en

Summary

Gene Symbol: en
Description: engrailed
Alias: 153867_at, Apa, CG9015, Dmel\CG9015, EnR, Eng, Engr, Engrailed, Engrailed/Invected, en1, spa2, spt, CG9015-PA, CG9015-PB, apigmented abdomen, en-PA, en-PB, erased, invected, sparse SGPs 2, spermatheca, transcript group V
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Stem cells signal to the niche through the Notch pathway in the Drosophila ovary
    Ellen J Ward
    Department of Biochemistry, Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, School of Medicine, Box 357350, 1959 NE Pacific Street, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    Curr Biol 16:2352-8. 2006
  2. pmc Alternative epigenetic chromatin states of polycomb target genes
    Yuri B Schwartz
    Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Rutgers University, Nelson Laboratories, Piscataway, New Jersey, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 6:e1000805. 2010
  3. doi Dynamic regulation by polycomb group protein complexes controls pattern formation and the cell cycle in Drosophila
    Katarzyna Oktaba
    EMBL, Gene Expression Programme, Heidelberg, Germany
    Dev Cell 15:877-89. 2008
  4. ncbi Mutations affecting segment number and polarity in Drosophila
    C Nusslein-Volhard
    Nature 287:795-801. 1980
  5. ncbi Homeobox genes and axial patterning
    W McGinnis
    Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511
    Cell 68:283-302. 1992
  6. pmc Enhancer-promoter communication at the Drosophila engrailed locus
    Deborah Kwon
    Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Development 136:3067-75. 2009
  7. pmc The Drosophila engrailed and invected genes: partners in regulation, expression and function
    E Gustavson
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco 94143, USA
    Genetics 142:893-906. 1996
  8. pmc Regulation of smoothened by Drosophila G-protein-coupled receptor kinases
    Shuofei Cheng
    Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montreal, 110 Pine Avenue West, Montreal, QC H2W1R7, Canada
    Dev Biol 337:99-109. 2010
  9. ncbi Region-specific recombination and expression are directed by portions of the Drosophila engrailed promoter
    C Hama
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco 94143
    Genes Dev 4:1079-93. 1990
  10. pmc Early even-skipped stripes act as morphogenetic gradients at the single cell level to establish engrailed expression
    M Fujioka
    Jefferson Cancer Institute, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
    Development 121:4371-82. 1995

Research Grants

  1. Pancreas-specific primary regulatory targets of Nkx2.2
    DERVLA MELLERICK DRESSLER; Fiscal Year: 2004
  2. HOW DOES VND INTEGRATE POSITIONAL INFORMATION?
    DERVLA MELLERICK DRESSLER; Fiscal Year: 2003
  3. Development of C57BL/6 ES cell technology for high thoughput use.
    KLAUS KAESTNER; Fiscal Year: 2007
  4. GENETIC AND MOLECULAR STUDIES OF NEUROGENESIS
    Chris Q Doe; Fiscal Year: 2010
  5. REGULATORY CASCADES IN GASTROINTESTINAL PROLIFERATION
    KLAUS KAESTNER; Fiscal Year: 2006
  6. FUNCTIONAL GENOMICS OF THE BETA-CELL
    KLAUS KAESTNER; Fiscal Year: 2006
  7. Molecular and genetic analysis of sanpodo
    JAMES SKEATH; Fiscal Year: 2006
  8. Repressor/co-repressor oligomerization and development
    Albert J Courey; Fiscal Year: 2010
  9. Molecular Genetics of Midline Glial Development
    Stephen T Crews; Fiscal Year: 2010
  10. RNA Induced Silencing Complex In Sex Determination
    JAMILA HORABIN; Fiscal Year: 2009

Detail Information

Publications158 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Stem cells signal to the niche through the Notch pathway in the Drosophila ovary
    Ellen J Ward
    Department of Biochemistry, Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, School of Medicine, Box 357350, 1959 NE Pacific Street, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    Curr Biol 16:2352-8. 2006
    ..Demonstration that stem cells can contribute to niche function has far-reaching consequences for stem cell therapies and may provide insight into how cancer can spread throughout an organism via populations of cancer stem cells...
  2. pmc Alternative epigenetic chromatin states of polycomb target genes
    Yuri B Schwartz
    Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Rutgers University, Nelson Laboratories, Piscataway, New Jersey, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 6:e1000805. 2010
    ..These results have important implications for Polycomb gene regulation, the "bivalent" chromatin state of embryonic stem cells, and gene expression in development...
  3. doi Dynamic regulation by polycomb group protein complexes controls pattern formation and the cell cycle in Drosophila
    Katarzyna Oktaba
    EMBL, Gene Expression Programme, Heidelberg, Germany
    Dev Cell 15:877-89. 2008
    ..Analysis of cell cycle regulators indicates that the PcG system also dynamically modulates the expression levels of certain genes, providing a possible explanation for the tumor phenotype of PcG mutants...
  4. ncbi Mutations affecting segment number and polarity in Drosophila
    C Nusslein-Volhard
    Nature 287:795-801. 1980
    ....
  5. ncbi Homeobox genes and axial patterning
    W McGinnis
    Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511
    Cell 68:283-302. 1992
  6. pmc Enhancer-promoter communication at the Drosophila engrailed locus
    Deborah Kwon
    Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Development 136:3067-75. 2009
    ..which gene to activate? We have used homing P[en] constructs to study the enhancer-promoter communication at the engrailed locus...
  7. pmc The Drosophila engrailed and invected genes: partners in regulation, expression and function
    E Gustavson
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco 94143, USA
    Genetics 142:893-906. 1996
    We isolated and characterized numerous engrailed and invected alleles...
  8. pmc Regulation of smoothened by Drosophila G-protein-coupled receptor kinases
    Shuofei Cheng
    Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montreal, 110 Pine Avenue West, Montreal, QC H2W1R7, Canada
    Dev Biol 337:99-109. 2010
    ..G-protein-coupled receptor kinase activity is also important for efficient downstream signaling...
  9. ncbi Region-specific recombination and expression are directed by portions of the Drosophila engrailed promoter
    C Hama
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco 94143
    Genes Dev 4:1079-93. 1990
    The Drosophila engrailed gene is expressed in the cells of the posterior developmental compartments...
  10. pmc Early even-skipped stripes act as morphogenetic gradients at the single cell level to establish engrailed expression
    M Fujioka
    Jefferson Cancer Institute, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
    Development 121:4371-82. 1995
    ..borders at the anterior edge of each of its seven stripes by providing a sharp expression boundary, where engrailed is activated on one side and wingless on the other...
  11. pmc Characterization of the intergenic RNA profile at abdominal-A and Abdominal-B in the Drosophila bithorax complex
    Esther Bae
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Division of Genetics and Development, 401 Barker Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:16847-52. 2002
    ..These observations suggest that the intergenic RNAs may play a role in initiating cis regulation at the BX-C early in development...
  12. pmc Pcl-PRC2 is needed to generate high levels of H3-K27 trimethylation at Polycomb target genes
    Maxim Nekrasov
    Gene Expression Programme, EMBL, Heidelberg, Germany
    EMBO J 26:4078-88. 2007
    ..Pcl-PRC2 is thus the HMTase that generates the high levels of H3-K27 trimethylation in Polycomb target genes that are needed to maintain a Polycomb-repressed chromatin state...
  13. ncbi Lipoprotein-heparan sulfate interactions in the Hh pathway
    Christina Eugster
    Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Pfotenhauerstrasse 108, 01307 Dresden, Germany
    Dev Cell 13:57-71. 2007
    ..They further suggest that the complement of proteins present on lipoprotein particles can regulate the activity of morphogens...
  14. ncbi Multiplex detection of RNA expression in Drosophila embryos
    Dave Kosman
    Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Science 305:846. 2004
    ....
  15. ncbi The topology of the regulatory interactions predicts the expression pattern of the segment polarity genes in Drosophila melanogaster
    Reka Albert
    School of Mathematics, University of Minnesota, 127 Vincent Hall, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    J Theor Biol 223:1-18. 2003
    ..The model gives important insights into the functioning of the segment polarity gene network, such as the crucial role of the wingless and sloppy paired genes, and the network's ability to correct errors in the pre-pattern...
  16. ncbi Evolution and role of Pax genes
    M Noll
    Institute for Molecular Biology II, University of Zurich, Switzerland
    Curr Opin Genet Dev 3:595-605. 1993
    ..Their developmental roles are assessed in terms of their participation in conserved gene networks and mechanisms that establish positional information...
  17. ncbi A Hedgehog activity gradient contributes to AP axial patterning of the Drosophila wing
    M Strigini
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, Germany
    Development 124:4697-705. 1997
    ..Comparing the biological activities of secreted and membrane-tethered Hh provides evidence that Hh forms a local concentration gradient and functions as a concentration-dependent morphogen in the fly wing...
  18. ncbi Expression and function of clift in the development of somatic gonadal precursors within the Drosophila mesoderm
    M Boyle
    The Rockefeller University, NYC, NY 10021 6399, USA
    Development 124:971-82. 1997
    ..Thus, these studies identify essential regulators of gonadal precursor specification and differentiation and reveal novel aspects of the general mechanism whereby distinct fates are allocated within the mesoderm...
  19. ncbi wingless signaling acts through zeste-white 3, the Drosophila homolog of glycogen synthase kinase-3, to regulate engrailed and establish cell fate
    E Siegfried
    Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115
    Cell 71:1167-79. 1992
    ..The early role of wg is to stabilize engrailed (en) expression by initiating a phase of en autoregulation in the adjacent more posterior cells...
  20. pmc Characterization of the polycomb group response elements of the Drosophila melanogaster invected Locus
    Melissa D Cunningham
    Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 30:820-8. 2010
    ..We have used the computer program jPREdictor to uncover PREs located within the invected (inv) locus...
  21. ncbi The even-skipped locus is contained in a 16-kb chromatin domain
    C Sackerson
    Kimmel Cancer Institute, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 19107, USA
    Dev Biol 211:39-52. 1999
    ..4) Expression in different sites in the central nervous system is driven by separable elements widely dispersed throughout 8 kb 3' of the gene...
  22. ncbi Different requirements for homeotic genes in the soma and germ line of Drosophila
    P A Lawrence
    Cell 35:27-34. 1983
    ..We find that none of four selector genes (Ultrabithorax+, Antennapedia+, Sex combs reduced+, and engrailed+) is required for the development of viable eggs, and none contributes detectable product to the fertilized ..
  23. pmc Comparison of germline mosaics of genes in the Polycomb group of Drosophila melanogaster
    M C Soto
    Harvard Medical School, Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Genetics 140:231-43. 1995
    ..Psc shows unusual effects on two of the targets, Ultrabithorax and abdominal-A. These results show that the PcG genes do not act only in a common complex or pathway; they must have some independent functions...
  24. ncbi Integrin-ECM interactions regulate the changes in cell shape driving the morphogenesis of the Drosophila wing epithelium
    Paloma Domínguez-Giménez
    Institut de Reserca Biomédica, Barcelona 08028, Spain
    J Cell Sci 120:1061-71. 2007
    ..Finally, we show that the ECM has an instructive rather than a structural role, because inhibition of Raf reverses the cell shape changes caused by perturbing integrins...
  25. ncbi Stability and association of Smoothened, Costal2 and Fused with Cubitus interruptus are regulated by Hedgehog
    Laurent Ruel
    Institute of Signaling, Developmental Biology and Cancer Research, CNRS UMR 6543, Centre de Biochimie, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice Cedex 02, France
    Nat Cell Biol 5:907-13. 2003
    ..We propose that the association of the Cos2 protein complex with Smo at the plasma membrane controls the stability of the complex and allows Ci activation, eliciting its nuclear translocation...
  26. ncbi wingless signal and Zeste-white 3 kinase trigger opposing changes in the intracellular distribution of Armadillo
    M Peifer
    Department of Biology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill 27599 3280
    Development 120:369-80. 1994
    ..We present a model for the role of Armadillo stripes in transduction of wingless signal...
  27. ncbi Developmental roles and molecular characterization of a Drosophila homologue of Arabidopsis Argonaute1, the founder of a novel gene superfamily
    Y Kataoka
    Department of Biophysics, School of Science, Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo ku, Kyoto 606 8502, Japan
    Genes Cells 6:313-25. 2001
    ..However, little has been reported about their roles in animal development or about the molecular activities of any of the members...
  28. ncbi smoothened encodes a receptor-like serpentine protein required for hedgehog signalling
    M van den Heuvel
    Molecular Embryology Laboratory, Imperial Cancer Research Fund, London, UK
    Nature 382:547-51. 1996
    ..This structure is typical of G-protein-coupled receptors, suggesting that the Smoothened protein may act as a receptor for the Hedgehog ligand...
  29. ncbi Sex-specific deployment of FGF signaling in Drosophila recruits mesodermal cells into the male genital imaginal disc
    Shaad M Ahmad
    Department of Developmental Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Cell 109:651-61. 2002
    ..The recruited mesodermal cells migrate into the disc late in development and are neither anterior nor posterior...
  30. ncbi The Sox-domain containing gene Dichaete/fish-hook acts in concert with vnd and ind to regulate cell fate in the Drosophila neuroectoderm
    Guoyan Zhao
    Program in Molecular Cell Biology, Washington University School of Medicine, 4566 Scott Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Development 129:1165-74. 2002
    ....
  31. ncbi Armadillo coactivates transcription driven by the product of the Drosophila segment polarity gene dTCF
    M van de Wetering
    Department of Immunology, University Hospital, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Cell 88:789-99. 1997
    ..dTCF transgene cause a segment polarity phenotype and affect expression of the Wingless target genes engrailed and Ultrabithorax. Epistasis analysis positions dTCF downstream of armadillo...
  32. ncbi A hedgehog-responsive region in the Drosophila wing disc is defined by debra-mediated ubiquitination and lysosomal degradation of Ci
    Ping Dai
    Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, RIKEN Tsukuba Institute, 3 1 1 Koyadai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 0074, Japan
    Dev Cell 4:917-28. 2003
    ..Thus, Debra defines the border of the Hh-responsive region in the A compartment by inducing the lysosomal degradation of Ci...
  33. ncbi Spatial expression of the Drosophila segment polarity gene armadillo is posttranscriptionally regulated by wingless
    B Riggleman
    Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544
    Cell 63:549-60. 1990
    ..Two other segment polarity genes, porcupine and dishevelled, are required for this effect. We also show that arm protein is closely associated with the plasma membrane in virtually all cell types and often colocalizes with F-actin...
  34. pmc Altering the insertional specificity of a Drosophila transposable element
    J A Kassis
    Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD 20892
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89:1919-23. 1992
    ..During experiments to identify cis-acting regulatory elements of the Drosophila segmentation gene engrailed, we identified a fragment of engrailed DNA that, when included within a P-element vector, strikingly alters the ..
  35. ncbi Wg/Wnt signal can be transmitted through arrow/LRP5,6 and Axin independently of Zw3/Gsk3beta activity
    Nicholas S Tolwinski
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
    Dev Cell 4:407-18. 2003
    ..We propose that Arrow (LRP) recruits Axin to the membrane, and that this interaction leads to Axin degradation. As a consequence, Armadillo is no longer bound by Axin, resulting in nuclear signaling by Armadillo...
  36. pmc Fused-Costal2 protein complex regulates Hedgehog-induced Smo phosphorylation and cell-surface accumulation
    Yajuan Liu
    Sealy Center for Cancer Cell Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77555, USA
    Genes Dev 21:1949-63. 2007
    ..Our data suggest that Cos2-Smo interaction blocks Hh-induced Smo phosphorylation, and that Fu promotes Smo phosphorylation by antagonizing Cos2...
  37. ncbi Smoothened translates Hedgehog levels into distinct responses
    Joan E Hooper
    Department of Cell and Structural Biology and Program in Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, 4200 East Ninth Avenue, Denver, CO 80262, USA
    Development 130:3951-63. 2003
    ..Thus, two activities of Smoothened translate different levels of Hedgehog into distinct intracellular responses...
  38. pmc The G protein-coupled receptor regulatory kinase GPRK2 participates in Hedgehog signaling in Drosophila
    Cristina Molnar
    Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:7963-8. 2007
    ..Interestingly, the expression of Gprk2 in the wing disc is regulated in part by Smo, generating a positive feedback loop that maintains high Smo activity close to the anterior-posterior compartment boundary...
  39. ncbi Developmental function of Elf-1: an essential transcription factor during embryogenesis in Drosophila
    S J Bray
    Biological Laboratories, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138
    Genes Dev 5:1672-83. 1991
    ..The results highlight the importance of genetic analysis in the study of proteins required for developmental regulation of gene expression...
  40. ncbi The sterol-sensing domain of Patched protein seems to control Smoothened activity through Patched vesicular trafficking
    V Martin
    Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E 28049, Madrid, Spain
    Curr Biol 11:601-7. 2001
    ..In addition, we show that Ptc(SSD) preferentially accumulates in endosomes of the endocytic compartment. All these results suggest a role of the SSD of Ptc in mediating the vesicular trafficking of Ptc to regulate Smo activity...
  41. ncbi Spatial and temporal control elements of the Drosophila engrailed gene
    J A Kassis
    Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, Maryland 20892
    Genes Dev 4:433-43. 1990
    b>engrailed (en) is a segmentation gene expressed in a series of stripes throughout embryonic development. Here, I show that regulatory sequences for striped expression are present within the first intron of en...
  42. ncbi Functional analysis of Wingless reveals a link between intercellular ligand transport and dorsal-cell-specific signaling
    H A Dierick
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Cell Biology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 3500, USA
    Development 125:4729-38. 1998
    ..Thus we have identified a region of Wingless that is required for both the transcytotic process and signal transduction in dorsal cell populations, revealing an unexpected link between these two aspects of Wg function...
  43. pmc Dispatched mediates Hedgehog basolateral release to form the long-range morphogenetic gradient in the Drosophila wing disk epithelium
    Ainhoa Callejo
    Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa, CSIC UAM, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E 28049 Madrid, Spain
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:12591-8. 2011
    ..We also show that Dlp is needed in Hh-producing cells to allow for Hh release and that Ihog, which has been previously described as an Hh coreceptor, anchors Hh to the basolateral part of the disk epithelium...
  44. doi The role of Polycomb-group response elements in regulation of engrailed transcription in Drosophila
    Sarah K DeVido
    Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20982, USA
    Development 135:669-76. 2008
    ..Previous studies have shown that a 2 kb fragment located from -2.4 kb to -395 bp upstream of the Drosophila engrailed promoter contains a multipartite PRE that can mediate mini-white silencing and act as a PRE in an Ubx-reporter ..
  45. ncbi The engrailed locus of D. melanogaster provides an essential zygotic function in precellular embryos
    T L Karr
    Cell 43:591-601. 1985
    ..We show that the engrailed gene is needed for the processes that organize the embryo during the nuclear divisions that precede ..
  46. pmc Molecular cloning of engrailed: a gene involved in the development of pattern in Drosophila melanogaster
    J M Kuner
    Cell 42:309-16. 1985
    The engrailed gene acts early in Drosophila embryogenesis and plays an essential role in the processes that establish and maintain the repeating segmental pattern...
  47. ncbi The segment polarity gene armadillo interacts with the wingless signaling pathway in both embryonic and adult pattern formation
    M Peifer
    Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544 1014
    Development 111:1029-43. 1991
    ..We present a description of the patterns of arm protein accumulation in imaginal discs. Finally, we discuss the implications of these results for the role of arm and wingless in pattern formation...
  48. ncbi Imaging neuronal subsets and other cell types in whole-mount Drosophila embryos and larvae using antibody probes
    N H Patel
    Department of Embryology, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Baltimore, Maryland 21210
    Methods Cell Biol 44:445-87. 1994
  49. ncbi Rasp, a putative transmembrane acyltransferase, is required for Hedgehog signaling
    Craig A Micchelli
    Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, 200 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Development 129:843-51. 2002
    ..Our results suggest that Rasp-dependent acylation is necessary to generate a fully active Hh protein...
  50. ncbi Rescue of Drosophila engrailed mutants with a highly divergent mosquito engrailed cDNA using a homing, enhancer-trapping transposon
    M Whiteley
    Division of Cellular and Gene Therapies, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD 20892 4555, USA
    Development 124:1531-41. 1997
    ..We constructed a P-element-based transposon in which an engrailed cDNA from Anopheles gambiae (a mosquito) is expressed from a Drosophila engrailed minimal promoter...
  51. ncbi Patterns of engrailed protein in early Drosophila embryos
    T L Karr
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco 94143
    Development 105:605-12. 1989
    By the onset of gastrulation during nuclear cycle 14 of Drosophila embryogenesis, the engrailed gene is expressed in fourteen one-cell-wide stripes. Each stripe defines the anlagen of the posterior compartment of a metameric segment...
  52. ncbi Pattern formation in the Drosophila embryo: allocation of cells to parasegments by even-skipped and fushi tarazu
    P A Lawrence
    MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK
    Development 105:761-7. 1989
    ..The development of these stripes in hairy-, runt-, eve-, ftz- and engrailed- embryos is illustrated. In eve- embryos, the ftz stripes remain symmetric and lack sharp borders...
  53. ncbi Divide and conquer: pattern formation in Drosophila embryonic epidermis
    V Hatini
    Dept Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Trends Genet 17:574-9. 2001
    ..Here, we review several recent reports that help to elucidate the regulatory principles used to control this pattern. Because organizers are conserved, the same fundamental principles might operate in other organizers...
  54. ncbi Signaling by wingless in Drosophila
    J Klingensmith
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Developmental Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, California 94305
    Dev Biol 166:396-414. 1994
    ..Where appropriate, wingless signaling will be compared to the activity of vertebrate Wnt proteins...
  55. pmc Protein kinase A antagonizes Hedgehog signaling by regulating both the activator and repressor forms of Cubitus interruptus
    G Wang
    Center for Developmental Biology and Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75235 9133, USA
    Genes Dev 13:2828-37. 1999
    ....
  56. pmc The repressor activity of Even-skipped is highly conserved, and is sufficient to activate engrailed and to regulate both the spacing and stability of parasegment boundaries
    Miki Fujioka
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Thomas Jefferson University, JAH490, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
    Development 129:4411-21. 2002
    During segmentation of the Drosophila embryo, even skipped is required to activate engrailed stripes and to organize odd-numbered parasegments...
  57. ncbi Segmentation and specification of the Drosophila mesoderm
    N Azpiazu
    Brookdale Center for Molecular Biology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA
    Genes Dev 10:3183-94. 1996
    ..Hence, hh and wg play opposing roles in mesoderm segmentation...
  58. pmc Extensive phosphorylation of Smoothened in Hedgehog pathway activation
    Chi Zhang
    Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:17900-7. 2004
    ..Our studies confirm and extend previous studies showing a positive effect for cAMP-dependent protein kinase and uncover a positive role for casein kinase 1alpha in Hh pathway activation...
  59. ncbi Creating a Drosophila wing de novo, the role of engrailed, and the compartment border hypothesis
    T Tabata
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco 94143, USA
    Development 121:3359-69. 1995
    Anterior/posterior compartment borders bisect every Drosophila imaginal disc, and the engrailed gene is essential for their function...
  60. ncbi Searching for pattern and mutation in the Drosophila genome with a P-lacZ vector
    E Bier
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, San Francisco, California
    Genes Dev 3:1273-87. 1989
    ..This type of screen appears to be an effective way to find new loci that may play a role in the development of the Drosophila nervous system...
  61. pmc eyelid antagonizes wingless signaling during Drosophila development and has homology to the Bright family of DNA-binding proteins
    J E Treisman
    Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine, NYU Medical Center, New York, New York 10016, USA
    Genes Dev 11:1949-62. 1997
    ..Based on this homology and on the phenotypic analysis, we suggest that Eld could act as a transcription factor antagonistic to the Wg pathway...
  62. ncbi Genome-wide analysis of Polycomb targets in Drosophila melanogaster
    Yuri B Schwartz
    Rutgers University, Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA
    Nat Genet 38:700-5. 2006
    ..PcG targets are highly enriched in genes encoding transcription factors, but they also include genes coding for receptors, signaling proteins, morphogens and regulators representing all major developmental pathways...
  63. ncbi Sex-specific apoptosis regulates sexual dimorphism in the Drosophila embryonic gonad
    Tony J DeFalco
    Department of Biology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
    Dev Cell 5:205-16. 2003
    ..Our work furthers the hypotheses that a conserved pathway controls gonad sexual dimorphism in diverse species and that sex-specific cell recruitment and programmed cell death are common mechanisms for creating sexual dimorphism...
  64. ncbi Ectopic expression of homeotic genes caused by the elimination of the Polycomb gene in Drosophila imaginal epidermis
    A Busturia
    Centro de Biologia Molecular, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Spain
    Development 104:713-20. 1988
    ..We have established a hierarchical order among these genes: Antp less than Scr less than Ubx less than abd-A less than Abd-B. In addition, we show that the engrailed gene is ectopically active in Pc- imaginal cells.
  65. ncbi Hedgehog organises the pattern and polarity of epidermal cells in the Drosophila abdomen
    G Struhl
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Development 124:2143-54. 1997
    ..is subdivided into an anterior (A) and posterior (P) compartment, distinguished by activity of the selector gene engrailed (en) in P but not A compartment cells...
  66. pmc Functional anatomy of polycomb and trithorax chromatin landscapes in Drosophila embryos
    Bernd Schuettengruber
    Institut de Genetique Humaine, CNRS, Montpellier, France
    PLoS Biol 7:e13. 2009
    ..Furthermore, several DNA sequence features discriminate between PcG- and TRX-N-bound regions, indicating that underlying DNA sequence contains critical information to drive PREs and TREs towards silencing or activation...
  67. ncbi Control of Drosophila head segment identity by the bZIP homeotic gene cnc
    J Mohler
    Department of Biological Sciences, Barnard College, New York, NY 10027
    Development 121:237-47. 1995
    ..This role of homeotic selector genes for the segment-specific maintenance of segment polarity gene expression is a unique feature of segmentation in the preoral head region of Drosophila...
  68. ncbi buttonhead does not contribute to a combinatorial code proposed for Drosophila head development
    E A Wimmer
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021 6399, USA
    Development 124:1509-17. 1997
    ..We conclude that the spatial limits of btd expression are not instructive for metamerization of the head region and that btd activity does not contribute to a combinatorial code for specification of segment identity...
  69. ncbi Segment polarity and DV patterning gene expression reveals segmental organization of the Drosophila brain
    Rolf Urbach
    Institut fur Genetik, Universitat Mainz, D 55099 Mainz, Germany
    Development 130:3607-20. 2003
    ..brain neuroblasts, we carried out a comprehensive analysis of the expression of segment polarity genes (engrailed, wingless, hedgehog, gooseberry distal, mirror) and DV patterning genes (muscle segment homeobox, intermediate ..
  70. ncbi Pygopus, a nuclear PHD-finger protein required for Wingless signaling in Drosophila
    David S Parker
    Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, Natural Science Building, Ann Arbor 48109, USA
    Development 129:2565-76. 2002
    ..Our data argue strongly that Pygopus is a new core component of the Wg signaling pathway that acts downstream or at the level of TCF...
  71. ncbi Trithorax is required to maintain engrailed expression in a subset of engrailed-expressing cells
    T R Breen
    Department of Genetics, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 4955, USA
    Mech Dev 52:89-98. 1995
    We show that maintenance but not initiation of engrailed (en) gene expression in the Drosophila embryo requires trithorax (trx), which is also required to maintain stable long-term expression of the homeotic genes throughout the ..
  72. ncbi An acylatable residue of Hedgehog is differentially required in Drosophila and mouse limb development
    J D Lee
    Skirball Institute Developmental Genetics Program, Department of Cell Biology, NYU School of Medicine, 540 First Avenue, New York, New York 10016, USA
    Dev Biol 233:122-36. 2001
    ..Furthermore, overexpression of the mutant form has dominant negative effects on Hedgehog signaling. These data suggest that the importance of the N-terminal cysteine of mature Hedgehog in patterning appendages differs between species...
  73. ncbi Successive specification of Drosophila neuroblasts NB 6-4 and NB 7-3 depends on interaction of the segment polarity genes wingless, gooseberry and naked cuticle
    N Deshpande
    Institut fur Genetik, Universitat Mainz, Saarstrasse 21, D 55122 Mainz, Germany
    Development 128:3253-61. 2001
    ..fate specification of a set of late delaminating neuroblasts, NB 6-4 and NB 7-3, both of which arise from the engrailed (en) expression domain, with NB 6-4 delaminating first...
  74. ncbi polyhomeotic appears to be a target of engrailed regulation in Drosophila
    N Serrano
    Departement de Biologie du Developpement, Institut Jacques Monod, CNRS et Université Paris 7, France
    Development 121:1691-703. 1995
    In Drosophila, Engrailed is a nuclear regulatory protein with essential roles in embryonic segmentation and in normal development of posterior compartments...
  75. ncbi Cholesterol modification of hedgehog is required for trafficking and movement, revealing an asymmetric cellular response to hedgehog
    Armel Gallet
    Institute of Signaling, Developmental Biology and Cancer Research, CNRS UMR 6543, Centre de Biochimie, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice Cedex 02, France
    Dev Cell 4:191-204. 2003
    ....
  76. pmc The fruitless gene is required for the proper formation of axonal tracts in the embryonic central nervous system of Drosophila
    Ho Juhn Song
    Department of Zoology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 2914, USA
    Genetics 162:1703-24. 2002
    ..Our results suggest that one of fru's sex-nonspecific roles is to regulate the pathfinding ability of axons in the embryonic CNS...
  77. ncbi The Drosophila ortholog of the human Wnt inhibitor factor Shifted controls the diffusion of lipid-modified Hedgehog
    Nicole Gorfinkiel
    Centro de Biologia Molecular, Severo Ochoa, C S I C, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E 28049 Madrid, Spain
    Dev Cell 8:241-53. 2005
    ..We also show that human WIF inhibits Wg signaling in Drosophila without affecting the Hh pathway, indicating that different WIF family members might have divergent functions in each pathway...
  78. ncbi Sequential organizing activities of engrailed, hedgehog and decapentaplegic in the Drosophila wing
    M Zecca
    Zoologisches Institut, Universitat Zurich, Switzerland
    Development 121:2265-78. 1995
    ..the anterior and posterior compartments, which are distinguished by the activity of the selector gene engrailed (en) in posterior cells...
  79. ncbi Requirements for transcriptional repression and activation by Engrailed in Drosophila embryos
    Cyrille Alexandre
    National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, UK
    Development 130:729-39. 2003
    Genetic analysis shows that Engrailed (En), a homeodomain-containing transcription factor, has both negative and positive targets...
  80. ncbi Segment boundary formation in Drosophila embryos
    Camilla W Larsen
    National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, UK
    Development 130:5625-35. 2003
    In Drosophila embryos, segment boundaries form at the posterior edge of each stripe of engrailed expression...
  81. ncbi Molecular markers for identified neuroblasts and ganglion mother cells in the Drosophila central nervous system
    C Q Doe
    Department of Cell and Structural Biology, University of Illinois, Urbana 61801
    Development 116:855-63. 1992
    ..These results set the stage for investigating neuroblast specification and the mechanisms controlling neuroblast cell lineages...
  82. pmc Maintenance of the engrailed expression pattern by Polycomb group genes in Drosophila
    D Moazed
    UCSF School of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics 94143
    Development 116:805-10. 1992
    ..We have examined the pattern of expression of the Drosophila segment polarity gene, engrailed (en), in embryos mutant for several different members of the Pc group...
  83. ncbi Roles of wingless in patterning the larval epidermis of Drosophila
    A Bejsovec
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, UK
    Development 113:471-85. 1991
    ..We present evidence for four distinct phases of wg function in epidermal cells: (1) an early requirement in engrailed-expressing cells to establish and maintain stable expression of en, (2) a discrete period when wg and en gene ..
  84. doi Pdm and Castor close successive temporal identity windows in the NB3-1 lineage
    Khoa D Tran
    Institute of Neuroscience, Institute of Molecular Biology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, USA
    Development 135:3491-9. 2008
    ..Our results provide a new neuroblast lineage for investigating temporal identity and reveal the importance of Pdm and Cas as timing factors that close temporal identity windows...
  85. pmc Hedgehog and Wingless stabilize but do not induce cell fate during Drosophila dorsal embryonic epidermal patterning
    Stephane Vincent
    Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Development 135:2767-75. 2008
    ..The combination of independent progression of cell identity and arrest of progression by signals facilitates accurate patterning of an extremely plastic developing epidermis...
  86. ncbi Cell patterning in the Drosophila segment: spatial regulation of the segment polarity gene patched
    A Hidalgo
    Molecular Embryology Laboratory, ICRF Developmental Biology Unit, Department of Zoology, Oxford, UK
    Development 110:291-301. 1990
    ..to the evolution of this pattern; we find that the first step in patched regulation is under the control of engrailed whereas the second requires the activity of both cubitus interruptusD and patched itself...
  87. ncbi Structure of two genes at the gooseberry locus related to the paired gene and their spatial expression during Drosophila embryogenesis
    S Baumgartner
    Department of Cell Biology, Biocenter, University of Basel, Switzerland
    Genes Dev 1:1247-67. 1987
    ..BSH9, BSH4, and prd are activated in cells that are in register along the anteroposterior axis of the embryo in the posterior parts of primordial segments comprising the posterior compartments of engrailed expression.
  88. ncbi Compartment boundaries: where, why and how?
    J P Vincent
    National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London, United Kingdom
    Int J Dev Biol 42:311-5. 1998
    ..Here, I review the work that demonstrated the existence of compartments. I then conjecture on why compartments exist and review the roles of various gene products in the maintenance of compartment boundaries...
  89. pmc RanBP3 enhances nuclear export of active (beta)-catenin independently of CRM1
    Jolita Hendriksen
    Department of Tumor Biology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, 1066 CX Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Cell Biol 171:785-97. 2005
    ..We conclude that RanBP3 is a direct export enhancer for beta-catenin, independent of its role as a CRM1-associated nuclear export cofactor...
  90. ncbi Shifted, the Drosophila ortholog of Wnt inhibitory factor-1, controls the distribution and movement of Hedgehog
    Bruno Glise
    Centre de Biologie du Developpement, UMR 5547 and IFR 109 CNRS UPS, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 4, France
    Dev Cell 8:255-66. 2005
    ..Our data further indicate that Shf interacts with Hh and the heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Therefore, we propose that Shf stabilizes the interaction between Hh and the proteoglycans, an unexpected role for a member of the WIF-1 family...
  91. ncbi Par-1 kinase establishes cell polarity and functions in Notch signaling in the Drosophila embryo
    Jennifer Bayraktar
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Cell Biology, 2205 Tech Drive, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA
    J Cell Sci 119:711-21. 2006
    ..Epistasis analysis indicates that Par-1 functions upstream of Notch and is critical for proper localization of the Notch ligand Delta...
  92. ncbi Engrailed and polyhomeotic maintain posterior cell identity through cubitus-interruptus regulation
    Grégory Chanas
    Institut de Genetique Humaine, UPR1142, Montpellier, Herault, France
    Dev Biol 272:522-35. 2004
    In Drosophila, the subdivision into compartments requires the expression of engrailed (en) and hedgehog (hh) in the posterior cells and of cubitus-interruptus (ci) in the anterior cells...
  93. ncbi FGF8-like1 and FGF8-like2 encode putative ligands of the FGF receptor Htl and are required for mesoderm migration in the Drosophila gastrula
    Tanja Gryzik
    Institut fur Genetik, Heinrich Heine Universitat Dusseldorf, Dusseldorf, Germany
    Curr Biol 14:659-67. 2004
    ..After gastrulation Htl is essential for the differentiation of dorsal mesodermal derivatives. It is not known how Htl is activated, because its ligand has not yet been identified...
  94. ncbi Control of compartment development by the engrailed gene in Drosophila
    G Morata
    Nature 255:614-7. 1975
  95. ncbi Control of cell fates and segmentation in the Drosophila mesoderm
    V Riechmann
    Institut fur Genetik, Universitat zu Koln, Germany
    Development 124:2915-22. 1997
    ..Both the domain of even-skipped function and the level of twist expression are regulated by sloppy-paired. sloppy-paired thus controls segmental allocation of mesodermal cells to different fates...
  96. ncbi Proteolysis that is inhibited by hedgehog targets Cubitus interruptus protein to the nucleus and converts it to a repressor
    P Aza-Blanc
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco 94143, USA
    Cell 89:1043-53. 1997
    ..Hh inhibits proteolysis of Ci, and we suggest that this inhibition leads to the observed patterns of expression of key target genes at the compartment border...
  97. ncbi Hedgehog movement is regulated through tout velu-dependent synthesis of a heparan sulfate proteoglycan
    I The
    Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Mol Cell 4:633-9. 1999
    ..This demonstrates an unexpected level of specificity in the regulation of the distribution of extracellular signals by HSPGs...
  98. ncbi Segment polarity genes in neuroblast formation and identity specification during Drosophila neurogenesis
    K M Bhat
    Department of Cell Biology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Bioessays 21:472-85. 1999
    ....
  99. ncbi Costal2, a novel kinesin-related protein in the Hedgehog signaling pathway
    J C Sisson
    Department of Developmental Biology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, California 94305 5427, USA
    Cell 90:235-45. 1997
    ..COS2 is cytoplasmic and binds microtubules. We find that CI associates with COS2 in a large protein complex, suggesting that COS2 directly controls the activity of CI...
  100. ncbi Drosophila hedgehog acts as a morphogen in cellular patterning
    J Heemskerk
    Department of Physiology, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032
    Cell 76:449-60. 1994
    ..We demonstrate that engrailed-expressing cells in the Drosophila epidermis have organizer properties...
  101. ncbi Spitz and Wingless, emanating from distinct borders, cooperate to establish cell fate across the Engrailed domain in the Drosophila epidermis
    L O'Keefe
    The Rockefeller University, New York City, NY 10021 6399, USA
    Development 124:4837-45. 1997
    ..parasegment boundary, cells expressing the Wnt family member Wingless confront cells expressing the homeoprotein Engrailed. The Engrailed-expressing cells normally differentiate as one of two alternative cell types...

Research Grants72

  1. Pancreas-specific primary regulatory targets of Nkx2.2
    DERVLA MELLERICK DRESSLER; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..2 target genes. This knowledge may be highly instructive in defining those regulatory networks required for beta islet specification. ..
  2. HOW DOES VND INTEGRATE POSITIONAL INFORMATION?
    DERVLA MELLERICK DRESSLER; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..These studies address the structure and function of vnd, a critical regulator of early neuronal development, and may serve as a prototype for vertebrate vnd-like genes. ..
  3. Development of C57BL/6 ES cell technology for high thoughput use.
    KLAUS KAESTNER; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  4. GENETIC AND MOLECULAR STUDIES OF NEUROGENESIS
    Chris Q Doe; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Thus, we propose to continue our investigation of temporal patterning in the Drosophila CMS,with the goal of providing insight into the mechanisms regulating temporal patterning during mammalian neurogenesis. ..
  5. REGULATORY CASCADES IN GASTROINTESTINAL PROLIFERATION
    KLAUS KAESTNER; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Together, these studies will further our understanding of the regulatory circuits that control gastrointestinal proliferation in normal development and carcinogenesis. ..
  6. FUNCTIONAL GENOMICS OF THE BETA-CELL
    KLAUS KAESTNER; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The new resources generated through this project will be made available to the NIDDK-funded biotechnology centers and the diabetes research community at large. ..
  7. Molecular and genetic analysis of sanpodo
    JAMES SKEATH; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  8. Repressor/co-repressor oligomerization and development
    Albert J Courey; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Therefore, the mechanisms to be uncovered in this research will be relevant to human disease. ..
  9. Molecular Genetics of Midline Glial Development
    Stephen T Crews; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abstract_text> ..
  10. RNA Induced Silencing Complex In Sex Determination
    JAMILA HORABIN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  11. Molecular and genetic analysis of sanpodo
    JAMES SKEATH; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Such insight should help us understand the etiology of diseases in which this process is de-regulated and design new methods to treat these diseases. ..
  12. REGULATORY CASCADES IN GASTROINTESTINAL PROLIFERATION
    Klaus H Kaestner; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Together, this proposal will further our understanding of GI development and cancer, and allow for the development of novel diagnostic and possibly therapeutic tools in the future. ..
  13. Repressor/co-repressor oligomerization and development
    Albert J Courey; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Therefore, the mechanisms to be uncovered in this research will be relevant to human disease. ..
  14. Molecular and genetic analysis of sanpodo
    James B Skeath; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Such insight should help us understand the etiology of diseases in which this process is de-regulated and design new methods to treat these diseases. ..
  15. DOSAGE COMPENSATION IN DROSOPHILA
    James A Birchler; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The single active X chromosome in humans of both males and females must be up-regulated for viability. The proposed project will examine the type of mechanism responsible for this up-regulation. ..
  16. GENETIC AND MOLECULAR STUDIES OF NEUROGENESIS
    Chris Doe; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Thus, we propose to continue our investigation of temporal patterning in the Drosophila CNS, with the goal of providing insight into the mechanisms regulating temporal patterning during mammalian neurogenesis. ..
  17. MECHANISMS OF TRANSCRIPTIONAL REPRESSION IN DROSOPHILA
    Gerard Campbell; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..single RD could provide all the activity required for a TF to function, but real TFs such as the Brinker (Brk), Engrailed (En) and C15 proteins of Drosophila possess multiple RDs and appear to be able to recruit more than one ..
  18. REGULATORY CASCADES IN GASTROINTESTINAL PROLIFERATION
    KLAUS KAESTNER; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Together, these studies will further our understanding of the regulatory circuits that control gastrointestinal proliferation in normal development and carcinogenesis. ..
  19. BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF PROMOTERS REGULATING DEVELOPMENT
    ALBERT COUREY; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..In addition, many of the genes regulating Drosophila development are homologous to vertebrate oncogenes and thus these studies should help to illuminate the molecular mechanisms behind oncogenesis...
  20. HOMEODOMAIN PROTEIN AND CELL TYPE SPECIFICITY
    MELODY SIEGLER; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..We wish to determine whether cell types are altered, and whether there are other effects on formation of neuronal circuits. ..
  21. MOLECULAR GENETIC ANALYSIS OF ASYMMETRIC CELL DIVISIONS
    Chris Doe; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..We will do RNA and protein localization studies; our collaborator, Dr. G. Oliver will generate and assay the gene knock-out mice. ..
  22. SPECTRAL CONFOCAL MICROSCOPE
    Peter Bryant; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..abstract_text> ..
  23. Cellular interactions in patterning and morphogenesis
    Victor Hatini; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Apical constriction is an evolutionarily conserved process and therefore these studies will have direct implications to vertebrate systems. ..
  24. MOLECULAR MECHANISM OF WINGLESS SIGNALING
    Susan Cumberledge; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  25. Expression profiling of human islets
    KLAUS KAESTNER; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  26. NEURAL DETERMINATION IN DROSOPHILA
    JAMES SKEATH; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Such information may provide useful clues into the various causes of neurological or neuromuscular dysfunctions. ..