reischl J, Dostatni N. Persistence of Hunchback in the terminal region of the Drosophila blastoderm embryo impairs anterior development. Development. 2000;127:1573-82 pubmed
    ..They suggest that the repression of hunchback by torso is required to prevent this antagonism and to promote anterior terminal development, depending mostly on bicoid activity. ..
  71. McGhee J. Homologous tails? Or tales of homology?. Bioessays. 2000;22:781-5 pubmed
    ..We will discuss this proposal and try to decide whether the gene sequences, gene interactions and gene expression patterns allow any conclusions to be made about the rear end of the ancestral metazoan. ..
  72. Lai E, Clark K, Burley S, Darnell J. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 3/fork head or "winged helix" proteins: a family of transcription factors of diverse biologic function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:10421-3 pubmed hepatocyte nuclear factors (HNF-3 alpha, -3 beta, and -3 gamma) and as a homeotic Drosophila mutant, fork head, has been intensively studied for the past 4 years...
  73. Kaufmann E, Knochel W. Five years on the wings of fork head. Mech Dev. 1996;57:3-20 pubmed
    Since its discovery five years ago the conserved family of fork head/HNF-3-related transcription factors has gained increasing importance for the analysis of gene regulatory mechanisms during embryonic development and in differentiated ..
  74. Fuss B, Josten F, Feix M, Hoch M. Cell movements controlled by the Notch signalling cascade during foregut development in Drosophila. Development. 2004;131:1587-95 pubmed
    ..Our results provide a novel link between the Notch signalling pathway and cytoskeletal reorganisation controlling cell movement during the development of foregut-associated organs. ..
  75. Harris K, Beckendorf S. Different Wnt signals act through the Frizzled and RYK receptors during Drosophila salivary gland migration. Development. 2007;134:2017-25 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that both the Wnt4-frizzled pathway and a separate Wnt5-derailed pathway are needed for proper salivary gland migration. ..
  76. Chandraratna D, Lawrence N, Welchman D, Sanson B. An in vivo model of apoptosis: linking cell behaviours and caspase substrates in embryos lacking DIAP1. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:2594-608 pubmed
    ..This illustrates how embryos lacking DIAP1 can be used to characterise apoptotic changes in the context of an embryo, thus providing an unprecedented in vivo model in which thousands of cells initiate apoptosis simultaneously. ..
  77. Jattani R, Patel U, Kerman B, Myat M. Deficiency screen identifies a novel role for beta 2 tubulin in salivary gland and myoblast migration in the Drosophila embryo. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:853-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies reveal for the first time that beta2t is expressed in embryogenesis and that beta2t plays an important role in salivary gland and myoblast migration, possibly through proper regulation of integrin adhesion proteins. ..
  78. Oliveira D, Almeida F, O Grady P, Armella M, DeSalle R, Etges W. Monophyly, divergence times, and evolution of host plant use inferred from a revised phylogeny of the Drosophila repleta species group. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2012;64:533-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Concordant with our proposed timing of host use shifts, these dates are consistent with the suggested times when the Opuntioideae originated in South America. We discuss the generally accepted South American origin of the repleta group. ..
  79. Zaret K. Developmental competence of the gut endoderm: genetic potentiation by GATA and HNF3/fork head proteins. Dev Biol. 1999;209:1-10 pubmed
    ..Genetic studies have shown that members of the GATA and HNF3/fork head transcription factor families are essential for the formation and differentiation of gut endoderm tissues in ..