exd

Summary

Gene Symbol: exd
Description: extradenticle
Alias: CG8933, DExd, Dm-EXD, Dmel\CG8933, Dpbx, EXD, Exd, Pbx1, anon-EST:fe1H3, l(1)IV, lincRNA.S9404, td48, extradenticle, CG8933-PA, CG8933-PB, CG8933-PD, CG8933-PE, Pbx1-oncogene-like, anon-fast-evolving-1H3, exd-PA, exd-PB, exd-PD, exd-PE
Species: fruit fly
Products:     exd

Top Publications

  1. Prince F, Katsuyama T, Oshima Y, Plaza S, Resendez Perez D, Berry M, et al. The YPWM motif links Antennapedia to the basal transcriptional machinery. Development. 2008;135:1669-79 pubmed publisher
    ..BIP2 is a TATA-binding protein associated factor (also known as dTAFII3) that links ANTP to the basal transcriptional machinery. ..
  2. Kurant E, Pai C, Sharf R, Halachmi N, Sun Y, Salzberg A. Dorsotonals/homothorax, the Drosophila homologue of meis1, interacts with extradenticle in patterning of the embryonic PNS. Development. 1998;125:1037-48 pubmed
    ..distribution of the HTH protein during embryonic development is very similar to the distribution of the Extradenticle (EXD) protein, a known modulator of homeotic gene activity...
  3. Casares F, Mann R. Control of antennal versus leg development in Drosophila. Nature. 1998;392:723-6 pubmed
    ..Here we present four lines of evidence that identify extradenticle (exd) and homothorax (hth) as antennal-determining genes...
  4. Rogulja Ortmann A, Renner S, Technau G. Antagonistic roles for Ultrabithorax and Antennapedia in regulating segment-specific apoptosis of differentiated motoneurons in the Drosophila embryonic central nervous system. Development. 2008;135:3435-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, two Hox genes contribute to segment patterning and diversity in the embryonic CNS by carrying out opposing roles in the survival of specific differentiated motoneurons...
  5. McGinnis W, Krumlauf R. Homeobox genes and axial patterning. Cell. 1992;68:283-302 pubmed
  6. Papadopoulos D, Skouloudaki K, Adachi Y, Samakovlis C, Gehring W. Dimer formation via the homeodomain is required for function and specificity of Sex combs reduced in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2012;367:78-89 pubmed publisher
  7. Galant R, Carroll S. Evolution of a transcriptional repression domain in an insect Hox protein. Nature. 2002;415:910-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The evolution of this domain may have facilitated the greater morphological diversification of posterior thoracic and anterior abdominal segments characteristic of modern insects...
  8. Chang C, Shen W, Rozenfeld S, Lawrence H, Largman C, Cleary M. Pbx proteins display hexapeptide-dependent cooperative DNA binding with a subset of Hox proteins. Genes Dev. 1995;9:663-74 pubmed
    The human proto-oncogene PBX1 codes for a homolog of Drosophila extradenticle, a divergent homeo domain protein that modulates the developmental and DNA-binding specificity of select HOM proteins...
  9. Noro B, Culi J, Mckay D, Zhang W, Mann R. Distinct functions of homeodomain-containing and homeodomain-less isoforms encoded by homothorax. Genes Dev. 2006;20:1636-50 pubmed publisher
    ..types of Hth isoforms include the evolutionarily conserved HM domain, which mediates a direct interaction with Extradenticle (Exd), another homeodomain protein...

More Information

Publications68

  1. Joshi R, Passner J, Rohs R, Jain R, Sosinsky A, Crickmore M, et al. Functional specificity of a Hox protein mediated by the recognition of minor groove structure. Cell. 2007;131:530-43 pubmed
    ..often depends on extended and unstructured regions that link Hox homeodomains to a DNA-bound cofactor, Extradenticle (Exd)...
  2. Agelopoulos M, Mckay D, Mann R. Developmental regulation of chromatin conformation by Hox proteins in Drosophila. Cell Rep. 2012;1:350-9 pubmed
    ..The pattern of binding by GAGA factor and the variant histone H2Av suggest that they play a role in the regulation of Dll chromatin conformation in expressing and nonexpressing cell types, respectively. ..
  3. Manak J, Mathies L, Scott M. Regulation of a decapentaplegic midgut enhancer by homeotic proteins. Development. 1994;120:3605-19 pubmed
    ..A candidate cofactor, the extradenticle protein, binds to the dpp enhancer in close proximity to homeotic protein binding sites...
  4. Merabet S, Ebner A, Affolter M. The Drosophila Extradenticle and Homothorax selector proteins control branchless/FGF expression in mesodermal bridge-cells. EMBO Rep. 2005;6:762-8 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that the Extradenticle and Homothorax selector proteins control bnl transcription in a single cell per segment, the mesodermal bridge-..
  5. Karlsson D, Baumgardt M, Thor S. Segment-specific neuronal subtype specification by the integration of anteroposterior and temporal cues. PLoS Biol. 2010;8:e1000368 pubmed publisher
    ..This study reveals a surprisingly restricted, yet multifaceted, function of both anteroposterior and temporal cues with respect to lineage control and cell fate specification...
  6. Slattery M, Riley T, Liu P, Abe N, Gomez Alcala P, Dror I, et al. Cofactor binding evokes latent differences in DNA binding specificity between Hox proteins. Cell. 2011;147:1270-82 pubmed publisher
    ..proteins, we show that they obtain novel recognition properties when they bind DNA with the dimeric cofactor Extradenticle-Homothorax (Exd)...
  7. Rauskolb C, Smith K, Peifer M, Wieschaus E. extradenticle determines segmental identities throughout Drosophila development. Development. 1995;121:3663-73 pubmed
    b>extradenticle (exd) and the homeotic selector proteins together establish segmental identities by coordinately regulating the expression of downstream target genes...
  8. Hudry B, Remacle S, Delfini M, Rezsohazy R, Graba Y, Merabet S. Hox proteins display a common and ancestral ability to diversify their interaction mode with the PBC class cofactors. PLoS Biol. 2012;10:e1001351 pubmed publisher
  9. Grienenberger A, Merabet S, Manak J, Iltis I, Fabre A, B renger H, et al. Tgfbeta signaling acts on a Hox response element to confer specificity and diversity to Hox protein function. Development. 2003;130:5445-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The signal, acting through Mad and Creb, provides spatial information that subdivides the domain of Abdominal A function through direct combinatorial action, conferring specificity and diversity upon Abdominal A activity...
  10. Popperl H, Bienz M, Studer M, Chan S, Aparicio S, Brenner S, et al. Segmental expression of Hoxb-1 is controlled by a highly conserved autoregulatory loop dependent upon exd/pbx. Cell. 1995;81:1031-42 pubmed
    ..cofactors, and the motifs closely resemble the consensus binding site for pbx1, a homolog of the Drosophila extradenticle (exd) homoedomain protein...
  11. Mann R. The specificity of homeotic gene function. Bioessays. 1995;17:855-63 pubmed
    ..The Drosophila homeoprotein extradenticle (exd) is likely to be one such cofactor...
  12. Peifer M, Wieschaus E. Mutations in the Drosophila gene extradenticle affect the way specific homeo domain proteins regulate segmental identity. Genes Dev. 1990;4:1209-23 pubmed
    We characterized a gene, extradenticle, which seems to interact with a specific subset of Drosophila homeo domain proteins, possibly affecting their target specificity...
  13. Galant R, Walsh C, Carroll S. Hox repression of a target gene: extradenticle-independent, additive action through multiple monomer binding sites. Development. 2002;129:3115-26 pubmed
    ..The discovery that the Extradenticle (Exd)/Pbx and Homothorax (Hth)/Meis proteins act as cofactors for several Hox proteins has advanced the view ..
  14. Löhr U, Pick L. Cofactor-interaction motifs and the cooption of a homeotic Hox protein into the segmentation pathway of Drosophila melanogaster. Curr Biol. 2005;15:643-9 pubmed
    ..Hox proteins interact with the cofactor Extradenticle (Exd) via their YPWM motif...
  15. Li X, Murre C, McGinnis W. Activity regulation of a Hox protein and a role for the homeodomain in inhibiting transcriptional activation. EMBO J. 1999;18:198-211 pubmed
    ..Cofactors can function by enhancement of the DNA-binding specificity of Hox proteins, as has been shown for Extradenticle (Exd)...
  16. Biggin M, McGinnis W. Regulation of segmentation and segmental identity by Drosophila homeoproteins: the role of DNA binding in functional activity and specificity. Development. 1997;124:4425-33 pubmed
    ..In this 'widespread binding' model, cofactors act mainly by helping to distinguish the way in which homeoproteins regulate targets to which they are already bound. ..
  17. Fujioka M, Gebelein B, COFER Z, Mann R, Jaynes J. Engrailed cooperates directly with Extradenticle and Homothorax on a distinct class of homeodomain binding sites to repress sloppy paired. Dev Biol. 2012;366:382-92 pubmed publisher
    ..We localized cooperative binding sites for En, with the homeodomain-containing Hox cofactors Extradenticle (Exd) and Homothorax (Hth), within two CRMs that drive similar expression patterns...
  18. Chan S, Mann R. A structural model for a homeotic protein-extradenticle-DNA complex accounts for the choice of HOX protein in the heterodimer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:5223-8 pubmed
    ..The homeodomain proteins encoded by the Drosophila extradenticle gene and its mammalian homologues, the pbx genes, contribute to HOX specificity by cooperatively binding to ..
  19. Ryoo H, Marty T, Casares F, Affolter M, Mann R. Regulation of Hox target genes by a DNA bound Homothorax/Hox/Extradenticle complex. Development. 1999;126:5137-48 pubmed
    ..target genes, the Hox proteins of Drosophila often bind to DNA as heterodimers with the homeodomain protein Extradenticle (EXD)...
  20. Pai C, Kuo T, Jaw T, Kurant E, Chen C, Bessarab D, et al. The Homothorax homeoprotein activates the nuclear localization of another homeoprotein, extradenticle, and suppresses eye development in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 1998;12:435-46 pubmed
    The Extradenticle (Exd) protein in Drosophila acts as a cofactor to homeotic proteins. Its nuclear localization is regulated...
  21. Passner J, Ryoo H, Shen L, Mann R, Aggarwal A. Structure of a DNA-bound Ultrabithorax-Extradenticle homeodomain complex. Nature. 1999;397:714-9 pubmed
    ..specificity by themselves but gain affinity and specificity when they bind together with the homeoprotein Extradenticle (or Pbxl in mammals)...
  22. Lelli K, Noro B, Mann R. Variable motif utilization in homeotic selector (Hox)-cofactor complex formation controls specificity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:21122-7 pubmed publisher
    Homeotic selector (Hox) proteins often bind DNA cooperatively with cofactors such as Extradenticle (Exd) and Homothorax (Hth) to achieve functional specificity in vivo...
  23. Bryantsev A, Duong S, Brunetti T, Chechenova M, Lovato T, Nelson C, et al. Extradenticle and homothorax control adult muscle fiber identity in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2012;23:664-73 pubmed publisher
    Here we identify a key role for the homeodomain proteins Extradenticle (Exd) and Homothorax (Hth) in the specification of muscle fiber fate in Drosophila...
  24. Aldaz S, Morata G, Azpiazu N. Patterning function of homothorax/extradenticle in the thorax of Drosophila. Development. 2005;132:439-46 pubmed
    ..Here, we have investigated the role of the homothorax/extradenticle (hth/exd) gene pair in the elaboration of the pattern of the anterior mesothorax (notum)...
  25. Joshi R, Sun L, Mann R. Dissecting the functional specificities of two Hox proteins. Genes Dev. 2010;24:1533-45 pubmed publisher
    Hox proteins frequently select and regulate their specific target genes with the help of cofactors like Extradenticle (Exd) and Homothorax (Hth)...
  26. Casares F, Mann R. A dual role for homothorax in inhibiting wing blade development and specifying proximal wing identities in Drosophila. Development. 2000;127:1499-508 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that tsh and hth block wing blade development by repressing some of the activities of the Notch pathway at the D/V compartment boundary. ..
  27. Merabet S, Litim Mecheri I, Karlsson D, Dixit R, Saadaoui M, Monier B, et al. Insights into Hox protein function from a large scale combinatorial analysis of protein domains. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002302 pubmed publisher
  28. Chan S, Popperl H, Krumlauf R, Mann R. An extradenticle-induced conformational change in a HOX protein overcomes an inhibitory function of the conserved hexapeptide motif. EMBO J. 1996;15:2476-87 pubmed
    ..The homeoprotein encoded by the extradenticle (exd) gene can selectively modify HOX DNA binding, suggesting that it contributes to HOX specificity in vivo...
  29. Rivas M, Espinosa Vázquez J, Sambrani N, Greig S, Merabet S, Graba Y, et al. Antagonism versus cooperativity with TALE cofactors at the base of the functional diversification of Hox protein function. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003252 pubmed publisher
    b>Extradenticle (Exd) and Homothorax (Hth) function as positive transcriptional cofactors of Hox proteins, helping them to bind specifically their direct targets...
  30. Spletter M, Schnorrer F. Transcriptional regulation and alternative splicing cooperate in muscle fiber-type specification in flies and mammals. Exp Cell Res. 2014;321:90-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, research in Drosophila can provide important mechanistic insight into muscle fiber specification, which is relevant to homologous processes in mammals and to the pathology of muscle diseases. ..
  31. Aspland S, White R. Nucleocytoplasmic localisation of extradenticle protein is spatially regulated throughout development in Drosophila. Development. 1997;124:741-7 pubmed
    The extradenticle protein is a homeodomain transcription factor which has an important role regulating the DNA-binding specificity of homeotic selector proteins...
  32. Mann R, Chan S. Extra specificity from extradenticle: the partnership between HOX and PBX/EXD homeodomain proteins. Trends Genet. 1996;12:258-62 pubmed
    ..and developmentally important transcription factors requires additional twists to the standard solution, which are beginning to become apparent from the characterization of the HOX cofactors encoded by the extradenticle and PBX genes.
  33. Rauskolb C, Peifer M, Wieschaus E. extradenticle, a regulator of homeotic gene activity, is a homolog of the homeobox-containing human proto-oncogene pbx1. Cell. 1993;74:1101-12 pubmed
    Mutations in the Drosophila gene extradenticle (exd) cause homeotic transformations by altering the morphological consequences of homeotic selector gene activity...
  34. van Dijk M, Murre C. extradenticle raises the DNA binding specificity of homeotic selector gene products. Cell. 1994;78:617-24 pubmed
    Recently, a Drosophila gene has been identified, extradenticle, whose product modulates the morphological consequences of homeotic selector genes...
  35. Chan S, Jaffe L, Capovilla M, Botas J, Mann R. The DNA binding specificity of Ultrabithorax is modulated by cooperative interactions with extradenticle, another homeoprotein. Cell. 1994;78:603-15 pubmed
    ..We describe cooperative interactions between Ubx protein and a divergent homeodomain protein, extradenticle (exd), that selectively increases the affinity of Ubx, but not Antp, for a particular DNA target...
  36. Ebner A, Cabernard C, Affolter M, Merabet S. Recognition of distinct target sites by a unique Labial/Extradenticle/Homothorax complex. Development. 2005;132:1591-600 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila, Hox proteins bind to target DNA sequences in association with the Extradenticle (Exd) and Homothorax (Hth) co-factors...
  37. Brodu V, Elstob P, Gould A. abdominal A specifies one cell type in Drosophila by regulating one principal target gene. Development. 2002;129:2957-63 pubmed
    ..This raises the possibility that much of the overall Hox downstream complexity results from cascades of indirect regulation and cell-to-cell heterogeneity. ..
  38. Uhl J, Cook T, Gebelein B. Comparing anterior and posterior Hox complex formation reveals guidelines for predicting cis-regulatory elements. Dev Biol. 2010;343:154-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Hox factors regulate the activity of each element by forming protein complexes with two cofactor proteins, Extradenticle (Exd) and Homothorax (Hth)...
  39. Li Kroeger D, Witt L, Grimes H, Cook T, Gebelein B. Hox and senseless antagonism functions as a molecular switch to regulate EGF secretion in the Drosophila PNS. Dev Cell. 2008;15:298-308 pubmed publisher
    ..As the vertebrate senseless homolog is essential for neural development as well as hematopoiesis, we propose Hox-Senseless antagonism will broadly control cell fate decisions. ..
  40. Mukherjee K, Burglin T. Comprehensive analysis of animal TALE homeobox genes: new conserved motifs and cases of accelerated evolution. J Mol Evol. 2007;65:137-53 pubmed
    ..In addition, several instances of gene loss were identified. In conclusion, our comprehensive analysis provides a defining framework for the classification of animal TALE homeobox genes and the understanding of their evolution. ..
  41. Merabet S, Kambris Z, Capovilla M, Bérenger H, Pradel J, Graba Y. The hexapeptide and linker regions of the AbdA Hox protein regulate its activating and repressive functions. Dev Cell. 2003;4:761-8 pubmed
    ..Our in vivo data thus reveal functions not previously anticipated from in vitro analyses for the hexapeptide motif in the regulation of Hox activity. ..
  42. Kobayashi M, Fujioka M, Tolkunova E, Deka D, Abu Shaar M, Mann R, et al. Engrailed cooperates with extradenticle and homothorax to repress target genes in Drosophila. Development. 2003;130:741-51 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that the functions of both of the Hox cofactors Extradenticle and Homothorax play essential roles in repression by Engrailed...
  43. Kannan R, Berger C, Myneni S, Technau G, Shashidhara L. Abdominal-A mediated repression of Cyclin E expression during cell-fate specification in the Drosophila central nervous system. Mech Dev. 2010;127:137-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, our data suggest a complex network to regulate CycE expression where AbdA functions as a key regulator. ..
  44. Saadaoui M, Merabet S, Litim Mecheri I, Arbeille E, Sambrani N, Damen W, et al. Selection of distinct Hox-Extradenticle interaction modes fine-tunes Hox protein activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:2276-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Hox proteins associate with PBC class proteins, Pre-B cell leukemia homeobox (Pbx) in vertebrates, and Extradenticle (Exd) in Drosophila, and were thought to use a unique hexapeptide-dependent generic mode of interaction...
  45. Coiffier D, Charroux B, Kerridge S. Common functions of central and posterior Hox genes for the repression of head in the trunk of Drosophila. Development. 2008;135:291-300 pubmed
    ..Second, we demonstrate that the non-Hox genes teashirt, extradenticle and homothorax are required for the repression of optix and that Wingless signalling and Engrailed contribute ..
  46. Merabet S, Pradel J, Graba Y. Getting a molecular grasp on Hox contextual activity. Trends Genet. 2005;21:477-80 pubmed
    ..A recent study identified novel Hox molecular partners, whose properties set a conceptual framework to understand how Hox proteins use and integrate contextual information. ..
  47. Azpiazu N, Morata G. Functional and regulatory interactions between Hox and extradenticle genes. Genes Dev. 1998;12:261-73 pubmed
    The homeobox gene extradenticle (exd) acts as a cofactor of Hox function both in Drosophila and vertebrates...
  48. Noro B, Lelli K, Sun L, Mann R. Competition for cofactor-dependent DNA binding underlies Hox phenotypic suppression. Genes Dev. 2011;25:2327-32 pubmed publisher
    ..that is required for phenotypic suppression and facilitates cooperative DNA binding with the Hox cofactor Extradenticle (Exd)...
  49. Rauskolb C, Wieschaus E. Coordinate regulation of downstream genes by extradenticle and the homeotic selector proteins. EMBO J. 1994;13:3561-9 pubmed
    Mutations in the Drosophila gene extradenticle (exd), a homologue of the human proto-oncogene pbx1, cause homeotic transformations by altering the morphological consequences of homeotic selector gene activity...
  50. González Crespo S, Morata G. Control of Drosophila adult pattern by extradenticle. Development. 1995;121:2117-25 pubmed
    The homeobox gene extradenticle (exd) acts as a cofactor of the homeotic genes in the specification of larval patterns during embryogenesis...
  51. Chan S, Ryoo H, Gould A, Krumlauf R, Mann R. Switching the in vivo specificity of a minimal Hox-responsive element. Development. 1997;124:2007-14 pubmed
    ..In vitro, Hox specificity can be increased by binding to DNA cooperatively with the homeodomain protein extradenticle or its vertebrate homologs, the pbx proteins (together, the PBC family)...
  52. Hudry B, Viala S, Graba Y, Merabet S. Visualization of protein interactions in living Drosophila embryos by the bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay. BMC Biol. 2011;9:5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results establish the general suitability of BiFC for revealing and studying protein interactions in their physiological context during the rapid course of Drosophila embryonic development. ..
  53. Ryoo H, Mann R. The control of trunk Hox specificity and activity by Extradenticle. Genes Dev. 1999;13:1704-16 pubmed
    ..In vitro, Scr cooperatively binds to this DNA with the Hox cofactor Extradenticle (Exd), and the activation of this enhancer in vivo requires Scr and exd...
  54. Gebelein B, Culi J, Ryoo H, Zhang W, Mann R. Specificity of Distalless repression and limb primordia development by abdominal Hox proteins. Dev Cell. 2002;3:487-98 pubmed
    ..We show that the Hox cofactors Extradenticle and Homothorax selectively enhance Ubx, but not Antp, binding to a Distalless regulatory sequence...
  55. Rieckhof G, Casares F, Ryoo H, Abu Shaar M, Mann R. Nuclear translocation of extradenticle requires homothorax, which encodes an extradenticle-related homeodomain protein. Cell. 1997;91:171-83 pubmed
    ..hth is necessary for the nuclear localization of an essential HOX cofactor, Extradenticle (EXD), and encodes a homeodomain protein that shares extensive identity with the product of Meis1, a murine ..
  56. Bessa J, Gebelein B, Pichaud F, Casares F, Mann R. Combinatorial control of Drosophila eye development by eyeless, homothorax, and teashirt. Genes Dev. 2002;16:2415-27 pubmed
    ..A key step in the transition from an immature proliferative state to a committed state in eye development is the repression of hth by the BMP-4 homolog Decapentaplegic (Dpp). ..
  57. Plaza S, Prince F, Adachi Y, Punzo C, Cribbs D, Gehring W. Cross-regulatory protein-protein interactions between Hox and Pax transcription factors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:13439-44 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that the homeodomain supports multiple molecular regulatory functions in addition to protein-DNA and protein-RNA interactions; it is also involved in protein-protein interactions. ..
  58. Merabet S, Saadaoui M, Sambrani N, Hudry B, Pradel J, Affolter M, et al. A unique Extradenticle recruitment mode in the Drosophila Hox protein Ultrabithorax. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:16946-51 pubmed
    ..interaction with the PBC class of partners, pre-B cell transcription factor (Pbx) proteins in vertebrates and Extradenticle (Exd) in Drosophila...
  59. Nelson W. Tube morphogenesis: closure, but many openings remain. Trends Cell Biol. 2003;13:615-21 pubmed
    ..This review provides a summary of these pathways based upon articles published in the Tube Morphogenesis Series in Trends in Cell Biology. ..