Gene Symbol: ems
Description: empty spiracles
Alias: CG2988, Dmel\CG2988, EMS, Ems, W13, ant, empty spiracles, CG2988-PA, antenna, empty spiracle, empty-spiracle, empty-spiracles, ems-PA
Species: fruit fly
Products:     ems

Top Publications

  1. Schock F, Reischl J, Wimmer E, Taubert H, Purnell B, Jackle H. Phenotypic suppression of empty spiracles is prevented by buttonhead. Nature. 2000;405:351-4 pubmed
    ..of pair-rule and HOX-cluster gene expression, by the activities of the gap-like genes orthodenticle (otd), empty spiracles (ems) and buttonhead (btd)...
  2. Walldorf U, Gehring W. Empty spiracles, a gap gene containing a homeobox involved in Drosophila head development. EMBO J. 1992;11:2247-59 pubmed
    The empty spiracles (ems) gene of Drosophila melanogaster is necessary for proper head formation and the development of the posterior spiracles...
  3. Dalton D, Chadwick R, McGinnis W. Expression and embryonic function of empty spiracles: a Drosophila homeo box gene with two patterning functions on the anterior-posterior axis of the embryo. Genes Dev. 1989;3:1940-56 pubmed
    ..homeo box as a probe to identify diverged homeo box genes in the Drosophila genome, we isolated the empty spiracles (ems) gene...
  4. Hu N, Castelli Gair J. Study of the posterior spiracles of Drosophila as a model to understand the genetic and cellular mechanisms controlling morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 1999;214:197-210 pubmed
    ..We analyze the contribution of the ems gene to this coordination...
  5. Botas J. Control of morphogenesis and differentiation by HOM/Hox genes. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1993;5:1015-22 pubmed
    ..Some of the genes they regulate and that mediate specific identify functions have been identified. Research in Drosophila has shown that HOM genes are continuously required during development for correct axial identity. ..
  6. Hartmann B, Reichert H, Walldorf U. Interaction of gap genes in the Drosophila head: tailless regulates expression of empty spiracles in early embryonic patterning and brain development. Mech Dev. 2001;109:161-72 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that in tailless (tll) loss-of-function mutants the empty spiracles (ems) expression domain in the head expands, whereas it retracts in tll gain-of-function embryos...
  7. Lichtneckert R, Nobs L, Reichert H. Empty spiracles is required for the development of olfactory projection neuron circuitry in Drosophila. Development. 2008;135:2415-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The cephalic gap gene empty spiracles (ems) encodes a homeodomain transcription factor required for embryonic development of the antennal brain ..
  8. Schmidt Ott U, Gonzalez Gaitan M, Jackle H, Technau G. Number, identity, and sequence of the Drosophila head segments as revealed by neural elements and their deletion patterns in mutants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:8363-7 pubmed
  9. Lichtneckert R, Bello B, Reichert H. Cell lineage-specific expression and function of the empty spiracles gene in adult brain development of Drosophila melanogaster. Development. 2007;134:1291-300 pubmed
    The empty spiracles (ems) gene, encoding a homeodomain transcription factor, is a member of the cephalic gap gene family that acts in early specification of the anterior neuroectoderm in the embryonic brain of Drosophila...

More Information


  1. Cohen S, Jurgens G. Drosophila headlines. Trends Genet. 1991;7:267-72 pubmed
    ..Organization of the cephalic segments uses a mechanism distinct from the familiar bierarchical cascade of segmentation genes that subdivides the trunk of the embryo. ..
  2. Sen S, Hartmann B, Reichert H, Rodrigues V. Expression and function of the empty spiracles gene in olfactory sense organ development of Drosophila melanogaster. Development. 2010;137:3687-95 pubmed publisher
    In Drosophila, the cephalic gap gene empty spiracles plays key roles in embryonic patterning of the peripheral and central nervous system...
  3. Jones B, McGinnis W. The regulation of empty spiracles by Abdominal-B mediates an abdominal segment identity function. Genes Dev. 1993;7:229-40 pubmed
    The empty spiracles (ems) homeo box gene is required for the development of the Drosophila larval filzkörper, which are structural specializations of the eighth abdominal segment...
  4. Rivera Pomar R, Jackle H. From gradients to stripes in Drosophila embryogenesis: filling in the gaps. Trends Genet. 1996;12:478-83 pubmed
    ..Recent progress has begun to reveal the mechanisms by which coherent positional information of maternal origin becomes transferred into serially repeated zygotic gene expression domains reflecting the metameric body plan of the larva. ..
  5. Cohen S, Jurgens G. Mediation of Drosophila head development by gap-like segmentation genes. Nature. 1990;346:482-5 pubmed
    ..We report here that three previously identified zygotic genes buttonhead (btd), empty spiracles (ems) and orthodenticle (otd) may behave like gap genes that mediate bcd function in the embryonic head.
  6. Zhai Z, Yang X, Lohmann I. Functional dissection of the Hox protein Abdominal-B in Drosophila cell culture. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;414:761-6 pubmed publisher
  7. McGinnis W, Krumlauf R. Homeobox genes and axial patterning. Cell. 1992;68:283-302 pubmed
  8. Hirth F, Therianos S, Loop T, Gehring W, Reichert H, Furukubo Tokunaga K. Developmental defects in brain segmentation caused by mutations of the homeobox genes orthodenticle and empty spiracles in Drosophila. Neuron. 1995;15:769-78 pubmed
    We have studied the roles of the homeobox genes orthodenticle (otd) and empty spiracles (ems) in embryonic brain development of Drosophila. The embryonic brain is composed of three segmental neuromeres...
  9. Riddihough G, Ish Horowicz D. Individual stripe regulatory elements in the Drosophila hairy promoter respond to maternal, gap, and pair-rule genes. Genes Dev. 1991;5:840-54 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that different but overlapping subsets of gap genes regulate each stripe and that activation and repression are both important in generating the stripe pattern. ..
  10. Makeev V, Lifanov A, Nazina A, Papatsenko D. Distance preferences in the arrangement of binding motifs and hierarchical levels in organization of transcription regulatory information. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:6016-26 pubmed
    ..We discuss the role of the hierarchy in understanding transcriptional regulation and in detection of transcription regulatory regions in genomes. ..
  11. Das A, Sen S, Lichtneckert R, Okada R, Ito K, Rodrigues V, et al. Drosophila olfactory local interneurons and projection neurons derive from a common neuroblast lineage specified by the empty spiracles gene. Neural Dev. 2008;3:33 pubmed publisher
    ..The lateral neuroblast requires the function of the cephalic gap gene empty spiracles for the development of olfactory interneurons...
  12. Simeone A, Gulisano M, Acampora D, Stornaiuolo A, Rambaldi M, Boncinelli E. Two vertebrate homeobox genes related to the Drosophila empty spiracles gene are expressed in the embryonic cerebral cortex. EMBO J. 1992;11:2541-50 pubmed
    We cloned two homeobox genes, Emx1 and Emx2, related to empty spiracles, a gene expressed in very anterior body regions during early Drosophila embryogenesis, and studied their expression in mouse embryos...
  13. Simpson Brose M, Treisman J, Desplan C. Synergy between the hunchback and bicoid morphogens is required for anterior patterning in Drosophila. Cell. 1994;78:855-65 pubmed
    ..bcd may be a newly acquired Drosophila gene, which is gradually replacing some of the functions performed by maternal hb in other species. ..
  14. Lichtneckert R, Reichert H. Anteroposterior regionalization of the brain: genetic and comparative aspects. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2008;628:32-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The gene families that have been characterized include the otd/Otx and ems/Emx genes which are involved in specification of the anterior brain, the Hox genes which are involved in the ..
  15. Lovegrove B, Simoes S, Rivas M, Sotillos S, Johnson K, Knust E, et al. Coordinated control of cell adhesion, polarity, and cytoskeleton underlies Hox-induced organogenesis in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2006;16:2206-16 pubmed
    ..We propose that during animal development, Hox-controlled genetic cascades coordinate the local cell-specific behaviors that result in organogenesis of segment-specific structures. ..
  16. Andrioli L, Digiampietri L, de Barros L, Machado Lima A. Huckebein is part of a combinatorial repression code in the anterior blastoderm. Dev Biol. 2012;361:177-85 pubmed publisher
  17. Spahn P, Huelsmann S, Rehorn K, Mischke S, MAYER M, Casali A, et al. Multiple regulatory safeguards confine the expression of the GATA factor Serpent to the hemocyte primordium within the Drosophila mesoderm. Dev Biol. 2014;386:272-9 pubmed publisher
    ..During embryonic hematopoiesis, a combination of snail, buttonhead, empty spiracles and even-skipped confines the mesodermal srp expression to the head region...
  18. Castelli Gair J. The lines gene of Drosophila is required for specific functions of the Abdominal-B HOX protein. Development. 1998;125:1269-74 pubmed
    ..These defects arise because in lines mutant embryos the Abdominal-B protein cannot activate its direct target empty spiracles or other downstream genes while it can function as a repressor of Ultrabithorax and abdominal-A...
  19. DeFalco T, Camara N, Le Bras S, Van Doren M. Nonautonomous sex determination controls sexually dimorphic development of the Drosophila gonad. Dev Cell. 2008;14:275-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that nonautonomous sex determination is important for creating sexual dimorphism in the Drosophila gonad, similar to the manner in which sex-specific gonad formation is controlled in mammals. ..
  20. Eldon E, Pirrotta V. Interactions of the Drosophila gap gene giant with maternal and zygotic pattern-forming genes. Development. 1991;111:367-78 pubmed
    ..Expression is never detected in the labial or thoracic segment primordia but persists in certain head structures, including the ring gland, until the end of embryonic development. ..
  21. Hauptmann G. Two-color detection of mRNA transcript localizations in fish and fly embryos using alkaline phosphatase and beta-galactosidase conjugated antibodies. Dev Genes Evol. 1999;209:317-21 pubmed
    ..This protocol can be followed by standard immunohistochemistry to detect the expression of a third gene (at the protein level) in a third color. ..
  22. He X, Duque T, Sinha S. Evolutionary origins of transcription factor binding site clusters. Mol Biol Evol. 2012;29:1059-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The quantitative framework we develop here can be used more generally to understand how mechanisms of enhancer action influence their composition and evolution. ..
  23. Ochoa Espinosa A, Yu D, Tsirigos A, Struffi P, Small S. Anterior-posterior positional information in the absence of a strong Bicoid gradient. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:3823-8 pubmed publisher
  24. Stöbe P, Stein M, Stein S, Habring Müller A, Bezdan D, Fuchs A, et al. Multifactorial regulation of a hox target gene. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000412 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, a large number of transcription factors are likely to be directly involved in Hox target gene regulation in vivo. ..
  25. Keegan L, Haerry T, Crotty D, Packer A, Wolgemuth D, Gehring W. A sequence conserved in vertebrate Hox gene introns functions as an enhancer regulated by posterior homeotic genes in Drosophila imaginal discs. Mech Dev. 1997;63:145-57 pubmed
    ..Testing a reporter gene construct with mutated binding sites in mouse embryos shows that HB1 is also active in the expression domains of posterior Hox genes in the mouse neural tube. ..
  26. Thor S. The genetics of brain development: conserved programs in flies and mice. Neuron. 1995;15:975-7 pubmed
  27. Tsikala G, Karagogeos D, Strigini M. Btk-dependent epithelial cell rearrangements contribute to the invagination of nearby tubular structures in the posterior spiracles of Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2014;396:42-56 pubmed publisher
    ..These results highlight the complex physical interactions that take place among organ components during morphogenesis, which contribute to their final form and function. ..
  28. Schroeder M, Pearce M, Fak J, Fan H, Unnerstall U, Emberly E, et al. Transcriptional control in the segmentation gene network of Drosophila. PLoS Biol. 2004;2:E271 pubmed
    ..The study demonstrates that computational methods are a powerful complement to experimental approaches in the analysis of transcription networks. ..
  29. Moris Sanz M, Estacio Gómez A, Alvarez Rivero J, Díaz Benjumea F. Specification of neuronal subtypes by different levels of Hunchback. Development. 2014;141:4366-74 pubmed publisher
    ..two ganglion mother cells that give rise to four neurons, which can be identified by the expression of empty spiracles. We show that the expression of Hunchback in the neuroblast increases over time and provide evidence that the ..
  30. Hauptmann G, Gerster T. Multicolour whole-mount in situ hybridization to Drosophila embryos. Dev Genes Evol. 1996;206:292-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Hybridized probes are detected by consecutive staining with appropriate alkaline phosphatase conjugates using different chromogenic substrate combinations, and serial removal of the antibody conjugates by low pH washes. ..
  31. Goriely A, Stella M, Coffinier C, Kessler D, Mailhos C, Dessain S, et al. A functional homologue of goosecoid in Drosophila. Development. 1996;122:1641-50 pubmed
    ..The identification of gsc target genes and/or other genes involved in similar developmental processes will allow the definition of the precise phylogenetic relationship among Gsc proteins. ..
  32. Miklos G. Molecules and cognition: the latterday lessons of levels, language, and lac. Evolutionary overview of brain structure and function in some vertebrates and invertebrates. J Neurobiol. 1993;24:842-90 pubmed
    ..Finally, I analyze the concepts of "perceptual categorization" and "information processing" and the difficulties involved in the extrapolation of computer analogies to sophisticated nervous systems. ..
  33. Holland P, Ingham P, Krauss S. Development and evolution. Mice and flies head to head. Nature. 1992;358:627-8 pubmed
  34. Younossi Hartenstein A, Green P, Liaw G, Rudolph K, Lengyel J, Hartenstein V. Control of early neurogenesis of the Drosophila brain by the head gap genes tll, otd, ems, and btd. Dev Biol. 1997;182:270-83 pubmed
    ..neurectoderm is controlled by the head gap genes tailless (tll), orthodenticle (otd), buttonhead (btd), and empty spiracles (ems), which are expressed in partially overlapping domains of the head neurectoderm...
  35. Ando M, Totani Y, Walldorf U, Furukubo Tokunaga K. TALE-class homeodomain transcription factors, homothorax and extradenticle, control dendritic and axonal targeting of olfactory projection neurons in the Drosophila brain. Dev Biol. 2011;358:122-36 pubmed publisher
    ..These results thus demonstrate the functional importance of the TALE-class homeodomain proteins in cell-type specification and precise wiring of the Drosophila olfactory network. ..
  36. González Reyes A, Morata G. Organization of the Drosophila head as revealed by the ectopic expression of the Ultrabithorax product. Development. 1991;113:1459-71 pubmed
    ..Our results also indicate that most or all the larval head structures derive from precursor cells of ventral origin. ..
  37. Goldstein R, Cook O, Dinur T, Pisanté A, Karandikar U, Bidwai A, et al. An eh1-like motif in odd-skipped mediates recruitment of Groucho and repression in vivo. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:10711-20 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that phosphorylation of these phosphomeric residues, if it occurs, will down-regulate Groucho binding and therefore repression, providing a mechanism for posttranslational control of Groucho-mediated repression. ..
  38. Finkelstein R, Boncinelli E. From fly head to mammalian forebrain: the story of otd and Otx. Trends Genet. 1994;10:310-5 pubmed
    ..These studies suggest that this domain is specified according to a genetic paradigm that is different from that governing trunk development, and are also beginning to provide insights into the structures that underlie the rostral brain. ..
  39. Nakachi Y, Hayakawa T, Oota H, Sumiyama K, Wang L, Ueda S. Nucleotide compositional constraints on genomes generate alanine-, glycine-, and proline-rich structures in transcription factors. Mol Biol Evol. 1997;14:1042-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, reptile class III POU sequences revealed no evolutionary directionality increasing the GC contents from cold- to warm-blooded vertebrates...
  40. Seibert J, Volland D, Urbach R. Ems and Nkx6 are central regulators in dorsoventral patterning of the Drosophila brain. Development. 2009;136:3937-47 pubmed publisher
    ..gene regulatory network underlying DV patterning in the Drosophila brain, and show that the cephalic gap gene empty spiracles (ems) and the Nk6 homeobox gene (Nkx6) encode key regulators...
  41. Crozatier M, Valle D, Dubois L, Ibnsouda S, Vincent A. Collier, a novel regulator of Drosophila head development, is expressed in a single mitotic domain. Curr Biol. 1996;6:707-18 pubmed
    ..The structural conservation of Col during evolution raises the questions of its conservation of function in head specification and its interactions with other factors conserved between insects and vertebrates. ..
  42. Hauptmann G, Gerster T. Two-color whole-mount in situ hybridization to vertebrate and Drosophila embryos. Trends Genet. 1994;10:266 pubmed
  43. Green J, Smith J. Growth factors as morphogens: do gradients and thresholds establish body plan?. Trends Genet. 1991;7:245-50 pubmed
    ..This opens up questions of whether such mechanisms are sufficient, and-if there are growth factor gradients-which factors are actually used and how. ..
  44. Bachiller D, Macias A, Duboule D, Morata G. Conservation of a functional hierarchy between mammalian and insect Hox/HOM genes. EMBO J. 1994;13:1930-41 pubmed
    ..which, even though it has a general suppressing effect, can also activate the resident Abdominal-B and empty spiracles genes in ectopic positions...
  45. Crozatier M, Valle D, Dubois L, Ibnsouda S, Vincent A. Head versus trunk patterning in the Drosophila embryo; collier requirement for formation of the intercalary segment. Development. 1999;126:4385-94 pubmed
    ..register of col activation is controlled by the combined activities of the head-gap genes buttonhead and empty spiracles and the pair-rule gene even skipped; it therefore integrates inputs from both the head and trunk segmentation ..
  46. Strutt H, Paro R. The polycomb group protein complex of Drosophila melanogaster has different compositions at different target genes. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:6773-83 pubmed
    ..Polyhomeotic and Posterior Sex Combs may participate in a more general transcriptional mechanism that causes modulated gene repression, whereas the inclusion of Polycomb protein in the complex at PREs leads to stable silencing. ..
  47. Overton P, Meadows L, Urban J, Russell S. Evidence for differential and redundant function of the Sox genes Dichaete and SoxN during CNS development in Drosophila. Development. 2002;129:4219-28 pubmed
  48. Courey A, Huang J. The establishment and interpretation of transcription factor gradients in the Drosophila embryo. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1995;1261:1-18 pubmed
  49. Tautz D. Segmentation. Dev Cell. 2004;7:301-12 pubmed
    ..An old concept of comparative anatomy, the enterocoele theory, is compatible with a single origin of segmentation mechanisms and could therefore provide a conceptual framework for assessing these molecular similarities. ..
  50. Matsuzaki F, Koizumi K, Hama C, Yoshioka T, Nabeshima Y. Cloning of the Drosophila prospero gene and its expression in ganglion mother cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1992;182:1326-32 pubmed
    ..Our results provoke that in neuronal cell differentiation ganglion mother cells might play a pivotal role associating with the pros function. ..
  51. Urbach R, Volland D, Seibert J, Technau G. Segment-specific requirements for dorsoventral patterning genes during early brain development in Drosophila. Development. 2006;133:4315-30 pubmed
    ..We also show that, in the anterior brain (protocerebrum), normal production of early glial cells is independent from msh and vnd, in contrast to the posterior brain (deuto- and tritocerebrum) and to the ventral nerve cord. ..
  52. Perry M, Boettiger A, Levine M. Multiple enhancers ensure precision of gap gene-expression patterns in the Drosophila embryo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:13570-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We present different models for "enhancer synergy," whereby two enhancers with overlapping activities produce authentic patterns of gene expression. ..
  53. Shandala T, Kortschak R, Gregory S, Saint R. The Drosophila dead ringer gene is required for early embryonic patterning through regulation of argos and buttonhead expression. Development. 1999;126:4341-9 pubmed
    ..This study establishes dri as an essential co-factor in the regulated expression of specific patterning genes during early embryogenesis. ..
  54. Mohler J. Spatial regulation of segment polarity gene expression in the anterior terminal region of the Drosophila blastoderm embryo. Mech Dev. 1995;50:151-61 pubmed
    The effects of mutations in five anterior gap genes (hkb, tll, otd, ems and btd) on the spatial expression of the segment polarity genes, wg and hh, were analyzed at the late blastoderm stage and during subsequent development...
  55. Lawrence P, Morata G. Homeobox genes: their function in Drosophila segmentation and pattern formation. Cell. 1994;78:181-9 pubmed
  56. Gutjahr T, Frei E, Noll M. Complex regulation of early paired expression: initial activation by gap genes and pattern modulation by pair-rule genes. Development. 1993;117:609-23 pubmed
    ..The factors activating paired expression in the pair-rule mode appear to interact with those activating it along the dorsoventral axis. ..
  57. Hartmann B, Hirth F, Walldorf U, Reichert H. Expression, regulation and function of the homeobox gene empty spiracles in brain and ventral nerve cord development of Drosophila. Mech Dev. 2000;90:143-53 pubmed
    We analyse the role of the empty spiracles (ems) gene in embryonic brain and ventral nerve cord development. ems is differentially expressed in the neurectoderm of the anterior head versus the trunk region of early embryos...
  58. Hartmann B, Reichert H. The genetics of embryonic brain development in Drosophila. Mol Cell Neurosci. 1998;12:194-205 pubmed
  59. Lacin H, Truman J. Lineage mapping identifies molecular and architectural similarities between the larval and adult Drosophila central nervous system. elife. 2016;5:e13399 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide a comprehensive view of neurogenesis and show how proliferation of individual neuroblasts is dictated by temporal and spatial cues. ..
  60. Ebner A, Kiefer F, Ribeiro C, Petit V, Nussbaumer U, Affolter M. Tracheal development in Drosophila melanogaster as a model system for studying the development of a branched organ. Gene. 2002;287:55-66 pubmed
    ..We show that empty spiracles (ems), a head gap gene, is required for the formation of a specific tracheal branch, the visceral branch...
  61. Mahaffey J. Assisting Hox proteins in controlling body form: are there new lessons from flies (and mammals)?. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2005;15:422-9 pubmed
    ..Perhaps this layer in the genetic control of body patterning will help bridge some of the chasms that remain in our understanding of the genetic control of pattern formation. ..
  62. Gao Q, Wang Y, Finkelstein R. Orthodenticle regulation during embryonic head development in Drosophila. Mech Dev. 1996;56:3-15 pubmed
    ..Finally, we identify a novel pathway mediated by the gap gene huckebein through which three maternal systems cooperate to repress otd expression at the anterior terminus of the embryo. ..
  63. Löhr U, Chung H, Beller M, Jackle H. Antagonistic action of Bicoid and the repressor Capicua determines the spatial limits of Drosophila head gene expression domains. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:21695-700 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the spatial domains of head gene expression are determined by Bcd in concert with Tor-dependent repressors. ..
  64. Yassin A, Lienau E, Narechania A, DeSalle R. Catching the phylogenic history through the ontogenic hourglass: a phylogenomic analysis of Drosophila body segmentation genes. Evol Dev. 2010;12:288-95 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that simultaneous character-based analyses give better macroevolutionary support to the hourglass model of the developmental constraints on genome evolution than pairwise phenetic comparisons. ..
  65. Maurel Zaffran C, Pradel J, Graba Y. Reiterative use of signalling pathways controls multiple cellular events during Drosophila posterior spiracle organogenesis. Dev Biol. 2010;343:18-27 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the reiterative use of the Wg, Hh, and EGFR signalling pathways serves to coordinate in time and space the sequential deployment of events that collectively allow proper organogenesis. ..
  66. Reichert H, Boyan G. Building a brain: developmental insights in insects. Trends Neurosci. 1997;20:258-64 pubmed
  67. Zhai Z, Fuchs A, Lohmann I. Cellular analysis of newly identified Hox downstream genes in Drosophila. Eur J Cell Biol. 2010;89:273-8 pubmed publisher
  68. Zhang H, Levine M. Groucho and dCtBP mediate separate pathways of transcriptional repression in the Drosophila embryo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:535-40 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that dCtBP and Groucho mediate separate pathways of transcriptional repression and that the two proteins can inhibit one another when both bind the same repressor. ..
  69. Nagao T, Endo K, Kawauchi H, Walldorf U, Furukubo Tokunaga K. Patterning defects in the primary axonal scaffolds caused by the mutations of the extradenticle and homothorax genes in the embryonic Drosophila brain. Dev Genes Evol. 2000;210:289-99 pubmed
    ..brain at the molecular level including stimulation of the orthodenticle gene and suppression of the empty spiracles and cervical homeotic genes...
  70. Herranz H, Morata G. The functions of pannier during Drosophila embryogenesis. Development. 2001;128:4837-46 pubmed
    ..These results, together with prior work on its function in adults, suggest that pnr is a major factor in the genetic subdivision of the body of Drosophila. ..
  71. Merabet S, Catala F, Pradel J, Graba Y. A green fluorescent protein reporter genetic screen that identifies modifiers of Hox gene function in the Drosophila embryo. Genetics. 2002;162:189-202 pubmed
    ..we describe a genetic screen designed to identify functions required for the control of the wingless (wg) and empty spiracles (ems) target genes by the Hox Abdominal-A and Abdominal-B proteins...
  72. Jaffe L, Ryoo H, Mann R. A role for phosphorylation by casein kinase II in modulating Antennapedia activity in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 1997;11:1327-40 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that phosphorylation of ANTP by CKII is important for preventing inappropriate activities of this homeotic protein during embryogenesis. ..
  73. Zhu A, Kuziora M. Functional domains in the Deformed protein. Development. 1996;122:1577-87 pubmed
    ..Activity was also tested using promoter elements from empty spiracles and Distal-less, two genes known to be directly regulated by Abdominal-B...
  74. Kammermeier L, Leemans R, Hirth F, Flister S, Wenger U, Walldorf U, et al. Differential expression and function of the Drosophila Pax6 genes eyeless and twin of eyeless in embryonic central nervous system development. Mech Dev. 2001;103:71-8 pubmed
    ..In contrast, targeted misexpression of ey, but not of toy, resulted in profound axonal abnormalities in the embryonic ventral nerve cord and brain. ..
  75. Lord P, Lin M, Hales K, Storti R. Normal expression and the effects of ectopic expression of the Drosophila muscle segment homeobox (msh) gene suggest a role in differentiation and patterning of embryonic muscles. Dev Biol. 1995;171:627-40 pubmed
    ..acid sequence of the msh homeobox domain is highly homologous to the homeodomains of the Drosophila S59 and empty spiracles genes and the Hox 7 and Hox 8 family of vertebrate homeobox genes...
  76. Strecker T, Yip M, Lipshitz H. Genetic control of cell fate in the termini of the Drosophila embryo. Dev Biol. 1992;150:422-6 pubmed
    ..We show that two genes, lines and empty spiracles, act downstream of tailless to repress central and promote terminal cell fates along the anteroposterior axis ..
  77. Blanco J, Gehring W. Analysis of twin of eyeless regulation during early embryogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Gene Expr Patterns. 2008;8:523-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Whereas Bicoid, Dorsal and Torso signaling synergistically act as activators, Hunchback, Knirps and Decapentaplegic act as repressors. ..
  78. Kalionis B, O Farrell P. A universal target sequence is bound in vitro by diverse homeodomains. Mech Dev. 1993;43:57-70 pubmed
    ..We conclude that during the evolutionary divergence of homeodomains, the specificity of DNA binding has been much more highly conserved than the amino acid sequence. ..