Gene Symbol: eve
Description: even skipped
Alias: 10.5, 10.9, 14.10, 20.35, CG2328, Dmel\CG2328, E(eve), EVE, Eve, dm-eve, eve2, even, l(2)46CFg, l(2)46CFh, l(2)46CFj, l(2)46CFp, l(2)46Ce, l(2)46Cg, even skipped, CG2328-PA, complementation group F, eve-PA, even-skiped, even-skipped, evenskip, evenskipped, group V, group VI, lethal(2)46Ce
Species: fruit fly
Products:     eve

Top Publications

  1. Martin B, Ruiz Gomez M, Landgraf M, Bate M. A distinct set of founders and fusion-competent myoblasts make visceral muscles in the Drosophila embryo. Development. 2001;128:3331-8 pubmed
    ..These specialisations are revealed in mutant embryos where myoblast fusion fails. In the absence of fusion, founders make mononucleate circular or longitudinal fibres, while their fusion-competent neighbours remain undifferentiated. ..
  2. Menon S, Osman Z, Chenchill K, Chia W. A positive feedback loop between Dumbfounded and Rolling pebbles leads to myotube enlargement in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 2005;169:909-20 pubmed
    ..This implicates the Duf-Rols7 positive feedback loop to the occurrence of fusion at specific sites along the membrane and provides a mechanism by which the rate of fusion is controlled. ..
  3. Castanon I, Baylies M. A Twist in fate: evolutionary comparison of Twist structure and function. Gene. 2002;287:11-22 pubmed
    ..Conserved principles and the molecular mechanisms underlying them are discussed. ..
  4. Broihier H, Skeath J. Drosophila homeodomain protein dHb9 directs neuronal fate via crossrepressive and cell-nonautonomous mechanisms. Neuron. 2002;35:39-50 pubmed
    ..We show that dHb9 regulates neuronal fate by restricting expression of Lim3 and Even-skipped (Eve), two homeodomain (HD) proteins required for development of distinct neuronal classes...
  5. Lusk R, Eisen M. Evolutionary mirages: selection on binding site composition creates the illusion of conserved grammars in Drosophila enhancers. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000829 pubmed publisher
    ..melanogaster enhancers. Thus, this study calls into question the common practice of inferring "cis-regulatory grammars" from the organization and evolutionary dynamics of developmental enhancers. ..
  6. Bulchand S, Menon S, George S, Chia W. Muscle wasted: a novel component of the Drosophila histone locus body required for muscle integrity. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:2697-707 pubmed publisher
    ..We speculate that mute regulates terminal muscle differentiation possibly through heterochromatic reorganisation. ..
  7. Lifanov A, Makeev V, Nazina A, Papatsenko D. Homotypic regulatory clusters in Drosophila. Genome Res. 2003;13:579-88 pubmed
    ..We also discuss the potential of the clustering method in interpreting the differential response of genes to various levels of transcriptional regulators. ..
  8. Fowlkes C, Hendriks C, Keränen S, Weber G, Rübel O, Huang M, et al. A quantitative spatiotemporal atlas of gene expression in the Drosophila blastoderm. Cell. 2008;133:364-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We present a VirtualEmbryo containing data for 95 genes at six time cohorts. We show that known gene-regulatory interactions can be automatically recovered from this data set and predict hundreds of new interactions...
  9. Surkova S, Kosman D, Kozlov K, Manu -, Myasnikova E, Samsonova A, et al. Characterization of the Drosophila segment determination morphome. Dev Biol. 2008;313:844-62 pubmed
    ..As the first quantitatively characterized morphogenetic field, this system and its behavior constitute an extraordinarily rich set of materials for the study of canalization and embryonic regulation at the molecular level...

More Information


  1. Fowlkes C, Eckenrode K, Bragdon M, Meyer M, Wunderlich Z, Simirenko L, et al. A conserved developmental patterning network produces quantitatively different output in multiple species of Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002346 pubmed publisher
    ..is complicated by the fact that organismal morphology and gene regulatory networks could potentially vary even between closely related species...
  2. Clyde D, Corado M, Wu X, Pare A, Papatsenko D, Small S. A self-organizing system of repressor gradients establishes segmental complexity in Drosophila. Nature. 2003;426:849-53 pubmed
    ..several segments by differentially repressing two distinct regulatory regions (enhancers) of the pair-rule gene even-skipped (eve)...
  3. Han Z, Fujioka M, Su M, Liu M, Jaynes J, Bodmer R. Transcriptional integration of competence modulated by mutual repression generates cell-type specificity within the cardiogenic mesoderm. Dev Biol. 2002;252:225-40 pubmed
    ..of activating and repressing transcription factors work together to confine the expression of the homeobox gene even-skipped (eve) to a small region of the dorsal mesoderm...
  4. Mizutani C, Nie Q, Wan F, Zhang Y, Vilmos P, Sousa Neves R, et al. Formation of the BMP activity gradient in the Drosophila embryo. Dev Cell. 2005;8:915-24 pubmed
  5. Lacin H, Zhu Y, Wilson B, Skeath J. dbx mediates neuronal specification and differentiation through cross-repressive, lineage-specific interactions with eve and hb9. Development. 2009;136:3257-66 pubmed publisher
    ..subsets of interneurons via cross-repressive, lineage-specific interactions with the motoneuron-promoting factors eve and hb9 (exex)...
  6. Labrador J, O keefe D, Yoshikawa S, McKinnon R, Thomas J, Bashaw G. The homeobox transcription factor even-skipped regulates netrin-receptor expression to control dorsal motor-axon projections in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2005;15:1413-9 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila, the Even-skipped (Eve) transcription factor specifies dorsal motor-axon projection through the regulation of unidentified ..
  7. Shu J, Li Y. A statistical fat-tail test of predicting regulatory regions in the Drosophila genome. Comput Biol Med. 2012;42:935-41 pubmed publisher
    ..These two fatness coefficients may serve as valuable filtering indexes to predict CRMs experimentally. ..
  8. Schroeder M, Pearce M, Fak J, Fan H, Unnerstall U, Emberly E, et al. Transcriptional control in the segmentation gene network of Drosophila. PLoS Biol. 2004;2:E271 pubmed
    ..The study demonstrates that computational methods are a powerful complement to experimental approaches in the analysis of transcription networks. ..
  9. Manu -, Ludwig M, Kreitman M. Sex-specific pattern formation during early Drosophila development. Genetics. 2013;194:163-73 pubmed publisher
    ..We assess the functional output of early dosage compensation by measuring the expression of even-skipped (eve) with high spatiotemporal resolution in male and female embryos...
  10. Baines R, Uhler J, Thompson A, Sweeney S, Bate M. Altered electrical properties in Drosophila neurons developing without synaptic transmission. J Neurosci. 2001;21:1523-31 pubmed
  11. Myasnikova E, Surkova S, Panok L, Samsonova M, Reinitz J. Estimation of errors introduced by confocal imaging into the data on segmentation gene expression in Drosophila. Bioinformatics. 2009;25:346-52 pubmed publisher
    ..This article deals with errors introduced by confocal microscope...
  12. Meyer M, Munzner T, DePace A, Pfister H. MulteeSum: a tool for comparative spatial and temporal gene expression data. IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph. 2010;16:908-17 pubmed publisher
    ..We justify our design decisions based on specific descriptions of the analysis needs of our collaborators, and provide anecdotal evidence of the efficacy of MulteeSum through a series of case studies. ..
  13. Broihier H, Kuzin A, Zhu Y, Odenwald W, Skeath J. Drosophila homeodomain protein Nkx6 coordinates motoneuron subtype identity and axonogenesis. Development. 2004;131:5233-42 pubmed
    ..Thus, this work demonstrates that Nkx6 acts in a specific neuronal population to link neuronal subtype identity to neuronal morphology and connectivity. ..
  14. Keränen S, Fowlkes C, Luengo Hendriks C, Sudar D, Knowles D, Malik J, et al. Three-dimensional morphology and gene expression in the Drosophila blastoderm at cellular resolution II: dynamics. Genome Biol. 2006;7:R124 pubmed
    ..It also provides a coordinate framework for the blastoderm embryo that will allow increasingly accurate spatio-temporal modeling of both the transcriptional control network and morphogenesis. ..
  15. Tsurumi A, Xia F, Li J, Larson K, Lafrance R, Li W. STAT is an essential activator of the zygotic genome in the early Drosophila embryo. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002086 pubmed publisher
    ..We further show that STAT92E and Zelda synergistically regulate transcription. We conclude that STAT92E, in conjunction with Zelda, plays an important role in transcription of the zygotic genome at the onset of embryonic development. ..
  16. Hare E, Peterson B, Iyer V, Meier R, Eisen M. Sepsid even-skipped enhancers are functionally conserved in Drosophila despite lack of sequence conservation. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000106 pubmed publisher
    ..We sequenced the even-skipped locus from six species of scavenger flies (Sepsidae) that are highly diverged from the model species ..
  17. Li X, Thomas S, Sabo P, Eisen M, Stamatoyannopoulos J, Biggin M. The role of chromatin accessibility in directing the widespread, overlapping patterns of Drosophila transcription factor binding. Genome Biol. 2011;12:R34 pubmed publisher
    ..regions, however, the intrinsic affinity of the factor for DNA does play a role in determining net occupancy, with even weak affinity recognition sites contributing...
  18. Crombach A, Wotton K, Cicin Sain D, Ashyraliyev M, Jaeger J. Efficient reverse-engineering of a developmental gene regulatory network. PLoS Comput Biol. 2012;8:e1002589 pubmed publisher
    ..Only the quantitative investigation of a large number of developmental gene regulatory networks will allow us to discover whether there are rules or regularities governing development and evolution of complex multi-cellular organisms. ..
  19. Wheeler J, VanderZwan C, Xu X, Swantek D, Tracey W, Gergen J. Distinct in vivo requirements for establishment versus maintenance of transcriptional repression. Nat Genet. 2002;32:206-10 pubmed
    ..Other transcription factors can also establish repression in Rpd3-deficient embryos, which indicates that the distinction between establishment and maintenance may be a general feature of eukaryotic transcriptional repression. ..
  20. Klingseisen A, Clark I, Gryzik T, Müller H. Differential and overlapping functions of two closely related Drosophila FGF8-like growth factors in mesoderm development. Development. 2009;136:2393-402 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, Pyr is essential for the specification of even-skipped-positive mesodermal precursors and Pyr and Ths are both required for the specification of a subset of ..
  21. Andrioli L, Vasisht V, Theodosopoulou E, Oberstein A, Small S. Anterior repression of a Drosophila stripe enhancer requires three position-specific mechanisms. Development. 2002;129:4931-40 pubmed
    The striped expression pattern of the pair-rule gene even skipped (eve) is established by five stripe-specific enhancers, each of which responds in a unique way to gradients of positional information in the early Drosophila embryo...
  22. Kim A, Martinez C, Ionides J, Ramos A, Ludwig M, Ogawa N, et al. Rearrangements of 2.5 kilobases of noncoding DNA from the Drosophila even-skipped locus define predictive rules of genomic cis-regulatory logic. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003243 pubmed publisher
    Rearrangements of about 2.5 kilobases of regulatory DNA located 5' of the transcription start site of the Drosophila even-skipped locus generate large-scale changes in the expression of even-skipped stripes 2, 3, and 7...
  23. Li L, Arnosti D. Long- and short-range transcriptional repressors induce distinct chromatin states on repressed genes. Curr Biol. 2011;21:406-12 pubmed publisher
  24. Ludwig M, Palsson A, Alekseeva E, Bergman C, Nathan J, Kreitman M. Functional evolution of a cis-regulatory module. PLoS Biol. 2005;3:e93 pubmed
    ..genetics to carry out a functional genetic complementation analysis of a eukaryotic cis-regulatory module-the even-skipped stripe 2 enhancer-from four Drosophila species...
  25. Megason S, Fraser S. Imaging in systems biology. Cell. 2007;130:784-95 pubmed
    ..Here, we discuss the power of integrating imaging tools with more conventional -omic approaches to analyze the biological circuits of microorganisms, plants, and animals. ..
  26. Raj L, Vivekanand P, Das T, Badam E, Fernandes M, Finley R, et al. Targeted localized degradation of Paired protein in Drosophila development. Curr Biol. 2000;10:1265-72 pubmed
    ..Prd functions only in cells in which ppa mRNA expression has been repressed by another segmentation protein, Even-skipped (Eve). When ppa was expressed ectopically in these cells, Prd protein, but not mRNA, levels diminished...
  27. Pisarev A, Poustelnikova E, Samsonova M, Reinitz J. FlyEx, the quantitative atlas on segmentation gene expression at cellular resolution. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:D560-6 pubmed publisher
    ..5 h of development. FlyEx supports the data downloads and construction of personal reference datasets, that makes it possible to more effectively use and analyze data. ..
  28. Mann T, Bodmer R, Pandur P. The Drosophila homolog of vertebrate Islet1 is a key component in early cardiogenesis. Development. 2009;136:317-26 pubmed publisher
    ..analyses for tup and pnr suggest that a proper balance of these factors is also required for the specification of Eve-expressing pericardial cells...
  29. Ludwig M, Manu -, Kittler R, White K, Kreitman M. Consequences of eukaryotic enhancer architecture for gene expression dynamics, development, and fitness. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002364 pubmed publisher
    ..Using an enhancer of the even-skipped gene of Drosophila as a model, we investigate the functional significance of the genomic sequences ..
  30. Thor S, Thomas J. Motor neuron specification in worms, flies and mice: conserved and 'lost' mechanisms. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2002;12:558-64 pubmed
    ..By comparing findings from Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila and vertebrate model systems, it is apparent that both evolutionarily conserved and non-conserved mechanisms are used. ..
  31. Stone J, Wray G. Rapid evolution of cis-regulatory sequences via local point mutations. Mol Biol Evol. 2001;18:1764-70 pubmed
    ..b>Even combinations of two new binding sites evolve very quickly...
  32. Hallikas O, Palin K, Sinjushina N, Rautiainen R, Partanen J, Ukkonen E, et al. Genome-wide prediction of mammalian enhancers based on analysis of transcription-factor binding affinity. Cell. 2006;124:47-59 pubmed
  33. Furlong E. Integrating transcriptional and signalling networks during muscle development. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2004;14:343-50 pubmed
    ..The integration of additional signalling inputs with localised repression within these competence domains results in diverse transcriptional responses within neighbouring cells, which in turn generates muscle diversity. ..
  34. Stathopoulos A, Levine M. Localized repressors delineate the neurogenic ectoderm in the early Drosophila embryo. Dev Biol. 2005;280:482-93 pubmed
    ..The ventral limits of gene expression are defined by the Snail and Vnd repressors, while the dorsal border is established by the newly defined silencer element. ..
  35. Papatsenko D, Levine M. The Drosophila gap gene network is composed of two parallel toggle switches. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21145 pubmed publisher
    ..The identified model solutions (parameter combinations) reproduced major dynamic features of the gap gradient system and explained gap expression in a variety of segmentation mutants. ..
  36. Samee A, Sinha S. Evaluating thermodynamic models of enhancer activity on cellular resolution gene expression data. Methods. 2013;62:79-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show how fitting quantitative models on data sets comprising a handful of enhancers, as reported in earlier work, may lead to unreliable models. ..
  37. Van Bortle K, Ramos E, Takenaka N, Yang J, Wahi J, Corces V. Drosophila CTCF tandemly aligns with other insulator proteins at the borders of H3K27me3 domains. Genome Res. 2012;22:2176-87 pubmed publisher
    ..We reveal an important relationship between dCTCF and other Drosophila insulator proteins and speculate that vertebrate CTCF may also align with other nuclear proteins to accomplish similar functions. ..
  38. Ilsley G, Fisher J, Apweiler R, De Pace A, Luscombe N. Cellular resolution models for even skipped regulation in the entire Drosophila embryo. elife. 2013;2:e00522 pubmed publisher
    ..For the first time, we successfully model even skipped (eve) stripes 2 and 3+7 across the entire fly embryo at cellular resolution...
  39. Kim S, Shilagardi K, Zhang S, Hong S, Sens K, Bo J, et al. A critical function for the actin cytoskeleton in targeted exocytosis of prefusion vesicles during myoblast fusion. Dev Cell. 2007;12:571-86 pubmed
    ..These studies reveal a surprising cell-type specificity of Sltr-mediated actin polymerization in myoblast fusion, and demonstrate that targeted exocytosis of prefusion vesicles is a critical step prior to plasma membrane fusion. ..
  40. Janssens H, Kosman D, Vanario Alonso C, Jaeger J, Samsonova M, Reinitz J. A high-throughput method for quantifying gene expression data from early Drosophila embryos. Dev Genes Evol. 2005;215:374-81 pubmed
    ..This method provides high-throughput quantification at cellular resolution. ..
  41. Massarwa R, Carmon S, Shilo B, Schejter E. WIP/WASp-based actin-polymerization machinery is essential for myoblast fusion in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2007;12:557-69 pubmed
    ..These observations identify cellular and developmental roles for the WASp-Arp2/3 pathway, and provide a link between force-generating actin polymerization and cell fusion. ..
  42. Makeev V, Lifanov A, Nazina A, Papatsenko D. Distance preferences in the arrangement of binding motifs and hierarchical levels in organization of transcription regulatory information. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:6016-26 pubmed
    ..We discuss the role of the hierarchy in understanding transcriptional regulation and in detection of transcription regulatory regions in genomes. ..
  43. Jaeger J, Blagov M, Kosman D, Kozlov K, Manu -, Myasnikova E, et al. Dynamical analysis of regulatory interactions in the gap gene system of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2004;167:1721-37 pubmed
    ..Finally, our models suggest a correlation between timing of gap domain boundary formation and regulatory contributions from the terminal maternal system...
  44. Nibu Y, Senger K, Levine M. CtBP-independent repression in the Drosophila embryo. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:3990-9 pubmed
    ..These findings provide evidence that competition is distinct from quenching and direct repression. Quenching and direct repression depend on dCtBP, whereas competition does not. ..
  45. Papatsenko D, Makeev V, Lifanov A, Regnier M, Nazina A, Desplan C. Extraction of functional binding sites from unique regulatory regions: the Drosophila early developmental enhancers. Genome Res. 2002;12:470-81 pubmed
    ..We also discuss the definition of true binding sites and the possible biological principles that govern patterning of regulatory regions and the distribution of transcriptional signals. ..
  46. Garces A, Thor S. Specification of Drosophila aCC motoneuron identity by a genetic cascade involving even-skipped, grain and zfh1. Development. 2006;133:1445-55 pubmed
    ..Specification of the ISN subclass is dependent upon both even-skipped (eve) and the zfh1 zinc-finger homeobox gene...
  47. Busser B, Shokri L, Jaeger S, Gisselbrecht S, Singhania A, Berger M, et al. Molecular mechanism underlying the regulatory specificity of a Drosophila homeodomain protein that specifies myoblast identity. Development. 2012;139:1164-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these studies provide new insights into the roles of individual HD TFs in determining cellular identity, and suggest that the diversity of HD binding preferences can confer regulatory specificity. ..
  48. Fujioka M, Wu X, Jaynes J. A chromatin insulator mediates transgene homing and very long-range enhancer-promoter communication. Development. 2009;136:3077-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Enhancers that normally drive Drosophila even skipped (eve) expression are located closer to the TER94 transcription start site than to that of eve...
  49. Jennings B, Shah S, Yamaguchi Y, Seki M, Phillips R, Handa H, et al. Locus-specific requirements for Spt5 in transcriptional activation and repression in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2004;14:1680-4 pubmed
    ..on transcription: expression of gap genes remains wild-type, but striped patterning of the primary pair-rule genes even-skipped and runt is disrupted...
  50. Gursky V, Reinitz J, Samsonov A. How gap genes make their domains: An analytical study based on data driven approximations. Chaos. 2001;11:132-141 pubmed
    ..Some results of the comparison method applied to the model are obtained, and exact stationary upper solutions are derived. They exhibit distinctive features of localized bell-shaped structures. (c) 2001 American Institute of Physics. ..
  51. Carrasco Rando M, Tutor A, Prieto Sánchez S, González Pérez E, Barrios N, Letizia A, et al. Drosophila araucan and caupolican integrate intrinsic and signalling inputs for the acquisition by muscle progenitors of the lateral transverse fate. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002186 pubmed publisher
    ..This provides a comprehensive insight into the way Iroquois genes integrate in muscle progenitors, signalling inputs that modulate gene expression and protein activity. ..
  52. Jagla T, Bidet Y, Da Ponte J, Dastugue B, Jagla K. Cross-repressive interactions of identity genes are essential for proper specification of cardiac and muscular fates in Drosophila. Development. 2002;129:1037-47 pubmed
    ..We have analysed regulatory interactions of ladybird (lb), msh and even skipped (eve), the three identity genes specifying a subset of heart and/or dorsal muscle precursors...
  53. Goltsev Y, Hsiong W, Lanzaro G, Levine M. Different combinations of gap repressors for common stripes in Anopheles and Drosophila embryos. Dev Biol. 2004;275:435-46 pubmed
    ..We discuss the evolution of separate stripe enhancers in the eve loci of different dipterans.
  54. Beckett K, Baylies M. 3D analysis of founder cell and fusion competent myoblast arrangements outlines a new model of myoblast fusion. Dev Biol. 2007;309:113-25 pubmed
    ..5 h. Altogether, our data have led us to propose a new model of myoblast fusion where the frequency of myoblast fusion events may be influenced by the spatial arrangements of FCs and FCMs. ..
  55. Kim S, Shim H, Jeon B, Choi W, Hur M, Girton J, et al. The pleiohomeotic functions as a negative regulator of Drosophila even-skipped gene during embryogenesis. Mol Cells. 2011;32:549-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicated that engrailed and even-skipped genes were misexpressed in pho mutant embryos, which caused embryonic segment defects.
  56. Holloway D, Harrison L, Kosman D, Vanario Alonso C, Spirov A. Analysis of pattern precision shows that Drosophila segmentation develops substantial independence from gradients of maternal gene products. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:2949-60 pubmed
    ..Segmentation is first seen in the striped expression patterns of the pair-rule genes, such as even-skipped (eve)...
  57. Perry M, Bothma J, Luu R, Levine M. Precision of hunchback expression in the Drosophila embryo. Curr Biol. 2012;22:2247-52 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that this repression helps ensure precision of the anterior Hb border in response to variations in the Bicoid gradient. ..
  58. Bergmann S, Sandler O, Sberro H, Shnider S, Schejter E, Shilo B, et al. Pre-steady-state decoding of the Bicoid morphogen gradient. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e46 pubmed
    ..This can explain the surprisingly small shifts in gap and pair-rule gene expression domains observed in response to alterations in bcd dosage. ..
  59. Fujioka M, Yusibova G, Zhou J, Jaynes J. The DNA-binding Polycomb-group protein Pleiohomeotic maintains both active and repressed transcriptional states through a single site. Development. 2008;135:4131-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we identify a strong pairing-sensitive silencing (PSS) element at the 3' border of the Drosophila even skipped (eve) locus. This element can maintain repression during embryonic as well as adult eye development...
  60. Peel A, Chipman A, Akam M. Arthropod segmentation: beyond the Drosophila paradigm. Nat Rev Genet. 2005;6:905-16 pubmed
    ..A model is emerging, although slowly, for the way that arthropod segmentation mechanisms have evolved. ..
  61. Bullock S, Ish Horowicz D. Conserved signals and machinery for RNA transport in Drosophila oogenesis and embryogenesis. Nature. 2001;414:611-6 pubmed
    ..We propose that Egl and BicD are core components of a selective dynein motor complex that drives transcript localization in a variety of tissues. ..
  62. Mahr A, Aberle H. The expression pattern of the Drosophila vesicular glutamate transporter: a marker protein for motoneurons and glutamatergic centers in the brain. Gene Expr Patterns. 2006;6:299-309 pubmed
    ..Given that vesicular glutamate transporters are essential for the uptake of the neurotransmitter glutamate into synaptic vesicles these tools provide a means to test gene function in these functionally important neurons. ..
  63. Rogulja Ortmann A, Lüer K, Seibert J, Rickert C, Technau G. Programmed cell death in the embryonic central nervous system of Drosophila melanogaster. Development. 2007;134:105-16 pubmed
    ..The data obtained in this analysis form the basis for further investigations into the mechanisms involved in the regulation of PCD and its role in segmental patterning in the embryonic CNS. ..
  64. Lee H, Frasch M. Wingless effects mesoderm patterning and ectoderm segmentation events via induction of its downstream target sloppy paired. Development. 2000;127:5497-508 pubmed
    ..We also propose that in wg-expressing ectodermal cells, slp is an integral component in an autocrine feedback loop of Wg signaling. ..
  65. Blankenship J, Wieschaus E. Two new roles for the Drosophila AP patterning system in early morphogenesis. Development. 2001;128:5129-38 pubmed
    ..Our results therefore suggest a link between cytoskeletal organization during cellularization and subsequent morphogenetic processes of gastrulation. ..
  66. Lebrecht D, Foehr M, Smith E, Lopes F, Vanario Alonso C, Reinitz J, et al. Bicoid cooperative DNA binding is critical for embryonic patterning in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:13176-81 pubmed
    ..These failures in precise transcriptional control demonstrate the importance of cooperative DNA binding for embryonic patterning in vivo. ..
  67. Harrison M, Li X, Kaplan T, Botchan M, Eisen M. Zelda binding in the early Drosophila melanogaster embryo marks regions subsequently activated at the maternal-to-zygotic transition. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002266 pubmed publisher
    ..This strong early association of ZLD with regions not active until the MZT suggests that ZLD is not only required for the earliest wave of transcription but also plays a major role in activating the genome at the MZT. ..
  68. Wong M, Castanon I, Baylies M. Daughterless dictates Twist activity in a context-dependent manner during somatic myogenesis. Dev Biol. 2008;317:417-29 pubmed publisher
    ..By contrast, the REP domain is not required in vivo during later stages of myogenesis, even though Twi activity is required for muscles to achieve their final pattern and morphology...
  69. Carmena A, Buff E, Halfon M, Gisselbrecht S, Jimenez F, Baylies M, et al. Reciprocal regulatory interactions between the Notch and Ras signaling pathways in the Drosophila embryonic mesoderm. Dev Biol. 2002;244:226-42 pubmed
    ..These reciprocal interactions combine to generate the signal thresholds that are essential for proper specification of progenitors and nonprogenitors from groups of initially equivalent cells. ..
  70. MILES C, Lott S, Hendriks C, Ludwig M, Manu -, Williams C, et al. Artificial selection on egg size perturbs early pattern formation in Drosophila melanogaster. Evolution. 2011;65:33-42 pubmed publisher
    ..is suppressed in this system, artificial selection for divergent egg size was used to challenge the scaling of even-skipped (eve) pattern formation in mitotic cycle 14 (stage 5) embryos of Drosophila melanogaster...
  71. Berman B, Nibu Y, Pfeiffer B, Tomancak P, Celniker S, Levine M, et al. Exploiting transcription factor binding site clustering to identify cis-regulatory modules involved in pattern formation in the Drosophila genome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:757-62 pubmed
    ..We tested one of the newly identified clusters, mapping upstream of the gap gene giant (gt), and show that it acts as an enhancer that recapitulates the posterior expression pattern of gt. ..
  72. Surkova S, Golubkova E, Manu -, Panok L, Mamon L, Reinitz J, et al. Quantitative dynamics and increased variability of segmentation gene expression in the Drosophila Krüppel and knirps mutants. Dev Biol. 2013;376:99-112 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that throughout cycle 14A the relative levels of eve and ftz expression in stripes 2 and 3 are variable among individual embryos...
  73. Carrasco Rando M, Ruiz Gomez M. Mind bomb 2, a founder myoblast-specific protein, regulates myoblast fusion and muscle stability. Development. 2008;135:849-57 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that Mib2 acts sequentially in myoblast fusion and sarcomeric stability by two separable processes involving distinct functions of Mib2. ..
  74. Jaynes J, Fujioka M. Drawing lines in the sand: even skipped et al. and parasegment boundaries. Dev Biol. 2004;269:609-22 pubmed
    The pair-rule segmentation gene even skipped (eve) is required to activate engrailed stripes and to organize odd-numbered parasegments (PSs)...
  75. Layden M, Odden J, Schmid A, Garces A, Thor S, Doe C. Zfh1, a somatic motor neuron transcription factor, regulates axon exit from the CNS. Dev Biol. 2006;291:253-63 pubmed
    ..g. Islet, Hb9, Nkx6, Lim3)--to project laterally and exit the CNS. We conclude that Zfh1 is required for ventral motor axon exit from the CNS. ..
  76. Tautz D. Segmentation. Dev Cell. 2004;7:301-12 pubmed
    ..An old concept of comparative anatomy, the enterocoele theory, is compatible with a single origin of segmentation mechanisms and could therefore provide a conceptual framework for assessing these molecular similarities. ..
  77. Ho M, Johnsen H, Goetz S, Schiller B, Bae E, Tran D, et al. Functional evolution of cis-regulatory modules at a homeotic gene in Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000709 pubmed publisher
    ..These results have implications for understanding mechanisms of gene expression during embryonic development, enhancer function, and the molecular evolution of eukaryotic regulatory modules...
  78. Liu F, Morrison A, Gregor T. Dynamic interpretation of maternal inputs by the Drosophila segmentation gene network. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:6724-9 pubmed publisher
  79. Fujimoto K, Ishihara S, Kaneko K. Network evolution of body plans. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2772 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that the emergence of the three modes of body segmentation in arthropods is an inherent property of the evolving networks. ..
  80. Liu J, Ma J. Fates-shifted is an F-box protein that targets Bicoid for degradation and regulates developmental fate determination in Drosophila embryos. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:22-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study is an experimental demonstration that, contrary to an alternative hypothesis, Bcd protein degradation is required for normal gradient formation and developmental fate determination. ..
  81. Surkova S, Myasnikova E, Janssens H, Kozlov K, Samsonova A, Reinitz J, et al. Pipeline for acquisition of quantitative data on segmentation gene expression from confocal images. Fly (Austin). 2008;2:58-66 pubmed
    ..5-minute resolution in time, as well as to construct a spatiotemporal atlas of segmentation gene expression. Each data pipeline step can be easily adapted to process a wide range of images of gene expression patterns. ..
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    ..The system is simple and efficient, and will permit precise comparisons between multiple transgenic constructs. ..
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    ..interactions help explain unresolved aspects of segmentation, including the differential regulation of the eve stripe 3 + 7 and stripe 4 + 6 enhancers...