Gene Symbol: Est-6
Description: Esterase 6
Alias: CG6917, Dmel\CG6917, EST-5, EST-6, EST6, Est, Est 6, Est-5, Est-5B, Est-D, Est6, est-6, est6, esterase 6, CG6917-PA, CG6917-PB, Est-6-PA, Est-6-PB, Esterase-6, Esterase6, Stress-inducible humoral factor turandot A, carboxyl ester hydrolase
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Pen J, Van Beeumen J, Beintema J. Structural comparison of two esterases from Drosophila mojavensis isolated by immunoaffinity chromatography. Biochem J. 1986;238:691-9 pubmed
    ..Although both enzymes exhibit little immunological cross-reactivity, their amino acid compositions show few significant differences and their N-terminal sequences are largely identical, which clearly show their common origin. ..
  2. Oakeshott J, Claudianos C, Russell R, Robin G. Carboxyl/cholinesterases: a case study of the evolution of a successful multigene family. Bioessays. 1999;21:1031-42 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we postulate that the versatility of the substrate binding motifs underpins the recruitment of several family members to additional noncatalytic signal transduction functions. ..
  3. Ludwig M, Tamarina N, Richmond R. Localization of sequences controlling the spatial, temporal, and sex-specific expression of the esterase 6 locus in Drosophila melanogaster adults. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:6233-7 pubmed
    The esterase 6 gene (Est-6) of Drosophila melanogaster is expressed in a variety of tissues that differ between larval and adult stages and among related species...
  4. Balakirev E, Chechetkin V, Lobzin V, Ayala F. Entropy and GC Content in the beta-esterase gene cluster of the Drosophila melanogaster subgroup. Mol Biol Evol. 2005;22:2063-72 pubmed publisher
    We perform spectral entropy and GC content analyses in the beta-esterase gene cluster, including the Est-6 gene and the psiEst-6 putative pseudogene, in seven species of the Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup...
  5. Balakirev E, Ayala F. The beta-esterase gene cluster of drosophila melanogaster: is psiEst-6 a pseudogene, a functional gene, or both?. Genetica. 2004;121:165-79 pubmed
    ..We investigate, as a model case, the beta-esterase gene cluster of Drosophila melanogaster that includes the Est-6 gene and the psiEst-6 putative pseudogene...
  6. Collet C, Nielsen K, Russell R, Karl M, Oakeshott J, Richmond R. Molecular analysis of duplicated esterase genes in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Biol Evol. 1990;7:9-28 pubmed
    Genomic clones containing sequences homologous to an esterase 6 (Est-6) cDNA clone were isolated from a library of Drosophila melanogaster DNA...
  7. Sergeev P, Yenikolopov G, Peunova N, Kuzin B, Khechumian R, Korochkin L, et al. Regulation of tissue-specific expression of the esterase S gene in Drosophila virilis. Nucleic Acids Res. 1993;21:3545-51 pubmed
    ..Point mutations destroying the three ORFs completely eliminate the inhibitory effect. Hence tissue-specific expression of the estS gene may depend on control at the level of transcription, promoter selection and translation. ..
  8. Brady J, Richmond R, Oakeshott J. Cloning of the esterase-5 locus from Drosophila pseudoobscura and comparison with its homologue in D. melanogaster. Mol Biol Evol. 1990;7:525-46 pubmed publisher P-element transformation has demonstrated that Est-5B encodes an enzyme with the same physical properties as EST 5 in D. pseudoobscura...
  9. Balakirev E, Anisimova M, Ayala F. Positive and negative selection in the beta-esterase gene cluster of the Drosophila melanogaster subgroup. J Mol Evol. 2006;62:496-510 pubmed
    We examine the pattern of molecular evolution of the beta-esterase gene cluster, including the Est-6 and psiEst-6 genes, in eight species of the Drosophila melanogaster subgroup...

More Information


  1. Healy M, Dumancic M, Oakeshott J. Biochemical and physiological studies of soluble esterases from Drosophila melanogaster. Biochem Genet. 1991;29:365-88 pubmed
    ..Carboxylesterases are distributed across a wide range of tissues, but subclass 1 cholinesterases are generally associated with neural or neurosecretory tissues and subclass 2 cholinesterases with digestive tissues. ..
  2. Olson P, Fessler L, Nelson R, Sterne R, Campbell A, Fessler J. Glutactin, a novel Drosophila basement membrane-related glycoprotein with sequence similarity to serine esterases. EMBO J. 1990;9:1219-27 pubmed
    ..Several similarities with mammalian entactin caused our previous, preliminary mention of glutactin as a putative Drosophila entactin, but sequence comparison now shows them to be different proteins. ..
  3. Richmond R, Gilbert D, Sheehan K, Gromko M, Butterworth F. Esterase 6 and reproduction in Drosophila melanogaster. Science. 1980;207:1483-5 pubmed
    A nonspecific carboxylesterase (esterase 6) of Drosophila melanogaster shows greater activity in adult males than in females and is highly concentrated in the anterior ejaculatory duct of the reproductive tract of the male...
  4. Campbell P, Harcourt R, Crone E, Claudianos C, Hammock B, Russell R, et al. Identification of a juvenile hormone esterase gene by matching its peptide mass fingerprint with a sequence from the Drosophila genome project. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2001;31:513-20 pubmed
    ..This sequence is in agreement with the Drosophila genome project's prediction except that the sixth predicted intron is not removed; instead there is a stop codon followed by a polyadenylation signal and a polyA tail. ..
  5. Saad M, Game A, Healy M, Oakeshott J. Associations of esterase 6 allozyme and activity variation with reproductive fitness in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetica. 1994;94:43-56 pubmed
    Previous studies have shown that the esterase 6 (EST6) enzyme of D...
  6. Brady J, Richmond R. Molecular analysis of evolutionary changes in the expression of Drosophila esterases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:8217-21 pubmed
    ..pseudoobscura relative to its homologue in D. melanogaster, EST 6. EST 5 is expressed in the eyes and hemolymph of transformed D. melanogaster just as it is in D...
  7. Brady J, Richmond R. An evolutionary model for the duplication and divergence of esterase genes in Drosophila. J Mol Evol. 1992;34:506-21 pubmed
    The esterase 5 (Est-5 = gene, EST 5 = protein) enzyme in Drosophila pseudoobscura is encoded by one of three paralogous genes, Est-5A, Est-5B, and Est-5C, that are tightly clustered on the right arm of the X chromosome...
  8. Oakeshott J, van Papenrecht E, Boyce T, Healy M, Russell R. Evolutionary genetics of Drosophila esterases. Genetica. 1993;90:239-68 pubmed
    ..Sequence differences between two other esterases, the EST6 carboxyl esterase and acetylcholinesterase, have been interpreted against the consensus super-secondary structure ..
  9. Odgers W, Aquadro C, Coppin C, Healy M, Oakeshott J. Nucleotide polymorphism in the Est6 promoter, which is widespread in derived populations of Drosophila melanogaster, changes the level of Esterase 6 expressed in the male ejaculatory duct. Genetics. 2002;162:785-97 pubmed
    Previous analysis of an Australian population of D. melanogaster revealed two predominant Est6 promoter haplotypes, P1 and P7...
  10. Dumancic M, Oakeshott J, Russell R, Healy M. Characterization of the EstP protein in Drosophila melanogaster and its conservation in drosophilids. Biochem Genet. 1997;35:251-71 pubmed
    The beta-esterase cluster of D. melanogaster comprises two tandemly duplicated genes. Est6 encodes the well-characterized 5' gene, but the product of the second gene, denoted EstP, had not previously been identified...
  11. Tamarina N, Ludwig M, Richmond R. Divergent and conserved features in the spatial expression of the Drosophila pseudoobscura esterase-5B gene and the esterase-6 gene of Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:7735-41 pubmed
    The regulatory regions of homologous genes encoding esterase 6 (Est-6) of Drosophila melanogaster and esterase 5B (Est-5B) of Drosophila pseudoobscura show very little similarity...
  12. Balakirev E, Ayala F. Is esterase-P encoded by a cryptic pseudogene in Drosophila melanogaster?. Genetics. 1996;144:1511-8 pubmed
    We have amplified and sequenced the gene encoding Esterase-P (Est-P) in 10 strains of Drosophila melanogaster. Three premature termination codons occur in the coding region of the gene in two strains...
  13. Karotam J, Delves A, Oakeshott J. Conservation and change in structural and 5' flanking sequences of esterase 6 in sibling Drosophila species. Genetica. 1993;88:11-28 pubmed
    b>Esterase 6 (Est-6/EST6) is the major beta-carboxylesterase in D. melanogaster and its siblings D. simulans and D. mauritiana...
  14. Oakeshott J, van Papenrecht E, Claudianos C, Morrish B, Coppin C, Odgers W. An episode of accelerated amino acid change in Drosophila esterase-6 associated with a change in physiological function. Genetica. 2000;110:231-44 pubmed
    ..There are also three changes in glycosylation status. One region predicted to lie on the protein surface which becomes markedly more hydrophilic is proposed to be the ancestral dimerisation site that is lost in the transitional branch...
  15. Balakirev E, Ayala F. Molecular population genetics of the beta-esterase gene cluster of Drosophila melanogaster. J Genet. 2003;82:115-31 pubmed
    We have investigated nucleotide polymorphism at the beta-esterase gene cluster including the Est-6 gene and psiEst-6 putative pseudogene in four samples of Drosophila melanogaster derived from natural populations of southern Africa (..
  16. Begun D, Aquadro C. Levels of naturally occurring DNA polymorphism correlate with recombination rates in D. melanogaster. Nature. 1992;356:519-20 pubmed
    ..Hitch-hiking thus seems to occur over a large fraction of the Drosophila genome and may constitute a major constraint on levels of genetic variation in nature. ..
  17. Sergeev P, Panin V, Pavlova G, Kopantseva M, Shostak N, Bashkirov V, et al. The expression of esterase S gene of Drosophila virilis in Drosophila melanogaster. FEBS Lett. 1995;360:194-6 pubmed
    ..The comparison between deduced amino-acid sequences of the esterase S of Drosophila virilis and esterase 6 of Drosophila melanogaster was performed. These sequences revealed 50% homology.
  18. Karotam J, Oakeshott J. Regulatory aspects of esterase 6 activity variation in sibling Drosophila species. Heredity (Edinb). 1993;71 ( Pt 1):41-50 pubmed
    b>Esterase 6 in Drosophila melanogaster, Drosophila simulans and Drosophila mauritiana is produced in several life stages and diverse tissues, but the major pulse of expression is in the sperm ejaculatory duct of adult males...
  19. Templeton A, Crandall K, Sing C. A cladistic analysis of phenotypic associations with haplotypes inferred from restriction endonuclease mapping and DNA sequence data. III. Cladogram estimation. Genetics. 1992;132:619-33 pubmed
    ..We apply this estimation procedure to three data sets to illustrate varying degrees of cladogram ambiguity and recombination. ..
  20. Coppin C, Odgers W, Oakeshott J. Latitudinal clines for nucleotide polymorphisms in the Esterase 6 gene of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetica. 2007;129:259-71 pubmed
    Previous studies have found non-neutral patterns of nucleotide polymorphism in the promoter and coding regions of Est6 in D. melanogaster...
  21. Bubliĭ O, Imasheva A, Lazebnyi O. [Geographic variability of Adh, alpha-Gpdh, and Est-6 loci in natural Eurasia Drosophila melanogaster populations]. Genetika. 1994;30:467-77 pubmed
    The allele frequencies of three allozyme loci, ADH, alpha-GPDH, and EST-6, were assessed in 18 natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster of Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Central Asia...
  22. Labate J, Bortoli A, Game A, Cooke P, Oakeshott J. The number and distribution of esterase 6 alleles in populations of Drosophila melanogaster. Heredity (Edinb). 1989;63 ( Pt 2):203-8 pubmed
    High resolution electrophoretic analyses of the polymorphic esterase 6 enzyme have been carried out on 133 isoallelic lines from three Australian populations of Drosophila melanogaster spanning 25 degrees of latitude...
  23. Chertemps T, François A, Durand N, Rosell G, Dekker T, Lucas P, et al. A carboxylesterase, Esterase-6, modulates sensory physiological and behavioral response dynamics to pheromone in Drosophila. BMC Biol. 2012;10:56 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we verified the role of an extracellular carboxylesterase, esterase-6 (Est-6), in the sensory physiological and behavioral dynamics of Drosophila melanogaster response to its pheromone, cis-..
  24. Ivashchenko N, Grishaeva T. [Mutational variability of enzyme loci in unstable Drosophila melanogaster strains]. Genetika. 1990;26:257-65 pubmed
    ..Activity and mobility variants of alpha-GPDH, ADH, SOD, G6PD, 6PGD and EST-6 were analysed...
  25. Lemos B, Araripe L, Hartl D. Polymorphic Y chromosomes harbor cryptic variation with manifold functional consequences. Science. 2008;319:91-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Functionally, they affect microtubule stability, lipid and mitochondrial metabolism, and the thermal sensitivity of spermatogenesis. Our findings provide a mechanism for adaptive phenotypic variation associated with the Y chromosome. ..
  26. Oakeshott J, Saad M, Game A, Healy M. Causes and consequences of esterase 6 enzyme activity variation in pre-adult Drosophila melanogaster. Heredity (Edinb). 1994;73 ( Pt 2):160-9 pubmed
    We report heritable threefold differences in both larval and pupal esterase 6 activity among 17 isoallelic lines of D. melanogaster extracted from a natural population...
  27. Healy M, Dumancic M, Cao A, Oakeshott J. Localization of sequences regulating ancestral and acquired sites of esterase6 activity in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Biol Evol. 1996;13:784-97 pubmed
    We have broadly defined the DNA regions regulating esterase6 activity in several life stages and tissue types of D...
  28. Zapata C, Alvarez G. On the detection of nonrandom associations between DNA polymorphisms in natural populations of Drosophila. Mol Biol Evol. 1993;10:823-41 pubmed publisher
    ..variants was examined in eight gene regions of Drosophila melanogaster (yellow-achaetescute, white, Zw, Adh, Est6, and rosy) and D. pseudoobscura (Adh and Xdh), on the basis of published population data...
  29. Sackton T, Kulathinal R, Bergman C, Quinlan A, Dopman E, Carneiro M, et al. Population genomic inferences from sparse high-throughput sequencing of two populations of Drosophila melanogaster. Genome Biol Evol. 2009;1:449-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Continued development of methods for statistical inference of shallow-depth genome-wide sequencing data will allow such sparse, partial data sets to become the norm in the emerging field of population genomics. ..
  30. White M, Mane S, Richmond R. Studies of esterase 6 in Drosophila melanogaster. XVIII. Biochemical differences between the slow and fast allozymes. Mol Biol Evol. 1988;5:41-62 pubmed
    ..These and previous analyses of the EST 6 allozymes reveal that the two variants have differences in their physical and kinetic properties that may provide ..
  31. Karotam J, Delves A, Oakeshott J. Conservation and change in structural and 5' flanking sequences of esterase 6 in sibling Drosophila species. Genetica. 1993;90:79-80 pubmed
  32. Schorderet D, Gartler S. Analysis of CpG suppression in methylated and nonmethylated species. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:957-61 pubmed
    ..We speculate that the excess of CpGs at position III-I in nonmethylated forms may be related to a requirement for minimal thermal stability of the DNA. ..
  33. Bubli O, Rakitskaya T, Imasheva A. Variation of allozyme loci in populations of Drosophila melanogaster from the former USSR. Heredity (Edinb). 1996;77 ( Pt 6):638-45 pubmed
    Variation of eight allozyme loci, Acph, Adh, Est-6, Est-C, alpha-Gpdh, Idh (NADP-dependent), 6-Pgd and Pgm, was studied in 20 populations of Drosophila melanogaster from the territory of the former USSR, including Eastern Europe, the ..
  34. Templeton A, Sing C. A cladistic analysis of phenotypic associations with haplotypes inferred from restriction endonuclease mapping. IV. Nested analyses with cladogram uncertainty and recombination. Genetics. 1993;134:659-69 pubmed
    ..In particular, recombination can be used to assign a physical localization to a given subregion for mutations responsible for significant phenotypic effects. ..
  35. Meiklejohn C, Coolon J, Hartl D, Wittkopp P. The roles of cis- and trans-regulation in the evolution of regulatory incompatibilities and sexually dimorphic gene expression. Genome Res. 2014;24:84-95 pubmed publisher
  36. Sergeev P, Kastil o K, Peunova N, Enikolopov G. [Primary structure of the esterase s gene from Drosophila virilis]. Bioorg Khim. 1989;15:839-43 pubmed
    ..Conceptual translation of the DNA sequence reveals a protein 549 amino acid residues long, its presumptive active site being highly similar to active sites of the known esterases of insects and mammals. ..
  37. Clark A. Inference of haplotypes from PCR-amplified samples of diploid populations. Mol Biol Evol. 1990;7:111-22 pubmed
    ..The algorithm also applies to the problem of inferring haplotype frequencies of closely linked restriction-site polymorphisms. ..
  38. Lou X, Yang M. Estimating effects of a single gene and polygenes on quantitative traits from a diallel design. Genetica. 2006;128:471-84 pubmed
    ..The computer program for the methods suggested in this article is freely available from the authors. ..
  39. Adrion J, Hahn M, Cooper B. Revisiting classic clines in Drosophila melanogaster in the age of genomics. Trends Genet. 2015;31:434-44 pubmed publisher
  40. Mane S, Tepper C, Richmond R. Studies of esterase 6 in Drosophila melanogaster. XIII. Purification and characterization of the two major isozymes. Biochem Genet. 1983;21:1019-40 pubmed
    Esterase-6 (EST 6; carboxylic-ester hydrolase; EC from Drosophila melanogaster was purified to homogenity...
  41. Mane S, Tompkins L, Richmond R. Male Esterase 6 Catalyzes the Synthesis of a Sex Pheromone in Drosophila melanogaster Females. Science. 1983;222:419-21 pubmed
    b>Esterase 6, a component of the seminal fluid of Drosophila melanogaster males, hydrolyzes cis-vaccenyl acetate, a lipid made only by males, to cis-vaccenyl alcohol...
  42. Neubaum D, Wolfner M. Mated Drosophila melanogaster females require a seminal fluid protein, Acp36DE, to store sperm efficiently. Genetics. 1999;153:845-57 pubmed
    ..Acp36DE associates tightly with sperm. Our results indicate that Acp36DE is essential for the initial storage of sperm, and that it may also influence the arrangement and retention of stored sperm. ..
  43. Korotkov D, Kaidanov L, Korochkin L. [Esterase-6 activity in Drosophila melanogaster strains with varying male mating activity]. Genetika. 1993;29:1429-39 pubmed
    ..X-chromosomes and chromosome 3 participate in genetic control of interstock differences of both sexual and esterase-6 activity. ..
  44. Crandall K, Templeton A. Empirical tests of some predictions from coalescent theory with applications to intraspecific phylogeny reconstruction. Genetics. 1993;134:959-69 pubmed
  45. Hudson R, Kaplan N. Deleterious background selection with recombination. Genetics. 1995;141:1605-17 pubmed
    ..If considerably smaller selection coefficients are assumed, the low observed levels of variation at the tips of the third chromosome are consistent with the background selection model. ..
  46. Balakirev E, Balakirev E, Rodr guez Trelles F, Ayala F. Molecular evolution of two linked genes, Est-6 and Sod, in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1999;153:1357-69 pubmed
    We have obtained 15 sequences of Est-6 from a natural population of Drosophila melanogaster to test whether linkage disequilibrium exists between Est-6 and the closely linked Sod, and whether natural selection may be involved...
  47. Morrell P, Toleno D, Lundy K, Clegg M. Estimating the contribution of mutation, recombination and gene conversion in the generation of haplotypic diversity. Genetics. 2006;173:1705-23 pubmed publisher
    ..simulans, and Zea mays. In total, 13 of 27 loci show evidence of gene conversion. For these loci, gene conversion is estimated to contribute an average of twice as much as crossing over to total recombination...
  48. McDonald J. Detecting non-neutral heterogeneity across a region of DNA sequence in the ratio of polymorphism to divergence. Mol Biol Evol. 1996;13:253-60 pubmed
    ..By simulating neutral evolution and comparing the observed number of runs to the simulations, a statistical test is possible which does not require any a priori decisions about subdivision. ..
  49. Procunier W, Smith J, Richmond R. Physical mapping of the Esterase-6 locus of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetica. 1991;84:203-8 pubmed
    ..The potential use of this high resolution in situ hybridization technique in the analysis of the physical organization of the Esterase-6 gene duplication and surrounding region is discussed. ..
  50. Stephan W. An improved method for estimating the rate of fixation of favorable mutations based on DNA polymorphism data. Mol Biol Evol. 1995;12:959-62 pubmed
  51. Andolfatto P, Depaulis F, Navarro A. Inversion polymorphisms and nucleotide variability in Drosophila. Genet Res. 2001;77:1-8 pubmed
  52. Chapman T. Seminal fluid-mediated fitness traits in Drosophila. Heredity (Edinb). 2001;87:511-21 pubmed
    ..In this review I address these issues by bringing together evidence for the function, evolution, diversification, and maintenance of variation in, seminal fluid-mediated traits...
  53. Cochrane B, Richmond R. Studies of esterase 6 in Drosophila melanogaster. I. The genetics of a posttranslational modification. Biochem Genet. 1979;17:167-83 pubmed
    A locus has been found, an allele of which causes a modification of some allozymes of the enzyme esterase 6 in Drosophila melanogaster...
  54. Noor M, Kliman R. Variability on the dot chromosome in the Drosophila simulans clade. Genetica. 2003;118:51-8 pubmed
    ..Overall, none of the data analyzed were consistent with recent introgression exclusively between D. simulans and D. mauritiana...
  55. Balakirev E, Ayala F. Nucleotide variation of the Est-6 gene region in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2003;165:1901-14 pubmed
    We have investigated nucleotide polymorphism in the Est-6 gene region in four samples of Drosophila melanogaster derived from natural populations of East Africa (Zimbabwe), Europe (Spain), North America (California), and South America (..
  56. Chertemps T, Younus F, Steiner C, Durand N, Coppin C, Pandey G, et al. An antennal carboxylesterase from Drosophila melanogaster, esterase 6, is a candidate odorant-degrading enzyme toward food odorants. Front Physiol. 2015;6:315 pubmed publisher
    ..We have recently shown that an extracellular carboxylesterase, esterase-6 (EST-6), is involved in the physiological and behavioral dynamics of the response of Drosophila melanogaster to its ..
  57. Balakirev E, Chechetkin V, Lobzin V, Ayala F. DNA polymorphism in the beta-Esterase gene cluster of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2003;164:533-44 pubmed
    We have analyzed nucleotide polymorphism within a 5.3-kb region encompassing the functional Est-6 gene and the psiEst-6 putative pseudogene in 28 strains of Drosophila melanogaster and one of D. simulans...
  58. Totskiĭ V, Eserkepova E, Dzhan Z. [Esterase-6 gene-enzyme system and resistance of Drosophila to increased temperature]. Genetika. 1994;30:342-8 pubmed
    The effect of the gene-enzyme system of esterase-6 (EST-6) on the expression of viability traits in Drosophila melanogaster was studied at normal and high temperatures...
  59. Balakirev E, Ayala F. Pseudogenes: are they "junk" or functional DNA?. Annu Rev Genet. 2003;37:123-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We agree with the proposal that pseudogenes be considered as potogenes, i.e., DNA sequences with a potentiality for becoming new genes...
  60. Fay J, Wyckoff G, Wu C. Testing the neutral theory of molecular evolution with genomic data from Drosophila. Nature. 2002;415:1024-6 pubmed
    ..A higher A/S ratio of divergence than of polymorphism is also observed in other species, which suggests a rate of adaptive evolution that is far higher than permitted by the neutral theory of molecular evolution. ..
  61. Oakeshott J, Collet C, Phillis R, Nielsen K, Russell R, Chambers G, et al. Molecular cloning and characterization of esterase-6, a serine hydrolase of Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987;84:3359-63 pubmed
    The Est-6 gene of Drosophila melanogaster was cloned by screening libraries with synthetic oligonucleotides corresponding to tryptic peptides from purified esterase-6 (Est-6) protein...
  62. Rumball W, Franklin I, Frankham R, Sheldon B. Decline in heterozygosity under full-sib and double first-cousin inbreeding in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1994;136:1039-49 pubmed
    ..Natural selection was shown to favor heterozygotes in the inbred lines. Associative overdominance was the most probable explanation for the slower than expected decline in heterozygosity. ..
  63. REINHART M, Carney T, Clark A, Fiumera A. Characterizing male-female interactions using natural genetic variation in Drosophila melanogaster. J Hered. 2015;106:67-79 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that natural variation in PebII might contribute to the observed male-female interactions. ..
  64. Game A, Oakeshott J. Associations between restriction site polymorphism and enzyme activity variation for esterase 6 in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1990;126:1021-31 pubmed
    Thirty-five nucleotide polymorphisms were found in a 21.5-kbp region including the Est6 locus among 42 isoallelic lines extracted from a single natural population of Drosophila melanogaster...
  65. Ayala F, Balakirev E, Saez A. Genetic polymorphism at two linked loci, Sod and Est-6, in Drosophila melanogaster. Gene. 2002;300:19-29 pubmed
    We have examined the patterns of polymorphism at two linked loci, Sod and Est-6, separated by nearly 1000 kb on the left arm of chromosome 3 of Drosophila melanogaster...
  66. Oakeshott J, Cooke P, Richmond R, Bortoli A, Game A, Labate J. Molecular population genetics of structural variants of esterase 6 in Drosophila melanogaster. Genome. 1989;31:788-96 pubmed
    Several lines of evidence indicate that natural selection operates between the major EST6-F and EST6-S allozymes of Drosophila melanogaster...
  67. Navarro Sabate A, Aguade M, Segarra C. The acid phosphatase-1 gene region in the Drosophila species of the subobscura cluster. Hereditas. 1999;130:65-75 pubmed
    ..madeirensis and D. subobscura. These phylogenetic relationships are, however, not supported by divergence at nonsynonymous sites since the lowest Ka estimate is between D. guanche and D. subobscura. ..
  68. Birner Gruenberger R, Bickmeyer I, Lange J, Hehlert P, Hermetter A, Kollroser M, et al. Functional fat body proteomics and gene targeting reveal in vivo functions of Drosophila melanogaster ?-Esterase-7. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2012;42:220-9 pubmed publisher
    ..It also offers an entry point for in vivo structure-function analyses of ?-Esterase-7, which is of central importance for naturally occurring insecticide resistance in wild populations of various dipteran insect species. ..
  69. Hamblin M, Aquadro C. High nucleotide sequence variation in a region of low recombination in Drosophila simulans is consistent with the background selection model. Mol Biol Evol. 1996;13:1133-40 pubmed
    ..melanogaster. Alternatively, the deleterious mutation rate may be smaller in D. simulans, or balancing selection may be acting nearby, thereby reducing the effect of background selection. ..
  70. Myers M, Healy M, Oakeshott J. Effects of the residue adjacent to the reactive serine on the substrate interactions of Drosophila esterase 6. Biochem Genet. 1993;31:259-78 pubmed
    b>Esterase 6 from Drosophila melanogaster is a carboxylesterase that belongs to the serine esterase multigene family...
  71. Bloch Qazi M, Heifetz Y, Wolfner M. The developments between gametogenesis and fertilization: ovulation and female sperm storage in Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 2003;256:195-211 pubmed
    ..melanogaster, both processes are triggered by male factors during and after mating, including sperm and seminal fluid proteins. Therefore, an interplay of male and female factors coordinates the gametes for fertilization. ..
  72. Cooke P, Oakeshott J. Amino acid polymorphisms for esterase-6 in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:1426-30 pubmed
    ..1.1.1) in Drosophila melanogaster. The sequences of 13 isolates of the Est6 gene covering all 10 allozymes were obtained and 52 nucleotide differences were found...