Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: exu
Alias: CG8994, Dmel\CG8994, Exu, bs30h09.y1, exu1, exuperantia, CG8994-PA, CG8994-PB, CG8994-PC, CG8994-PD, exu-PA, exu-PB, exu-PC, exu-PD
Species: fruit fly
- Nakamura A, Sato K, Hanyu Nakamura K. Drosophila cup is an eIF4E binding protein that associates with Bruno and regulates oskar mRNA translation in oogenesis. Dev Cell. 2004;6:69-78 pubmed..These results suggest that translational repression of osk RNA is achieved through a 5'/3' interaction mediated by an eIF4E-Cup-Bru complex. ..
- Macdonald P, Luk S, Kilpatrick M. Protein encoded by the exuperantia gene is concentrated at sites of bicoid mRNA accumulation in Drosophila nurse cells but not in oocytes or embryos. Genes Dev. 1991;5:2455-66 pubmed..bcd mRNA localization requires at least three genes, with the exuperantia (exu) gene acting earliest in the pathway. We have cloned and characterized the exu gene...
- Snee M, Macdonald P. Dynamic organization and plasticity of sponge bodies. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:918-30 pubmed publisher..Based on these and other results we propose a model for the relationship between P bodies and the various cytoplasmic bodies containing P body proteins in the Drosophila ovary. ..
- Arn E, Cha B, Theurkauf W, Macdonald P. Recognition of a bicoid mRNA localization signal by a protein complex containing Swallow, Nod, and RNA binding proteins. Dev Cell. 2003;4:41-51 pubmed..The presence of three required localization components (Swallow, Modulo, and specific RNA binding activity) within the recognition complex strongly implicates it in mRNA localization. ..
- St Johnston D, Driever W, Berleth T, Richstein S, Nusslein Volhard C. Multiple steps in the localization of bicoid RNA to the anterior pole of the Drosophila oocyte. Development. 1989;107 Suppl:13-9 pubmed..During a final phase that must occur between stage 12 of oogenesis and egg deposition, the RNA becomes localized to a spherical region that occupies a slightly dorsal position at the anterior pole.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
- Wilhelm J, Mansfield J, Hom Booher N, Wang S, Turck C, Hazelrigg T, et al. Isolation of a ribonucleoprotein complex involved in mRNA localization in Drosophila oocytes. J Cell Biol. 2000;148:427-40 pubmed..Previous genetic studies implicated exuperantia (exu) in bcd mRNA localization, but its role in this process is not understood...
- Berleth T, Burri M, Thoma G, Bopp D, Richstein S, Frigerio G, et al. The role of localization of bicoid RNA in organizing the anterior pattern of the Drosophila embryo. EMBO J. 1988;7:1749-56 pubmed..The localization of the transcript requires the function of the maternal effect genes exuperantia and swallow while transcript stability is reduced by functions depending on posterior group genes.
- Driever W, Nusslein Volhard C. The bicoid protein determines position in the Drosophila embryo in a concentration-dependent manner. Cell. 1988;54:95-104 pubmed..The bcd protein thus has the properties of a morphogen that autonomously determines positions in the anterior half of the embryo. ..
- Ferrandon D, Elphick L, Nusslein Volhard C, St Johnston D. Staufen protein associates with the 3'UTR of bicoid mRNA to form particles that move in a microtubule-dependent manner. Cell. 1994;79:1221-32 pubmed..Since staufen is also transported with oskar (osk) mRNA during oogenesis, staufen associates specifically with both osk and bcd mRNAs to mediate their localizations, but at two distinct stages of development. ..
- Marcey D, Watkins W, Hazelrigg T. The temporal and spatial distribution pattern of maternal exuperantia protein: evidence for a role in establishment but not maintenance of bicoid mRNA localization. EMBO J. 1991;10:4259-66 pubmedThe exuperantia (exu) gene of Drosophila melanogaster plays a fundamental role in the establishment of polarity of the oocyte and early embryo by ensuring the proper localization of the mRNA of the bicoid (bcd) gene to anterior regions ..
- Lin M, Fan S, Hsu W, Chou T. Drosophila decapping protein 1, dDcp1, is a component of the oskar mRNP complex and directs its posterior localization in the oocyte. Dev Cell. 2006;10:601-13 pubmed..Thus, as well as being a general factor required for mRNA decay, dDcp1 is an essential component of the osk mRNP localization complex. ..
- Irion U, St Johnston D. bicoid RNA localization requires specific binding of an endosomal sorting complex. Nature. 2007;445:554-8 pubmed..This function of ESCRT-II as an RNA-binding complex is conserved in vertebrates and may clarify some of its roles that are independent of endosomal sorting. ..
- Snee M, Macdonald P. Bicaudal C and trailer hitch have similar roles in gurken mRNA localization and cytoskeletal organization. Dev Biol. 2009;328:434-44 pubmed publisher..The cages sequester Gurken protein, blocking its secretion and thus interfering with signaling of the follicle cells to specify dorsal fate. ..
- Pokrywka N, Stephenson E. Microtubules mediate the localization of bicoid RNA during Drosophila oogenesis. Development. 1991;113:55-66 pubmed..stabilizes microtubules, also effectively disrupts bcd RNA localization, and the effects of taxol treatments on exuperantia and swallow mutants suggest general roles for these gene products in the multi-step bcd RNA localization ..
- Theurkauf W, Hazelrigg T. In vivo analyses of cytoplasmic transport and cytoskeletal organization during Drosophila oogenesis: characterization of a multi-step anterior localization pathway. Development. 1998;125:3655-66 pubmed..of bicoid (bcd) mRNA to the anterior pole of the developing oocyte, and bcd mRNA localization requires both the exuperantia (exu) gene and an intact microtubule cytoskeleton...
- Hazelrigg T, Watkins W, Marcey D, Tu C, Karow M, Lin X. The exuperantia gene is required for Drosophila spermatogenesis as well as anteroposterior polarity of the developing oocyte, and encodes overlapping sex-specific transcripts. Genetics. 1990;126:607-17 pubmedThe Drosophila gene exuperantia (exu) is a maternal effect gene which is needed for proper localization of the bcd RNA during the formation of oocytes...
- Hegde J, Stephenson E. Distribution of swallow protein in egg chambers and embryos of Drosophila melanogaster. Development. 1993;119:457-70 pubmed
- Driever W. The bicoid morphogen papers (II): account from Wolfgang Driever. Cell. 2004;116:S7-9, 2 p following S9 pubmed
- Schnorrer F, Bohmann K, Nusslein Volhard C. The molecular motor dynein is involved in targeting swallow and bicoid RNA to the anterior pole of Drosophila oocytes. Nat Cell Biol. 2000;2:185-90 pubmedLocalization of bicoid (bcd) messenger RNA to the anterior pole of the Drosophila oocyte requires the exuperantia ( exu), swallow (swa) and staufen (stau) genes...
- Seong K, Ogashiwa T, Matsuo T, Fuyama Y, Aigaki T. Application of the gene search system to screen for longevity genes in Drosophila. Biogerontology. 2001;2:209-17 pubmed..This is the first demonstration that a systematic gain-of-function screen could efficiently detect longevity genes. ..
- Nüsslein Volhard C. The bicoid morphogen papers (I): account from CNV. Cell. 2004;116:S1-5, 2 p following S9 pubmed
- Kraut R, Levine M. Spatial regulation of the gap gene giant during Drosophila development. Development. 1991;111:601-9 pubmed..These results suggest that gt is a bona fide gap gene, which acts with hb, Krüppel and kni to initiate striped patterns of gene expression in the early embryo. ..
- Wang C, Dickinson L, Lehmann R. Genetics of nanos localization in Drosophila. Dev Dyn. 1994;199:103-15 pubmed..Localization of nanos is not affected by mutations in bicoid or torso, confirming that the three maternal systems of anterior-posterior determination initially act independently. ..
- Gaul U, Jackle H. Role of gap genes in early Drosophila development. Adv Genet. 1990;27:239-75 pubmed
- Burstein Z. A network model of developmental gene hierarchy. J Theor Biol. 1995;174:1-11 pubmed..The model not only incorporates a program of control at gene level, but also makes a direct connection with current molecular studies throughout the whole hierarchy of the early embryogenesis of Drosophila. ..
- Saxton W. Microtubules, motors, and mRNA localization mechanisms: watching fluorescent messages move. Cell. 2001;107:707-10 pubmed..To dissect the mechanisms of localization, several groups are employing advanced fluorescence microscopy to track RNA movements in live oocytes and embryos. ..
- Pokrywka N, Stephenson E. Localized RNAs are enriched in cytoskeletal extracts of Drosophila oocytes. Dev Biol. 1994;166:210-9 pubmed..The cortical cytoskeleton of the oocyte is a likely candidate for the localization substratum. ..
- Courey A, Huang J. The establishment and interpretation of transcription factor gradients in the Drosophila embryo. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1995;1261:1-18 pubmed
- Fan S, Marchand V, Ephrussi A. Drosophila Ge-1 promotes P body formation and oskar mRNA localization. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20612 pubmed publisher..Our findings suggest an important role of dGe-1 in optimization of the osk mRNA localization process required for patterning the Drosophila embryo. ..
- Musters H, Huntley M, Singh R. A genomic comparison of faster-sex, faster-X, and faster-male evolution between Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila pseudoobscura. J Mol Evol. 2006;62:693-700 pubmed..pseudoobscura orthologue. These results, from widely separated taxa, bolster the thesis that sexual system genes experience accelerated rates of change in comparison to nonsexual genes in evolution and speciation. ..
- Serano T, Cohen R. Gratuitous mRNA localization in the Drosophila oocyte. Development. 1995;121:3013-21 pubmed..We propose that the anterior localization of K10, and probably other mRNAs, is a by-product of mRNA transport and does not necessarily reflect a requirement for localization per se. ..
- Manseau L, Schupbach T. The egg came first, of course! Anterior-posterior pattern formation in Drosophila embryogenesis and oogenesis. Trends Genet. 1989;5:400-5 pubmed..The initial spatial localizations of the maternal organizing activities are established during oogenesis. After fertilization these activities regulate zygotic gene activity along the anterior-posterior axis of the egg. ..
- Yi S, Charlesworth B. A selective sweep associated with a recent gene transposition in Drosophila miranda. Genetics. 2000;156:1753-63 pubmed..We report here the transposition of the exuperantia1 (exu1) locus from a neo-sex chromosome to the ancestral X chromosome of D. miranda...
- Riddihough G, Ish Horowicz D. Individual stripe regulatory elements in the Drosophila hairy promoter respond to maternal, gap, and pair-rule genes. Genes Dev. 1991;5:840-54 pubmed..Our results suggest that different but overlapping subsets of gap genes regulate each stripe and that activation and repression are both important in generating the stripe pattern. ..
- Wharton R, Struhl G. RNA regulatory elements mediate control of Drosophila body pattern by the posterior morphogen nanos. Cell. 1991;67:955-67 pubmed..Based on these and other results, we argue that nos acts as a morphogen, controlling hb expression (and hence abdominal pattern) as a function of its concentration-dependent interaction with the NREs. ..
- Hays T, Karess R. Swallowing dynein: a missing link in RNA localization?. Nat Cell Biol. 2000;2:E60-2 pubmed..It now seems that the Swallow protein functions as an adaptor, bridging bicoid mRNA to dynein, a molecular motor that would transport the complex anteriorly along microtubules. ..
- Crowley T, Hazelrigg T. A male-specific 3'-UTR regulates the steady-state level of the exuperantia mRNA during spermatogenesis in Drosophila. Mol Gen Genet. 1995;248:370-4 pubmedThe Drosophila exuperantia gene (exu) functions in both oogenesis and spermatogenesis...
- Wolfgang W, Forte M. Posterior localization of the Drosophila Gi alpha protein during early embryogenesis requires a subset of the posterior group genes. Int J Dev Biol. 1995;39:581-6 pubmed..Mutations that eliminate anterior structures bicoid, swallow, and exuperantia did not prevent the posterior accumulation of Gi alpha...
- Snee M, Macdonald P. Live imaging of nuage and polar granules: evidence against a precursor-product relationship and a novel role for Oskar in stabilization of polar granule components. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:2109-20 pubmed
- Moser M, Holley W, Chatterjee A, Mian I. The proofreading domain of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I and other DNA and/or RNA exonuclease domains. Nucleic Acids Res. 1997;25:5110-8 pubmed..in fission yeast; Drosophila melanogaster egalitarian, oocyte specification and axis determination, and exuperantia, establishment of oocyte polarity; H...
- Hazelrigg T, Tu C. Sex-specific processing of the Drosophila exuperantia transcript is regulated in male germ cells by the tra-2 gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:10752-6 pubmedThe Drosophila exuperantia (exu) gene encodes overlapping sex-specific, germline-dependent mRNAs...
- Capri M, Santoni M, Thomas Delaage M, Ait Ahmed O. Implication of a 5' coding sequence in targeting maternal mRNA to the Drosophila oocyte. Mech Dev. 1997;68:91-100 pubmed..We show that the 5' coding sequence is necessary for the early accumulation of yem-alpha RNA in the oocyte and for its localization pattern during oogenesis. ..
- Lazzaretti D, Veith K, Kramer K, Basquin C, Urlaub H, Irion U, et al. The bicoid mRNA localization factor Exuperantia is an RNA-binding pseudonuclease. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2016;23:705-13 pubmed publisher..b>Exuperantia (Exu) is a putative exonuclease (EXO) associated with bcd and required for its localization...
- Mulligan P, Campos A, Jacobs J. Mutations in the gene stand still disrupt germ cell differentiation in Drosophila ovaries. Dev Genet. 1996;18:316-24 pubmed..Our results suggest a role for this gene in specifying or maintaining a cytoskeletal component, with consequences during oogenesis and possibly during germ line sex determination. ..
- Liu N, Dansereau D, Lasko P. Fat facets interacts with vasa in the Drosophila pole plasm and protects it from degradation. Curr Biol. 2003;13:1905-9 pubmed..We present evidence that FAF interacts with VAS physically and reverses VAS ubiquitination, thereby stabilizing VAS in the pole plasm. ..
- Aumiller V, Graebsch A, Kremmer E, Niessing D, Forstemann K. Drosophila Pur-? binds to trinucleotide-repeat containing cellular RNAs and translocates to the early oocyte. RNA Biol. 2012;9:633-43 pubmed publisher..Related sequences, such as r(CAG) 4 and the consensus sequence of the opa-repeat r(CAG) 3CAA, can also associate with Pur-? in vitro and in vivo. The mRNA target spectrum of Pur-? may therefore be larger than previously anticipated. ..
- Degelmann A, Hardy P, Mahowald A. Genetic analysis of two female-sterile loci affecting eggshell integrity and embryonic pattern formation in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1990;126:427-34 pubmed..Possible mechanisms to account for the association of these two functions are discussed. ..
- Schroder C, Tautz D, Seifert E, Jackle H. Differential regulation of the two transcripts from the Drosophila gap segmentation gene hunchback. EMBO J. 1988;7:2881-7 pubmed..9-kb transcript to approximately 300 bp upstream of the site of transcription initiation and show that this region is sufficient to confer the full regulation by bcd. ..
- Stebbings H, Lane J, Talbot N. mRNA translocation and microtubules: insect ovary models. Trends Cell Biol. 1995;5:361-5 pubmed..This article explores the evidence supportive of a role for microtubules and motor proteins in these processes. ..
- Du C, McGuffin M, Dauwalder B, Rabinow L, Mattox W. Protein phosphorylation plays an essential role in the regulation of alternative splicing and sex determination in Drosophila. Mol Cell. 1998;2:741-50 pubmed..Examination of pre-mRNAs regulated similarly to dsx shows that the requirement for Doa is substrate specific. These results demonstrate that a SR protein kinase plays a specific role in developmentally regulated alternative splicing. ..
- Jansen R, Niessing D. Assembly of mRNA-protein complexes for directional mRNA transport in eukaryotes--an overview. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2012;13:284-93 pubmed..We will highlight general themes and differences, point to similarities in other model systems, and raise open questions that might be answered in the coming years. ..
- Irion U, Adams J, Chang C, St Johnston D. Miranda couples oskar mRNA/Staufen complexes to the bicoid mRNA localization pathway. Dev Biol. 2006;297:522-33 pubmed..Anterior Miranda localization requires microtubules, rather than actin, and depends on the function of Exuperantia and Swallow, indicating that Miranda links Staufen/oskar mRNA complexes to the bicoid mRNA localization pathway...
- Mahone M, Saffman E, Lasko P. Localized Bicaudal-C RNA encodes a protein containing a KH domain, the RNA binding motif of FMR1. EMBO J. 1995;14:2043-55 pubmed..Alteration of a highly conserved KH domain codon by mutation abrogates in vivo Bic-C function. These results suggest roles for the Bic-C protein in localizing RNAs and in intercellular signaling. ..
- McGuffin M, Chandler D, Somaiya D, Dauwalder B, Mattox W. Autoregulation of transformer-2 alternative splicing is necessary for normal male fertility in Drosophila. Genetics. 1998;149:1477-86 pubmed..germline of Drosophila the transformer-2 protein is required for differential splicing of pre-mRNAs from the exuperantia and att genes and autoregulates alternative splicing of its own pre-mRNA...
- Sallés F, Lieberfarb M, Wreden C, Gergen J, Strickland S. Coordinate initiation of Drosophila development by regulated polyadenylation of maternal messenger RNAs. Science. 1994;266:1996-9 pubmed..Combined, these experiments identify a regulatory pathway that can coordinate initiation of maternal pattern formation systems in Drosophila. ..
- Wilhelm J, Hilton M, Amos Q, Henzel W. Cup is an eIF4E binding protein required for both the translational repression of oskar and the recruitment of Barentsz. J Cell Biol. 2003;163:1197-204 pubmed..Thus, Cup is a translational repressor of oskar that is required to assemble the oskar mRNA localization machinery. We propose that Cup coordinates localization with translation. ..
- Mische S, Li M, Serr M, Hays T. Direct observation of regulated ribonucleoprotein transport across the nurse cell/oocyte boundary. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:2254-63 pubmed..chambers that, within the nurse cell compartment, dynein actively transports green fluorescent protein-tagged Exuperantia, a cofactor required for bcd RNP localization...
- McGregor A. How to get ahead: the origin, evolution and function of bicoid. Bioessays. 2005;27:904-13 pubmed..I suggest further comparative studies may allow us to identify the intermediate steps in bcd evolution. This will make bcd a paradigm for the origin and evolution of genes and regulatory networks. ..
- Bachtrog D, Charlesworth B. On the genomic location of the exuperantia1 gene in Drosophila miranda: the limits of in situ hybridization experiments. Genetics. 2003;164:1237-40 pubmed..situ hybridization experiments, Yi and Charlesworth recently reported the transposition of the exuperantia1 gene (exu1) from a neo-sex chromosome to the ancestral X chromosome of Drosophila miranda, close to exuperantia2 (exu2)...
- Brand A. GFP as a cell and developmental marker in the Drosophila nervous system. Methods Cell Biol. 1999;58:165-81 pubmed
- Mansfield J, Wilhelm J, Hazelrigg T. Ypsilon Schachtel, a Drosophila Y-box protein, acts antagonistically to Orb in the oskar mRNA localization and translation pathway. Development. 2002;129:197-209 pubmed..Yps, a Drosophila Y-box protein, is a component of an ovarian ribonucleoprotein complex that also contains Exu, a protein that plays an essential role in mRNA localization...
- Arn E, Macdonald P. RNA localization goes direct. Dev Cell. 2001;1:155-6 pubmed..Direct injection of RNA provides a new view of localization during Drosophila oogenesis. ..
- Lasko P. RNA sorting in Drosophila oocytes and embryos. FASEB J. 1999;13:421-33 pubmed..Prospects for filling gaps in our knowledge about the mechanisms of localizing RNAs and the importance of RNA sorting in regulating gene expression are also explored. ..
- Rodesch C, Pettus J, Nagoshi R. The Drosophila ovarian tumor gene is required for the organization of actin filaments during multiple stages in oogenesis. Dev Biol. 1997;190:153-64 pubmed
- Gavis E, Lehmann R. Localization of nanos RNA controls embryonic polarity. Cell. 1992;71:301-13 pubmed..Embryos with nanos RNA localized only to the anterior have greater nanos gene activity than embryos with nanos RNA localized posteriorly. We propose a role for RNA localization in regulating nanos activity. ..
- McDermott S, Meignin C, Rappsilber J, Davis I. Drosophila Syncrip binds the gurken mRNA localisation signal and regulates localised transcripts during axis specification. Biol Open. 2012;1:488-97 pubmed publisher..such as Squid and Imp, in addition to a number of factors with known links to mRNA localisation, such as Me31B and Exu. We also identified previously uncharacterised Drosophila proteins, including the fly homologue of mammalian ..
- Gardiol A, St Johnston D. Staufen targets coracle mRNA to Drosophila neuromuscular junctions and regulates GluRIIA synaptic accumulation and bouton number. Dev Biol. 2014;392:153-67 pubmed publisher..Altogether, this suggests that this novel Staufen-dependent mRNA localisation and local translation pathway may play a role in the developmentally regulated growth of the NMJ. ..
- Luk S, Kilpatrick M, Kerr K, Macdonald P. Components acting in localization of bicoid mRNA are conserved among Drosophila species. Genetics. 1994;137:521-30 pubmed..Here we consider two components involved in that process: the exuperantia (exu) gene, required for an early step in localization; and the cis-acting signal that directs bcd mRNA ..
- Pokrywka N, Payne Tobin A, Raley Susman K, Swartzman S. Microtubules, the ER and Exu: new associations revealed by analysis of mini spindles mutations. Mech Dev. 2009;126:289-300 pubmed publisher..We find that the morphology of Exu particles is msps-dependent, and that Exu is specifically associated with tubular ER in msps mutants...
- Jack T, McGinnis W. Establishment of the Deformed expression stripe requires the combinatorial action of coordinate, gap and pair-rule proteins. EMBO J. 1990;9:1187-98 pubmed..In addition, the activation code for Deformed is redundant; other pair-rule genes in addition to even-skipped can apparently act in combination with bicoid and hunchback to activate Deformed. ..
- Khuc Trong P, Doerflinger H, Dunkel J, St Johnston D, Goldstein R. Cortical microtubule nucleation can organise the cytoskeleton of Drosophila oocytes to define the anteroposterior axis. elife. 2015;4: pubmed publisher..Thus, our three-dimensional model explains many features of the MT network and highlights the importance of differential cortical MT nucleation for axis formation. ..