Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Eip75B
Description: Ecdysone-induced protein 75B
Alias: 57B, 75B, BcDNA:GM02640, CG8127, DmE75A, DmE75B, Dmel\CG8127, E75, E75-C, E75A, E75B, E75C, EP1121b, Eip75, Eip75 A, Eip75A, Mgn00274, NR1D3, Rev-Erb, anon-WO0172774.31, anon-WO0172774.32, dE75, eip75B, l(3)07041, l(3)j11A6, l(3)j12E8, l(3)j3A6, l(3)j5E1, l(3)neo25, Ecdysone-induced protein 75B, CG8127-PA, CG8127-PB, CG8127-PC, CG8127-PD, CG8127-PE, CG8127-PF, CG8127-PG, E75 nuclear receptor, Eip75B-PA, Eip75B-PB, Eip75B-PC, Eip75B-PD, Eip75B-PE, Eip75B-PF, Eip75B-PG, ecdysone induced protein 75, ecdysone inducible protein 75B, ecdysone-induced protein 75
Species: fruit fly
- Segraves W, Hogness D. The E75 ecdysone-inducible gene responsible for the 75B early puff in Drosophila encodes two new members of the steroid receptor superfamily. Genes Dev. 1990;4:204-19 pubmed..We isolated a 50-kb ecdysone-inducible gene, E75, that occupies the early puff locus at 75B. E75 contains two overlapping transcription units...
- Johnston D, Sedkov Y, Petruk S, Riley K, Fujioka M, Jaynes J, et al. Ecdysone- and NO-mediated gene regulation by competing EcR/Usp and E75A nuclear receptors during Drosophila development. Mol Cell. 2011;44:51-61 pubmed publisher..of ecdysone, both ecdysone receptor subunits localize to the cytoplasm, and the heme-binding nuclear receptor E75A replaces EcR/Usp at common target sequences in several genes...
- Cáceres L, Necakov A, Schwartz C, Kimber S, Roberts I, Krause H. Nitric oxide coordinates metabolism, growth, and development via the nuclear receptor E75. Genes Dev. 2011;25:1476-85 pubmed publisher..produced in the Drosophila prothoracic gland, where it acts via the nuclear receptor ecdysone-induced protein 75 (E75), reversing its ability to interfere with its heterodimer partner, Drosophila hormone receptor 3 (DHR3)...
- Dubrovsky E, Dubrovskaya V, Bernardo T, Otte V, Difilippo R, Bryan H. The Drosophila FTZ-F1 nuclear receptor mediates juvenile hormone activation of E75A gene expression through an intracellular pathway. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:33689-700 pubmed publisher..We previously found that the nuclear receptor gene E75A is activated in S2 cells as a primary response to JH...
- Palanker L, Necakov A, Sampson H, Ni R, Hu C, Thummel C, et al. Dynamic regulation of Drosophila nuclear receptor activity in vivo. Development. 2006;133:3549-62 pubmed
- Gates J, Lam G, Ortiz J, Losson R, Thummel C. rigor mortis encodes a novel nuclear receptor interacting protein required for ecdysone signaling during Drosophila larval development. Development. 2004;131:25-36 pubmed..duplicated mouth parts, and defects in puparium formation--phenotypes that resemble those seen in EcR, usp, E75A and betaFTZ-F1 mutants...
- Bialecki M, Shilton A, Fichtenberg C, Segraves W, Thummel C. Loss of the ecdysteroid-inducible E75A orphan nuclear receptor uncouples molting from metamorphosis in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2002;3:209-20 pubmed..null mutations were used to define the functions of three orphan members of the nuclear receptor superfamily, E75A, E75B, and E75C, encoded by the E75 early ecdysteroid-inducible gene...
- Dubrovsky E, Dubrovskaya V, Berger E. Hormonal regulation and functional role of Drosophila E75A orphan nuclear receptor in the juvenile hormone signaling pathway. Dev Biol. 2004;268:258-70 pubmed..How these two hormones interact at the molecular level is not known. Here we report the JH inducibility of the E75A nuclear receptor encoded by the E75 early ecdysone-inducible gene...
- Bender M, Imam F, Talbot W, Ganetzky B, Hogness D. Drosophila ecdysone receptor mutations reveal functional differences among receptor isoforms. Cell. 1997;91:777-88 pubmed..Comparable transgenic expression of EcR-B1, EcR-B2, and EcR-A in these mutant glands results, respectively, in full, partial, and no repair of that loss. ..
- Hall B, Thummel C. The RXR homolog ultraspiracle is an essential component of the Drosophila ecdysone receptor. Development. 1998;125:4709-17 pubmed
- Aicart Ramos C, Valhondo Falcón M, Ortiz de Montellano P, Rodríguez Crespo I. Covalent attachment of heme to the protein moiety in an insect E75 nitric oxide sensor. Biochemistry. 2012;51:7403-16 pubmed publisher..have recombinantly expressed and purified the ligand binding domains (LBDs) of four insect nuclear receptors of the E75 family...
- King Jones K, Thummel C. Nuclear receptors--a perspective from Drosophila. Nat Rev Genet. 2005;6:311-23 pubmed..Here, we review recent breakthroughs in our understanding of D. melanogaster nuclear receptors, and interpret these results in light of findings from their evolutionarily conserved vertebrate homologues. ..
- Fahrbach S, Smagghe G, Velarde R. Insect nuclear receptors. Annu Rev Entomol. 2012;57:83-106 pubmed publisher..An exciting new technology allows EcR to be used in chimeric, ligand-inducible gene-switch systems with applications in pest management and medicine. ..
- Koelle M, Talbot W, Segraves W, Bender M, Cherbas P, Hogness D. The Drosophila EcR gene encodes an ecdysone receptor, a new member of the steroid receptor superfamily. Cell. 1991;67:59-77 pubmed..As expected, EcR is nuclear and found in all ecdysone target tissues examined. Furthermore, the EcR gene is expressed at each developmental stage marked by a pulse of ecdysone. ..
- Reinking J, Lam M, Pardee K, Sampson H, Liu S, Yang P, et al. The Drosophila nuclear receptor e75 contains heme and is gas responsive. Cell. 2005;122:195-207 pubmed..quot; Here, we demonstrate that the ligand binding pocket of the Drosophila nuclear receptor E75 contains a heme prosthetic group...
- Bashirullah A, Lam G, Yin V, Thummel C. dTrf2 is required for transcriptional and developmental responses to ecdysone during Drosophila metamorphosis. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:3173-9 pubmed..The transcription of key ecdysone-regulated target genes is delayed and reduced in dTrf2 mutants. dTrf2 appears to be required for the proper timing and levels of ecdysone-regulated gene expression required for entry into metamorphosis. ..
- Huet F, Ruiz C, Richards G. Puffs and PCR: the in vivo dynamics of early gene expression during ecdysone responses in Drosophila. Development. 1993;118:613-27 pubmed..A number of these early puffs (2B5, 74EF and 75B) contain complex transcription units (Broad-Complex, E74 and E75 respectively) encoding families of regulatory ..
- Andres A, Thummel C. Hormones, puffs and flies: the molecular control of metamorphosis by ecdysone. Trends Genet. 1992;8:132-8 pubmed..Molecular characterization of some of these genes has provided valuable clues to regulatory mechanisms by which the ecdysone signal is transduced and amplified. ..
- Bernardo T, Dubrovskaya V, Jannat H, Maughan B, Dubrovsky E. Hormonal regulation of the E75 gene in Drosophila: identifying functional regulatory elements through computational and biological analysis. J Mol Biol. 2009;387:794-808 pubmed..E75 occupies over 100 kb of genomic DNA; it has four alternative promoters producing isoforms E75A, E75B, E75C, and E75D...
- Colombani J, Andersen D, Leopold P. Secreted peptide Dilp8 coordinates Drosophila tissue growth with developmental timing. Science. 2012;336:582-5 pubmed publisher..We propose that Dilp8 peptide is a secreted signal that coordinates the growth status of tissues with developmental timing. ..
- Karim F, Thummel C. Temporal coordination of regulatory gene expression by the steroid hormone ecdysone. EMBO J. 1992;11:4083-93 pubmed..peaks in late third instar larvae, these transcripts are repressed and the class II RNAs (E74A, E75A and E75B) are induced. The BR-C RNAs appear to have both class I and class II characteristics...
- Biyasheva A, Do T, Lu Y, Vaskova M, Andres A. Glue secretion in the Drosophila salivary gland: a model for steroid-regulated exocytosis. Dev Biol. 2001;231:234-51 pubmed..The results presented establish a connection between 20E exposure and changes in Ca2+ levels that are mediated by Ca2+ effector proteins, and thus establish a mechanistic framework for future studies. ..
- Francis V, Zorzano A, Teleman A. dDOR is an EcR coactivator that forms a feed-forward loop connecting insulin and ecdysone signaling. Curr Biol. 2010;20:1799-808 pubmed publisher..Furthermore, because ecdysone signaling inhibits insulin signaling in the fat body, this also uncovers a feed-forward mechanism whereby ecdysone potentiates its own signaling via dDOR. ..
- Ciurciu A, Komonyi O, Pankotai T, Boros I. The Drosophila histone acetyltransferase Gcn5 and transcriptional adaptor Ada2a are involved in nucleosomal histone H4 acetylation. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:9413-23 pubmed..Our data suggest dAda2a involvement in both uniformly distributed H4 acetylation and gene-specific transcription regulation. ..
- Chauhan C, Zraly C, Parilla M, Diaz M, Dingwall A. Histone recognition and nuclear receptor co-activator functions of Drosophila cara mitad, a homolog of the N-terminal portion of mammalian MLL2 and MLL3. Development. 2012;139:1997-2008 pubmed publisher..The evolutionary split of MLL2 into two distinct genes in Drosophila provides important insight into distinct epigenetic functions of conserved readers and writers of the histone code. ..
- Huet F, Ruiz C, Richards G. Sequential gene activation by ecdysone in Drosophila melanogaster: the hierarchical equivalence of early and early late genes. Development. 1995;121:1195-204 pubmed..by a precise sequential activation of members of the superfamily of nuclear receptors (DHR3, DHR39, EcR, E75, E78, FTZ-F1, usp)...
- Buszczak M, Freeman M, Carlson J, Bender M, Cooley L, Segraves W. Ecdysone response genes govern egg chamber development during mid-oogenesis in Drosophila. Development. 1999;126:4581-9 pubmed..b>E75, E74 and BR-C are expressed in a stage-specific manner while EcR expression is ubiquitous throughout oogenesis...
- Kozlova T, Thummel C. Steroid regulation of postembryonic development and reproduction in Drosophila. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2000;11:276-80 pubmed..The ecdysteroid hierarchy was also shown recently to regulate Drosophila oogenesis and reproduction. ..
- Thummel C. Flies on steroids--Drosophila metamorphosis and the mechanisms of steroid hormone action. Trends Genet. 1996;12:306-10 pubmed..It seems likely that similar hormone-triggered regulatory hierarchies exist in other higher organisms and that Drosophila is providing our first glimpses of the complexities of these gene networks. ..
- Li T, Bender M. A conditional rescue system reveals essential functions for the ecdysone receptor (EcR) gene during molting and metamorphosis in Drosophila. Development. 2000;127:2897-905 pubmed..These results show that EcR mediates ecdysone signaling at multiple developmental stages and implicate EcR in the reorganization of imaginal and larval tissues at the onset of metamorphosis. ..
- Schubiger M, Truman J. The RXR ortholog USP suppresses early metamorphic processes in Drosophila in the absence of ecdysteroids. Development. 2000;127:1151-9 pubmed..the wing disc of Drosophila shows that in the absence of USP, early hormone responsive genes such as EcR, DHR3 and E75B fail to up-regulate in response to 20E, but other genes that are normally expressed later, such as (&bgr;)-Ftz-..
- Segraves W. Steroid receptors and orphan receptors in Drosophila development. Semin Cell Biol. 1994;5:105-13 pubmed..This has suggested a number of models based on competitive, cooperative and inter-regulatory interactions between these proteins. ..
- Yoshikane N, Nakamura N, Ueda R, Ueno N, Yamanaka S, Nakamura M. Drosophila NAT1, a homolog of the vertebrate translational regulator NAT1/DAP5/p97, is required for embryonic germband extension and metamorphosis. Dev Growth Differ. 2007;49:623-34 pubmed..A phenotypic analysis of dNAT1 mutants suggests that dNAT protein plays a specific rather than general role in translational regulation. ..
- de Rosny E, de Groot A, Jullian Binard C, Gaillard J, Borel F, Pebay Peyroula E, et al. Drosophila nuclear receptor E75 is a thiolate hemoprotein. Biochemistry. 2006;45:9727-34 pubmedDrosophila E75 is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. These eukaryotic transcription factors are involved in almost all physiological processes...
- Janknecht R, Sander C, Pongs O. (HX)n repeats: a pH-controlled protein-protein interaction motif of eukaryotic transcription factors?. FEBS Lett. 1991;295:1-2 pubmed..g. HPHAHPHP in paired protein. Detailed molecular modelling and database searches lead to the suggestion that (HX)n repeats can mediate interaction between transcription factors in a pH-controlled fashion. ..
- Yan Y, Wang H, Chen H, LindstrÃ¶m Battle A, Jiao R. Ecdysone and insulin signaling play essential roles in readjusting the altered body size caused by the dGPAT4 mutation in Drosophila. J Genet Genomics. 2015;42:487-94 pubmed publisher..Thus, we propose that a strategy has been evolved by the animals to reach final body size when challenged by genetic alterations, which requires the coordinated ecdysone and insulin signaling. ..
- King Jones K, Charles J, Lam G, Thummel C. The ecdysone-induced DHR4 orphan nuclear receptor coordinates growth and maturation in Drosophila. Cell. 2005;121:773-84 pubmed..We propose that DHR4 coordinates growth and maturation in Drosophila by mediating endocrine responses to the attainment of critical weight during larval development. ..
- Hing H, Bangalore L, Sun X, Artavanis Tsakonas S. Mutations in the heatshock cognate 70 protein (hsc4) modulate Notch signaling. Eur J Cell Biol. 1999;78:690-7 pubmed..We discuss how hsc4, a gene thought to be involved in subcellular trafficking, may affect the number of functional Notch receptors on the cell surface. ..
- Pile L, Schlag E, Wassarman D. The SIN3/RPD3 deacetylase complex is essential for G(2) phase cell cycle progression and regulation of SMRTER corepressor levels. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:4965-76 pubmed..Loss of SIN3 does not affect global acetylation of histones H3 and H4, suggesting that the G(2) phase delay is due not to global changes in genome integrity but rather to derepression of SIN3 target genes. ..
- Maeder M, Megley C, EASTMAN D. Differential expression of the Enhancer of split genes in the developing Drosophila midgut. Hereditas. 2009;146:11-8 pubmed publisher..These results provide further evidence that the E(spl) genes function during midgut development and that they are regulated by different factors. ..
- Hsu T, Schulz R. Sequence and functional properties of Ets genes in the model organism Drosophila. Oncogene. 2000;19:6409-16 pubmed..The information should be of significant value to the study of related processes in higher organisms due to the growing evidence for the cross species conservation of developmental mechanisms. ..
- Liu H, Wang J, Li S. E93 predominantly transduces 20-hydroxyecdysone signaling to induce autophagy and caspase activity in Drosophila fat body. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2014;45:30-9 pubmed publisher..Taken together, we conclude that autophagy and caspase activity are induced by 20E and predominantly transduced by E93 in the remodeling fat body of Drosophila. ..
- White K, Hurban P, Watanabe T, Hogness D. Coordination of Drosophila metamorphosis by two ecdysone-induced nuclear receptors. Science. 1997;276:114-7 pubmedThe functions of the ecdysone-induced DHR3 and E75B orphan nuclear receptors in the early stages of Drosophila metamorphosis were investigated...
- Takeyama K, Ito S, Sawatsubashi S, Shirode Y, Yamamoto A, Suzuki E, et al. A novel genetic system for analysis of co-activators for the N-terminal transactivation function domain of the human androgen receptor. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2004;68:1209-15 pubmed..Therefore, Drosophila with the hAR AF-1 transgene provides a relevant genetic system in which to uncover novel functions of vertebrate steroid hormone receptors and to screen for novel AF-1 co-regulators. ..
- Baehrecke E. Steroid regulation of programmed cell death during Drosophila development. Cell Death Differ. 2000;7:1057-62 pubmed..This article reviews the current knowledge of steroid signaling and the regulation of programmed cell death during development of Drosophila. ..
- Hunter C, Huang W, Mackay T, Singh N. The Genetic Architecture of Natural Variation in Recombination Rate in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1005951 pubmed publisher..Our results highlight the magnitude of population variation in recombination rate present in D. melanogaster and implicate new genetic factors mediating natural variation in this quantitative trait. ..
- Bilder D, Scott M. Genomic regions required for morphogenesis of the Drosophila embryonic midgut. Genetics. 1995;141:1087-100 pubmed..Nine regions are required for proper formation of the midgut constrictions. The E75 ecdysone-induced gene, which encodes a nuclear receptor superfamily member, is the relevant gene in one region and ..
- Russell S, Heimbeck G, Goddard C, Carpenter A, Ashburner M. The Drosophila Eip78C gene is not vital but has a role in regulating chromosome puffs. Genetics. 1996;144:159-70 pubmed..These data indicate either that Eip78C function is redundant or that it plays a subtle modulating role in the regulation of chromosome puffing. ..
- Gündner A, Hahn I, Sendscheid O, Aberle H, Hoch M. The PIKE homolog Centaurin gamma regulates developmental timing in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e97332 pubmed publisher..Together, we propose a novel role for Drosophila Ceng1A in regulating ecdysone signaling-dependent second to third instar larval transition. ..
- Vos M, Battistoni A, Lechauve C, Marden M, Kiger L, Desbois A, et al. Ultrafast heme-residue bond formation in six-coordinate heme proteins: implications for functional ligand exchange. Biochemistry. 2008;47:5718-23 pubmed publisher..a bacterial heme-binding superoxide dismutase (SOD), plant cytochrome b 559, the insect nuclear receptor E75, horse heart cytochrome c and the heme domain of the bacterial sensor protein Dos...
- Kumar S, Chen D, Jang C, Nall A, Zheng X, Sehgal A. An ecdysone-responsive nuclear receptor regulates circadian rhythms in Drosophila. Nat Commun. 2014;5:5697 pubmed publisher..Here we report a circadian function for a nuclear receptor, ecdysone-induced protein 75 (Eip75/E75), which we identified through a gain-of-function screen for circadian genes in Drosophila melanogaster...
- Bender M. Metamorphosis in Drosophila: from molecular biology to mutants. Trends Genet. 1995;11:335-6 pubmed
- Bodai L, Zsindely N, Gáspár R, Kristó I, Komonyi O, Boros I. Ecdysone induced gene expression is associated with acetylation of histone H3 lysine 23 in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40565 pubmed publisher..to transcriptional activation in vivo, we determined the acetylation patterns on the ecdysone induced Eip74EF and Eip75B genes in Drosophila melanogaster larvae by chromatin immunoprecipitation...
- Ruaud A, Lam G, Thummel C. The Drosophila nuclear receptors DHR3 and betaFTZ-F1 control overlapping developmental responses in late embryos. Development. 2010;137:123-31 pubmed publisher..that consists of the sequential expression of the transcription-factor-encoding genes DHR3, betaFTZ-F1, E74A and E75A. Although the regulatory interactions between these genes have been well characterized by genetic and molecular ..
- Kamoshida Y, Fujiyama Nakamura S, Kimura S, Suzuki E, Lim J, Shiozaki Sato Y, et al. Ecdysone receptor (EcR) suppresses lipid accumulation in the Drosophila fat body via transcription control. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;421:203-7 pubmed publisher..Two lipid metabolism regulatory factor, E75B and adipose (adp) as well as cell growth factor, dMyc, were found as EcR target genes in the adipocyte-like cells, ..
- Turner T, Stewart A, Fields A, Rice W, Tarone A. Population-based resequencing of experimentally evolved populations reveals the genetic basis of body size variation in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1001336 pubmed publisher..By using significantly associated polymorphisms as a priori candidates in follow-up studies, these data are expected to provide considerable power to determine the genetic basis of natural variation in body size. ..
- Buszczak M, Segraves W. Drosophila metamorphosis: the only way is USP?. Curr Biol. 1998;8:R879-82 pubmed..Recent findings suggest that other hormones and receptors might also be involved. ..
- Ables E, Bois K, Garcia C, Drummond Barbosa D. Ecdysone response gene E78 controls ovarian germline stem cell niche formation and follicle survival in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2015;400:33-42 pubmed publisher..Ecdysone-induced protein 78C (E78), a nuclear hormone receptor closely related to Drosophila E75 and to mammalian Rev-Erb and Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptors, was originally identified as an early ..
- Vallejo D, Juarez CarreÃ±o S, Bolivar J, Morante J, Dominguez M. A brain circuit that synchronizes growth and maturation revealed through Dilp8 binding to Lgr3. Science. 2015;350:aac6767 pubmed publisher..This previously unrecognized circuit suggests how growth and maturation rate are matched and co-regulated according to Dilp8 signals to stabilize organismal size. ..
- Li Y, Ma Q, Cherry C, MATUNIS E. Steroid signaling promotes stem cell maintenance in the Drosophila testis. Dev Biol. 2014;394:129-41 pubmed publisher..and autonomously required in the CySC lineage to promote CySC maintenance, as are downstream genes ftz-f1 and E75. In contrast, GSCs non-autonomously require ecdysone signaling...
- Takeyama K, Ito S, Yamamoto A, Tanimoto H, Furutani T, Kanuka H, et al. Androgen-dependent neurodegeneration by polyglutamine-expanded human androgen receptor in Drosophila. Neuron. 2002;35:855-64 pubmed..Thus, our findings suggest that the full binding of androgen to the polyQ-expanded hAR mutants leads to structural alteration with nuclear translocation that eventually results in the onset of SBMA in male patients. ..
- Moeller M, Danielsen E, Herder R, O Connor M, Rewitz K. Dynamic feedback circuits function as a switch for shaping a maturation-inducing steroid pulse in Drosophila. Development. 2013;140:4730-9 pubmed publisher..Activation of this switch-like mechanism ensures a rapid, self-limiting PG response that functions in producing steroid oscillations that can guide the decision to terminate growth and promote maturation. ..
- Gancz D, Lengil T, Gilboa L. Coordinated regulation of niche and stem cell precursors by hormonal signaling. PLoS Biol. 2011;9:e1001202 pubmed publisher..Similar principles might govern the formation of additional stem cell units during organogenesis. ..
- Horner M, Chen T, Thummel C. Ecdysteroid regulation and DNA binding properties of Drosophila nuclear hormone receptor superfamily members. Dev Biol. 1995;168:490-502 pubmed..the known Drosophila nuclear receptor superfamily members that are involved in the ecdysteroid response: EcR, Usp, E75A, E78A, and beta FTZ-F1...
- Gradilla A, Mansilla A, Ferrús A. Isoform-specific regulation of a steroid hormone nuclear receptor by an E3 ubiquitin ligase in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2011;189:871-83 pubmed publisher..qRT-PCR experiments show that the ARI-1a levels lead to the transcriptional regulation of Eip78C, Eip74EF, Eip75B, and Br-C, as well as that of EcR and usp genes...
- Soin T, Swevers L, Mosallanejad H, Efrose R, Labropoulou V, Iatrou K, et al. Juvenile hormone analogs do not affect directly the activity of the ecdysteroid receptor complex in insect culture cell lines. J Insect Physiol. 2008;54:429-38 pubmed..the ecdysteroid receptor transcription complex and (2) interference at the level of induction of the primary gene E75. Our data do not support JH analogs (JHAs) acting through the above processes: 'antagonism' of ecdysteroid receptor ..
- Ihry R, Sapiro A, Bashirullah A. Translational control by the DEAD Box RNA helicase belle regulates ecdysone-triggered transcriptional cascades. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1003085 pubmed publisher..These results demonstrate that translational control plays a critical, and previously unknown, role in refining transcriptional responses to the steroid hormone ecdysone...
- Pool J. The Mosaic Ancestry of the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel and the D. melanogaster Reference Genome Reveals a Network of Epistatic Fitness Interactions. Mol Biol Evol. 2015;32:3236-51 pubmed publisher..These findings suggest that admixed D. melanogaster samples could become an important study system for the genetics of early-stage isolation between populations. ..