exd

Summary

Gene Symbol: exd
Description: extradenticle
Alias: CG8933, DExd, Dm-EXD, Dmel\CG8933, Dpbx, EXD, Exd, Pbx1, anon-EST:fe1H3, l(1)IV, td48, CG8933-PA, CG8933-PB, CG8933-PC, CG8933-PD, CG8933-PE, Pbx1-oncogene-like, anon-fast-evolving-1H3, exd-PA, exd-PB, exd-PC, exd-PD, exd-PE, homothorax
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Homeobox genes: their function in Drosophila segmentation and pattern formation
    P A Lawrence
    Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, England
    Cell 78:181-9. 1994
  2. ncbi A role for phosphorylation by casein kinase II in modulating Antennapedia activity in Drosophila
    L Jaffe
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Genes Dev 11:1327-40. 1997
  3. ncbi Homeobox genes and axial patterning
    W McGinnis
    Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511
    Cell 68:283-302. 1992
  4. ncbi Specificity of Distalless repression and limb primordia development by abdominal Hox proteins
    Brian Gebelein
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, 701 West 168th Street, HHSC 1104, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Dev Cell 3:487-98. 2002
  5. ncbi Direct integration of Hox and segmentation gene inputs during Drosophila development
    Brian Gebelein
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics and Center for Neurobiology and Behavior, Columbia University, 701 West 168th Street, HHSC 1104, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Nature 431:653-9. 2004
  6. pmc Functional specificity of a Hox protein mediated by the recognition of minor groove structure
    Rohit Joshi
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, HHSC 1104, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Cell 131:530-43. 2007
  7. ncbi A dual role for homothorax in inhibiting wing blade development and specifying proximal wing identities in Drosophila
    F Casares
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, HHSC 1108, New York, NY 10032 USA
    Development 127:1499-508. 2000
  8. pmc Segment-specific neuronal subtype specification by the integration of anteroposterior and temporal cues
    Daniel Karlsson
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linkoping University, Linkoping, Sweden
    PLoS Biol 8:e1000368. 2010
  9. pmc Functional and regulatory interactions between Hox and extradenticle genes
    N Azpiazu
    Centro de Biologia Molecular Centro Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas Universidad Autońoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
    Genes Dev 12:261-73. 1998
  10. ncbi Control of antennal versus leg development in Drosophila
    F Casares
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Center for Neurobiology and Behavior, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Nature 392:723-6. 1998

Scientific Experts

Detail Information

Publications85

  1. ncbi Homeobox genes: their function in Drosophila segmentation and pattern formation
    P A Lawrence
    Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, England
    Cell 78:181-9. 1994
  2. ncbi A role for phosphorylation by casein kinase II in modulating Antennapedia activity in Drosophila
    L Jaffe
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Genes Dev 11:1327-40. 1997
    ..Our results suggest that phosphorylation of ANTP by CKII is important for preventing inappropriate activities of this homeotic protein during embryogenesis...
  3. ncbi Homeobox genes and axial patterning
    W McGinnis
    Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511
    Cell 68:283-302. 1992
  4. ncbi Specificity of Distalless repression and limb primordia development by abdominal Hox proteins
    Brian Gebelein
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, 701 West 168th Street, HHSC 1104, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Dev Cell 3:487-98. 2002
    ..We show that the Hox cofactors Extradenticle and Homothorax selectively enhance Ubx, but not Antp, binding to a Distalless regulatory sequence...
  5. ncbi Direct integration of Hox and segmentation gene inputs during Drosophila development
    Brian Gebelein
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics and Center for Neurobiology and Behavior, Columbia University, 701 West 168th Street, HHSC 1104, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Nature 431:653-9. 2004
    ..Our results suggest that these two classes of proteins may collaborate to directly control gene expression at many downstream target genes...
  6. pmc Functional specificity of a Hox protein mediated by the recognition of minor groove structure
    Rohit Joshi
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, HHSC 1104, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Cell 131:530-43. 2007
    ..depends on extended and unstructured regions that link Hox homeodomains to a DNA-bound cofactor, Extradenticle (Exd)...
  7. ncbi A dual role for homothorax in inhibiting wing blade development and specifying proximal wing identities in Drosophila
    F Casares
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, HHSC 1108, New York, NY 10032 USA
    Development 127:1499-508. 2000
    ..Here we show that wg activates the gene homothorax (hth) in the hinge and that hth is necessary for hinge development...
  8. pmc Segment-specific neuronal subtype specification by the integration of anteroposterior and temporal cues
    Daniel Karlsson
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linkoping University, Linkoping, Sweden
    PLoS Biol 8:e1000368. 2010
    ..This study reveals a surprisingly restricted, yet multifaceted, function of both anteroposterior and temporal cues with respect to lineage control and cell fate specification...
  9. pmc Functional and regulatory interactions between Hox and extradenticle genes
    N Azpiazu
    Centro de Biologia Molecular Centro Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas Universidad Autońoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
    Genes Dev 12:261-73. 1998
    The homeobox gene extradenticle (exd) acts as a cofactor of Hox function both in Drosophila and vertebrates...
  10. ncbi Control of antennal versus leg development in Drosophila
    F Casares
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Center for Neurobiology and Behavior, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Nature 392:723-6. 1998
    ..Here we present four lines of evidence that identify extradenticle (exd) and homothorax (hth) as antennal-determining genes...
  11. ncbi Mutations in the Drosophila gene extradenticle affect the way specific homeo domain proteins regulate segmental identity
    M Peifer
    Department of Biology, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544 1003
    Genes Dev 4:1209-23. 1990
    ..Complete removal of extradenticle, maternally and zygotically, leads to specific alterations in segmentation, many of which result from failure to maintain the expression of the homeo domain protein engrailed...
  12. ncbi The hexapeptide and linker regions of the AbdA Hox protein regulate its activating and repressive functions
    Samir Merabet
    Laboratoire de Genetique et Physiologie du Developpement, IBDM, CNRS, Universite de la Mediterranee, Parc Scientifique de Luminy, Case 907, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09, France
    Dev Cell 4:761-8. 2003
    ..Our in vivo data thus reveal functions not previously anticipated from in vitro analyses for the hexapeptide motif in the regulation of Hox activity...
  13. ncbi Evolution of a transcriptional repression domain in an insect Hox protein
    Ron Galant
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Wisconsin, Madison 53706, USA
    Nature 415:910-3. 2002
    ..The evolution of this domain may have facilitated the greater morphological diversification of posterior thoracic and anterior abdominal segments characteristic of modern insects...
  14. pmc Selection of distinct Hox-Extradenticle interaction modes fine-tunes Hox protein activity
    Mehdi Saadaoui
    Institut de Biologie du Developpement de Marseille Luminy, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Universite de la Mediterranee, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:2276-81. 2011
    ..proteins associate with PBC class proteins, Pre-B cell leukemia homeobox (Pbx) in vertebrates, and Extradenticle (Exd) in Drosophila, and were thought to use a unique hexapeptide-dependent generic mode of interaction...
  15. doi Abdominal-A mediated repression of Cyclin E expression during cell-fate specification in the Drosophila central nervous system
    Ramakrishnan Kannan
    Center for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad, India
    Mech Dev 127:137-45. 2010
    ..Furthermore, our data suggest a complex network to regulate CycE expression where AbdA functions as a key regulator...
  16. ncbi Segmental expression of Hoxb-1 is controlled by a highly conserved autoregulatory loop dependent upon exd/pbx
    H Popperl
    Medical Research Council, National Institute for Medical Research, London, England
    Cell 81:1031-42. 1995
    ..to these elements in vitro requires cofactors, and the motifs closely resemble the consensus binding site for pbx1, a homolog of the Drosophila extradenticle (exd) homoedomain protein...
  17. ncbi Tgfbeta signaling acts on a Hox response element to confer specificity and diversity to Hox protein function
    Aurelie Grienenberger
    Laboratoire de Génétique et Biologie du Développement, IBDM, CNRS, Universite de la Mediterranee, Parc Scientifique de Luminy, Case 907, 13288 Marseille Cedex 9, France
    Development 130:5445-55. 2003
    ..The signal, acting through Mad and Creb, provides spatial information that subdivides the domain of Abdominal A function through direct combinatorial action, conferring specificity and diversity upon Abdominal A activity...
  18. pmc Control of the nuclear localization of Extradenticle by competing nuclear import and export signals
    M Abu-Shaar
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Integrated Programin Cellular, Molecular, and Biophysical Studies, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Genes Dev 13:935-45. 1999
    ..Exd) is regulated at the level of its subcellular distribution: It is cytoplasmic in the absence of Homothorax (Hth), a Meis family member, and nuclear in the presence of Hth...
  19. ncbi Patterning function of homothorax/extradenticle in the thorax of Drosophila
    Silvia Aldaz
    Centro de Biologia Molecular, CSIC UAM, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid, 28049, Spain
    Development 132:439-46. 2005
    ..Here, we have investigated the role of the homothorax/extradenticle (hth/exd) gene pair in the elaboration of the pattern of the anterior mesothorax (notum)...
  20. ncbi Cofactor-interaction motifs and the cooption of a homeotic Hox protein into the segmentation pathway of Drosophila melanogaster
    Ulrike Löhr
    Abteilung Molekulare Entwicklungsbiologie, Max Planck Institut fur biophysikalische Chemie, Am Fassberg 11, 37077 Gottingen, Germany
    Curr Biol 15:643-9. 2005
    ..Hox proteins interact with the cofactor Extradenticle (Exd) via their YPWM motif...
  21. pmc The Drosophila Extradenticle and Homothorax selector proteins control branchless/FGF expression in mesodermal bridge-cells
    Samir Merabet
    Biozentrum der Universitat Basel, Switzerland
    EMBO Rep 6:762-8. 2005
    ..Here, we show that the Extradenticle and Homothorax selector proteins control bnl transcription in a single cell per segment, the mesodermal bridge-cell...
  22. ncbi Regulation of a decapentaplegic midgut enhancer by homeotic proteins
    J R Manak
    Department of Developmental Biology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, California 94305 5427
    Development 120:3605-19. 1994
    ..A 45 bp fragment of DNA from within the enhancer correctly responds to both UBX and ABD-A in a largely tissue-specific manner, thus representing the smallest in vivo homeotic response element (HOMRE) identified to date...
  23. pmc Coordinate regulation of downstream genes by extradenticle and the homeotic selector proteins
    C Rauskolb
    Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, NJ 08544
    EMBO J 13:3561-9. 1994
    Mutations in the Drosophila gene extradenticle (exd), a homologue of the human proto-oncogene pbx1, cause homeotic transformations by altering the morphological consequences of homeotic selector gene activity...
  24. doi Antagonistic roles for Ultrabithorax and Antennapedia in regulating segment-specific apoptosis of differentiated motoneurons in the Drosophila embryonic central nervous system
    Ana Rogulja-Ortmann
    Institute of Genetics, University of Mainz, 55099 Mainz, Germany
    Development 135:3435-45. 2008
    ..Thus, two Hox genes contribute to segment patterning and diversity in the embryonic CNS by carrying out opposing roles in the survival of specific differentiated motoneurons...
  25. pmc Cross-regulatory protein-protein interactions between Hox and Pax transcription factors
    Serge Plaza
    Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Centre de Biologie du Developpement, 118 route de Narbonne, Bâtiment 4R3, 31062 Toulouse, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:13439-44. 2008
    ..These results demonstrate that the homeodomain supports multiple molecular regulatory functions in addition to protein-DNA and protein-RNA interactions; it is also involved in protein-protein interactions...
  26. pmc Tube morphogenesis: closure, but many openings remain
    W James Nelson
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Beckman Center for Molecular and Genetic Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305 5435, USA
    Trends Cell Biol 13:615-21. 2003
    ..This review provides a summary of these pathways based upon articles published in the Tube Morphogenesis Series in Trends in Cell Biology...
  27. ncbi abdominal A specifies one cell type in Drosophila by regulating one principal target gene
    Véronique Brodu
    Medical Research Council, National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, UK
    Development 129:2957-63. 2002
    ..This raises the possibility that much of the overall Hox downstream complexity results from cascades of indirect regulation and cell-to-cell heterogeneity...
  28. pmc Engrailed cooperates with extradenticle and homothorax to repress target genes in Drosophila
    Masatomo Kobayashi
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Kimmel Cancer Institute, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
    Development 130:741-51. 2003
    ..Here, we show that the functions of both of the Hox cofactors Extradenticle and Homothorax play essential roles in repression by Engrailed...
  29. pmc The Homothorax homeoprotein activates the nuclear localization of another homeoprotein, extradenticle, and suppresses eye development in Drosophila
    C Y Pai
    Institute of Molecular Biology, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan, Republic of China
    Genes Dev 12:435-46. 1998
    ..Its nuclear localization is regulated. We report the cloning of the Drosophila homothorax (hth) gene, a homolog of the mouse Meis1 proto-oncogene that has a homeobox related to that of exd...
  30. doi The YPWM motif links Antennapedia to the basal transcriptional machinery
    Frederic Prince
    Biozentrum, University of Basel, Klingelberstrasse 70, CH 4056 Basel, Switzerland
    Development 135:1669-79. 2008
    ..BIP2 is a TATA-binding protein associated factor (also known as dTAFII3) that links ANTP to the basal transcriptional machinery...
  31. ncbi Dorsotonals/homothorax, the Drosophila homologue of meis1, interacts with extradenticle in patterning of the embryonic PNS
    E Kurant
    Unit of Genetics, Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 31096, Israel
    Development 125:1037-48. 1998
    ..Here we report the phenotypic and molecular analysis of one such gene, homothorax (hth; also named dorsotonals)...
  32. ncbi Nuclear translocation of extradenticle requires homothorax, which encodes an extradenticle-related homeodomain protein
    G E Rieckhof
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Cell 91:171-83. 1997
    We show that homothorax (hth) is required for the Hox genes to pattern the body of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster...
  33. ncbi Getting a molecular grasp on Hox contextual activity
    Samir Merabet
    Laboratoire de Genetique et Physiologie du Developpement, IBDM, CNRS, Universite de la Mediterranee, Parc Scientifique de Luminy, Case 907, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09, France
    Trends Genet 21:477-80. 2005
    ..A recent study identified novel Hox molecular partners, whose properties set a conceptual framework to understand how Hox proteins use and integrate contextual information...
  34. pmc A unique Extradenticle recruitment mode in the Drosophila Hox protein Ultrabithorax
    Samir Merabet
    Institut de Biologie du Developpement de Marseille Luminy, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Universite de la Mediterranee, Parc Scientifique de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:16946-51. 2007
    ..with the PBC class of partners, pre-B cell transcription factor (Pbx) proteins in vertebrates and Extradenticle (Exd) in Drosophila...
  35. pmc Insights into Hox protein function from a large scale combinatorial analysis of protein domains
    Samir Merabet
    Institut de Biologie du Developpement de Marseille Luminy, UMR6216 CNRS, Parc Scientifique de Luminy, Case 907, Marseille, France
    PLoS Genet 7:e1002302. 2011
    ....
  36. pmc Visualization of protein interactions in living Drosophila embryos by the bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay
    Bruno Hudry
    Institut de Biologie du Developpement de Marseille Luminy, IBDML, UMR 6216, CNRS, Universite de la Mediterranee, Parc Scientifique de Luminy, Case 907, 13288, Marseille Cedex 09, France
    BMC Biol 9:5. 2011
    ..However, its potential has rarely been applied in embryos of animal model organisms and was only performed under transient protein expression levels...
  37. pmc Functional characterization of transcription factor motifs using cross-species comparison across large evolutionary distances
    Jaebum Kim
    Department of Computer Science, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, United States of America
    PLoS Comput Biol 6:e1000652. 2010
    ..We also apply the framework to find motifs associated with socially regulated gene sets in the honeybee, Apis mellifera, using comparisons with Nasonia, a solitary species, to identify honeybee-specific associations...
  38. ncbi Gene expression patterns in primary neuronal clusters of the Drosophila embryonic brain
    Simon G Sprecher
    Biozentrum, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland
    Gene Expr Patterns 7:584-95. 2007
    ....
  39. pmc Variable motif utilization in homeotic selector (Hox)-cofactor complex formation controls specificity
    Katherine M Lelli
    Department of Genetics and Development, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:21122-7. 2011
    Homeotic selector (Hox) proteins often bind DNA cooperatively with cofactors such as Extradenticle (Exd) and Homothorax (Hth) to achieve functional specificity in vivo...
  40. ncbi Recognition of distinct target sites by a unique Labial/Extradenticle/Homothorax complex
    Andreas Ebner
    Biozentrum der Universitat Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 70, CH 4056 Basel, Switzerland
    Development 132:1591-600. 2005
    ..In Drosophila, Hox proteins bind to target DNA sequences in association with the Extradenticle (Exd) and Homothorax (Hth) co-factors...
  41. ncbi Transcriptional activation by extradenticle in the Drosophila visceral mesoderm
    Brian G Stultz
    Cellular and Tissue Therapy Branch, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, HFM 730, Bldg 29B, Rm 1E16, 8800 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Dev Biol 290:482-94. 2006
    ..We demonstrate that extradenticle (exd) and homothorax (hth) are also required for dpp expression in this location, as well as in PS3, at the site of the developing ..
  42. ncbi Tarsus determination in Drosophila melanogaster
    Anthony Percival-Smith
    Department of Biology, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada
    Genome 48:712-21. 2005
    ..i) Clonal ectopic overexpression of ANTP did not repress the expression of the arista determining protein Homothorax (HTH) in early 3rd stadium antennal imaginal discs...
  43. ncbi Extra specificity from extradenticle: the partnership between HOX and PBX/EXD homeodomain proteins
    R S Mann
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, NY 10032, USA
    Trends Genet 12:258-62. 1996
    ....
  44. ncbi Nuclear import of the homeodomain protein extradenticle in response to Wg and Dpp signalling
    R S Mann
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York 10032, USA
    Nature 383:630-3. 1996
    ..signalling pathways control the subcellular localization of the homeodomain protein encoded by the extradenticle (exd) gene...
  45. ncbi Positive cross-regulation and enhancer sharing: two mechanisms for specifying overlapping Hox expression patterns
    A Gould
    Laboratory of Developmental Neurobiology, Medical Research Council MRC National Institute for Medical Research, London, UK
    Genes Dev 11:900-13. 1997
    ..Therefore, despite many well documented aspects of Hox structural and functional conservation, there are mechanistic differences in Hox complex regulation between arthropods and vertebrates...
  46. pmc Synergistic activation of a Drosophila enhancer by HOM/EXD and DPP signaling
    N C Grieder
    Abteilung Zellbiologie, Biozentrum, Universitat Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 70, CH 4056 Basel, Switzerland
    EMBO J 16:7402-10. 1997
    ..In vitro, HOM (HOX) specificity can be increased by the formation of heterodimers with Extradenticle (EXD) or PBX homeodomain proteins...
  47. ncbi Hox gene cross-regulatory interactions in the embryonic brain of Drosophila
    Simon G Sprecher
    Institute of Zoology, Biocenter Pharmacenter University of Basel, Klingelbergstr 50, CH 4056 Basel, Switzerland
    Mech Dev 121:527-36. 2004
    ..in the tritocerebrum can, however, be abolished by concomitant misexpression of a Hox protein and the cofactors Homothorax and nuclear-targeted Extradenticle...
  48. ncbi Regulation of segmentation and segmental identity by Drosophila homeoproteins: the role of DNA binding in functional activity and specificity
    M D Biggin
    Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 208114, USA
    Development 124:4425-33. 1997
    ..In this 'widespread binding' model, cofactors act mainly by helping to distinguish the way in which homeoproteins regulate targets to which they are already bound...
  49. ncbi "Mir"acles in hox gene regulation
    Vivek S Chopra
    Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad, India
    Bioessays 28:445-8. 2006
    ..This study unveils a new complexity and finesse to the regulation of hox gene expression pattern that is needed for determining the anteroposterior body axis in all bilaterians...
  50. pmc Distinct functions of homeodomain-containing and homeodomain-less isoforms encoded by homothorax
    Barbara Noro
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Genes Dev 20:1636-50. 2006
    The homothorax (hth) gene of Drosophila melanogaster is required for executing Hox functions, for head development, and for forming the proximodistal (PD) axis of the appendages...
  51. ncbi The specificity of homeotic gene function
    R S Mann
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Bioessays 17:855-63. 1995
    ..The Drosophila homeoprotein extradenticle (exd) is likely to be one such cofactor...
  52. ncbi Control of Drosophila adult pattern by extradenticle
    S González-Crespo
    Centro de Biologia Molecular, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Spain
    Development 121:2117-25. 1995
    The homeobox gene extradenticle (exd) acts as a cofactor of the homeotic genes in the specification of larval patterns during embryogenesis...
  53. pmc Extradenticle protein is a selective cofactor for the Drosophila homeotics: role of the homeodomain and YPWM amino acid motif in the interaction
    F B Johnson
    Department of Biochemistry, Stanford University, CA 94305
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92:739-43. 1995
    ..The size and sequence of the region between the YPWM element and the homeodomain differ among Ultrabithorax isoforms, and this variable region appears to affect the interaction detected in the assay...
  54. pmc Ultrabithorax protein is necessary but not sufficient for full activation of decapentaplegic expression in the visceral mesoderm
    B Sun
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205
    EMBO J 14:520-35. 1995
    ..including one that appears to act through homeodomain protein binding sites and may be encoded by extradenticle (exd)...
  55. ncbi extradenticle raises the DNA binding specificity of homeotic selector gene products
    M A van Dijk
    Department of Biology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093
    Cell 78:617-24. 1994
    ....
  56. ncbi extradenticle, a regulator of homeotic gene activity, is a homolog of the homeobox-containing human proto-oncogene pbx1
    C Rauskolb
    Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544
    Cell 74:1101-12. 1993
    ..and sequenced exd: it encodes a homeodomain protein with extensive identity (71%) to the human proto-oncoprotein Pbx1. exd is expressed during embryogenesis when the selector homeodomain proteins of the Antennapedia and bithorax ..
  57. ncbi A sequence motif distinct from Hox binding sites controls the specificity of a Hox response element
    X Li
    Department of Biology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Development 126:5581-9. 1999
    ..Thus, cofactor binding sites that are separate and distinct from homeodomain binding sites can dictate the regulatory specificity of a Hox response element...
  58. pmc Engrailed and Hox homeodomain proteins contain a related Pbx interaction motif that recognizes a common structure present in Pbx
    L T Peltenburg
    Department of Biology 0366, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    EMBO J 15:3385-93. 1996
    ..These data indicate that the Pbx interaction motifs present in Hox and engrailed gene products recognize a common structure present in the Pbx family of homeodomain proteins...
  59. ncbi mirror, a Drosophila homeobox gene in the Iroquois complex, is required for sensory organ and alula formation
    B T Kehl
    Department of Cell Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Development 125:1217-27. 1998
    ....
  60. ncbi Six class homeobox genes in drosophila belong to three distinct families and are involved in head development
    H C Seo
    Department of Molecular Biology, University of Bergen, HIB Biobuilding, N 5020, Bergen, Norway
    Mech Dev 83:127-39. 1999
    ..D-Six3 may also be essential for development of the clypeolabrum and several head sensory organs. Thus, the major function of the ancestral Six gene probably involved specification of neural structures in the cephalic region...
  61. ncbi Leg development in flies versus grasshoppers: differences in dpp expression do not lead to differences in the expression of downstream components of the leg patterning pathway
    E L Jockusch
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
    Development 127:1617-26. 2000
    ..dpp and wg cooperatively activate dll and also indirectly inhibit the nuclear localization of Extradenticle (Exd), which divide the leg into distal and proximal domains...
  62. ncbi Direct interaction of two homeoproteins, homothorax and extradenticle, is essential for EXD nuclear localization and function
    T J Jaw
    Institute of Genetics, National Yang Ming University, Shipai, Taipei, Taiwan
    Mech Dev 91:279-91. 2000
    The Drosophila Homothorax (HTH) and Extradenticle (EXD) are two homeoproteins required in a number of developmental processes. EXD can function as a cofactor to Hox proteins. Its nuclear localization is dependent on HTH...
  63. ncbi The design and analysis of a homeotic response element
    R A White
    Department of Anatomy, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, UK
    Mech Dev 91:217-26. 2000
    ..Both the core Hox binding site, 5'-TAAT, and the adjacent EXD 5'-TGAT core site are required for repression by Ultrabithorax and abdominal-A...
  64. ncbi Patterning mechanisms in the body trunk and the appendages of Drosophila
    G Morata
    Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, Spain
    Development 126:2823-8. 1999
    ..We speculate that, although the basic mechanisms are similar, there are significant differences in the manner the body trunk and appendages respond to them...
  65. ncbi Transcription factors: the right combination for the DNA lock
    S Khorasanizadeh
    Department of Chemistry, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland 21250, USA
    Curr Biol 9:R456-8. 1999
    ....
  66. ncbi Regulation of Hox target genes by a DNA bound Homothorax/Hox/Extradenticle complex
    H D Ryoo
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, HHSC 1108, New York, NY, USA
    Development 126:5137-48. 1999
    ..EXD to bind DNA, it must be in the nucleus, and its nuclear localization requires a third homeodomain protein, Homothorax (HTH)...
  67. ncbi Regeneration in insects
    J L Marsh
    Developmental Biology Center and Department of Developmental and Cell Biology, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA, 92697, USA
    Semin Cell Dev Biol 10:365-75. 1999
    ..Each of the regulatory networks could themselves serve as the subject of a detailed review and that is beyond the scope of this discussion. Here we will focus on the interplay between the regulatory networks in patterning the tissue...
  68. ncbi A common mechanism for antenna-to-Leg transformation in Drosophila: suppression of homothorax transcription by four HOM-C genes
    L C Yao
    Institute of Genetics, Department of Life Science, National Yang Ming University, Shipai, Taipei, 112, Taiwan, Republic of China
    Dev Biol 211:268-76. 1999
    ..and abd-A HOM-C genes all exert their effects through a common mechanism: suppressing the transcription of the homothorax (hth) homeobox gene and thereby preventing the nuclear localization of the Extradenticle homeodomain protein...
  69. ncbi Proximal to distal cell communication in the Drosophila leg provides a basis for an intercalary mechanism of limb patterning
    S Goto
    National Institute of Genetics, Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Mishima, Shizuoka ken 411 8540, Japan
    Development 126:3407-13. 1999
    ..in the Drosophila leg is elaborated from the circular arrangement of the proximal domain expressing escargot and homothorax, and the distal domain expressing Distal-less that are allocated during embryogenesis...
  70. ncbi Developmental modularity and the evolutionary diversification of arthropod limbs
    T A Williams
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    J Exp Zool 291:241-57. 2001
    ..Nonetheless, some data comparing patterns of morphogenesis provide evidence that limbs cannot always be temporally or spatially decoupled from the development of their neighbors, suggesting that segment modularity is a derived character...
  71. ncbi Limb development: getting down to the ground state
    B Starling Emerald
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstr 1, 69117, Heidelberg, Germany
    Curr Biol 11:R1025-7. 2001
    ..Recent genetic studies on the Antennapedia and Homothorax genes of Drosophila raise questions about the nature of this ground state appendage.
  72. pmc Nonmuscle myosin promotes cytoplasmic localization of PBX
    He Huang
    McGill Cancer Centre, Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1Y6
    Mol Cell Biol 23:3636-45. 2003
    ..cytoplasmic retention function, the NMHCB fragment competes with MEIS1A to redirect PBX, and the fly PBX homologue EXD, to the cytoplasm of mammalian and insect cells...
  73. ncbi Evolution of transcription factor function
    Cheryl C Hsia
    Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    Curr Opin Genet Dev 13:199-206. 2003
    ..Interestingly, recent studies provide evidence that changes in transcription factor protein sequence can affect the regulation of only a subset of target genes, even in the same cells of a developing animal...
  74. ncbi Proximo-distal development in the legs of Drosophila
    J P Couso
    School of Biological Sciences, Royal Holloway College, University of London, Surrey, United Kingdom
    Int J Dev Biol 42:345-52. 1998
    ..The data suggest a process of regionalization and progressive subdivision of an anlage similar to both insect embryonic segmentation and vertebrate somitogenesis...
  75. ncbi Requirements for transcriptional repression and activation by Engrailed in Drosophila embryos
    Cyrille Alexandre
    National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, UK
    Development 130:729-39. 2003
    ..Extradenticle (Exd) is a cofactor thought to be required for activation by Hox proteins...
  76. pmc Activity regulation of a Hox protein and a role for the homeodomain in inhibiting transcriptional activation
    X Li
    Department of Biology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    EMBO J 18:198-211. 1999
    ..can function by enhancement of the DNA-binding specificity of Hox proteins, as has been shown for Extradenticle (Exd)...
  77. ncbi Hox repression of a target gene: extradenticle-independent, additive action through multiple monomer binding sites
    Ron Galant
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Laboratory of Molecular Biology, University of Wisconsin, 1525 Linden Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
    Development 129:3115-26. 2002
    ..The discovery that the Extradenticle (Exd)/Pbx and Homothorax (Hth)/Meis proteins act as cofactors for several Hox proteins has advanced the view that interactions with ..
  78. ncbi Hox proteins reach out round DNA
    M P Scott
    Nature 397:649, 651. 1999
  79. ncbi Selector genes and limb identity in arthropods and vertebrates
    S D Weatherbee
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Laboratory of Molecular Biology, University of Wisconsin, Madison 53706, USA
    Cell 97:283-6. 1999
  80. ncbi Nucleocytoplasmic localisation of extradenticle protein is spatially regulated throughout development in Drosophila
    S E Aspland
    Department of Anatomy, University of Cambridge, UK
    Development 124:741-7. 1997
    ....
  81. ncbi extradenticle determines segmental identities throughout Drosophila development
    C Rauskolb
    Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, NJ 08544, USA
    Development 121:3663-73. 1995
    extradenticle (exd) and the homeotic selector proteins together establish segmental identities by coordinately regulating the expression of downstream target genes...
  82. ncbi Homeodomain proteins. Cooperating to be different
    D S Wilson
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Rockefeller University, New York City, New York 10021
    Curr Biol 5:32-4. 1995
    ..The product of the Drosophila extradenticle gene interacts cooperatively with homeodomain proteins encoded by homeotic selector genes, and may account in part for their distinct regulatory properties...
  83. pmc Characterization of X-linked recessive lethal mutations affecting embryonic morphogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster
    D F Eberl
    Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada
    Genetics 118:109-20. 1988
    ..Nevertheless, saturation of the X chromosome for genes important for embryonic morphogenesis is probably incomplete...
  84. pmc Molecular mechanism of polyhomeotic activation by Engrailed
    N Serrano
    Departement de Biologie du Developpement, Institut Jacques Monod 2, place Jussieu, 75251 Paris Cedex 05, France
    EMBO J 17:3704-13. 1998
    ..In vivo, we have also shown that normal polyhomeotic expression depends on extradenticle expression. Moreover, in the absence of Extradenticle, overexpression of Engrailed protein represses polyhomeotic expression...

Research Grants69

  1. DISSECTION OF ONCOGENIC PATHWAYS USING DROSOPHILA
    Richard Mann; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The use of Drosophila genetics is proposed to help make connections between genetic functions that cannot be easily identified in mammalian experimental systems. ..
  2. Development and function of an adult locomotion circuit in Drosophila
    Richard S Mann; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  3. Targeting Leukemia causing oncogene E2a-Pbx1 with synthetic molecules
    Aseem Z Ansari; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..A major goal of this proposal is to define the DNA regulatory sites of two oncogenic transcription factors, E2a- Pbx1 and HoxA9...
  4. Modular design of synthetic transcriptional regulators
    Aseem Z Ansari; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The aslo have potential as therapeutic agents for a variety of diseases that are caused by aberrant transcriptional regulation. ..
  5. Role of protein acetylation in Huntington's disease
    J Marsh; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..RESEARCH GRANT TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Numbers Face Page ..................................................................................................................................... 1 Description, ..
  6. Proximo-distal patterning in the Drosophila appendages
    Richard Mann; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The starting point for these experiments are two genes, homothorax and extradenticle, that are important for specifying the identity of the proximal portion of the appendages in ..
  7. Role of chromatin remodeling in Huntington's disease
    J Lawrence Marsh; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The goal of this project is to develop new therapies to restore chromatin disruptions to their pre-disease state for the treatment of Huntington's Disease. ..
  8. Role of protein acetylation in Huntington's disease
    J Marsh; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  9. Cytoskeleton Coordination in Neuronal Morphogenesis
    W Nelson; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  10. Regulation of Cell Migration by the APC-Microtubule Complex
    W Nelson; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  11. Proximo-distal Patterning inthe Drosophila appendeges
    Richard Mann; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  12. MOLECULAR GENETICS OF SEGMENT IDENTITY
    Richard S Mann; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..suggesting that Hox proteins, in conjunction with cofactors of the Extradenticle (Exd, Pbx in vertebrates) and Homothorax (Hth;Meis in vertebrates) families, achieve DNA binding specificity by reading a sequence-dependent DNA ..
  13. Regulation of Cell Migration by the APC-Microtubule Complex
    William Nelson; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  14. MOLECULAR GENETICS OF SEGMENT IDENTITY
    Richard Mann; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..suggesting that Hox proteins, in conjunction with cofactors of the Extradenticle (Exd, Pbx in vertebrates) and Homothorax (Hth; Meis in vertebrates) families, achieve DNA binding specificity by reading a sequence-dependent DNA ..
  15. TOGENESIS OF NA+,K+-ATPASE IN POLARIZED MDCK EPITHELIAL
    W Nelson; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ....
  16. MOLECULAR BASIS OF DEVELOPMENTAL CELL INTERACTIONS
    J Marsh; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ....
  17. Proximo-distal patterning in the Drosophila appendages
    Richard Mann; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The starting point for these experiments are two genes, homothorax and extradenticle, that are important for specifying the identity of the proximal portion of the appendages in ..
  18. Protein acetylation in Huntington's disease
    J Marsh; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  19. POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL MECHANISMS CONTROLLING DEVELOPMENT
    Richard Mann; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Another homeodomain protein, encoded by the Drosophila homothorax gene, is required for Extradenticle's nuclear localization...
  20. IN VIVO ROLE OF PROTEOGLYCANS IN GROWTH FACTOR SIGNALING
    J Marsh; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Further, these in vivo studies may help in understanding the basis of some dysmorphologies in humans. ..