Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: eIF-2gamma
Description: Eukaryotic initiation factor 2gamma
Alias: 51kDa protein, CG43665, CG6476, Dmel\CG43665, eIF-2G, eIF2G, eIF2gamma, eukaryotic initiation factor 2gamma, CG43665-PB, CG43665-PC, CG43665-PD, eIF-2gamma-PB, eIF-2gamma-PC, eIF-2gamma-PD, gamma subunit of the translation initiation factor eIF2
Species: fruit fly
- Haynes K, Caudy A, Collins L, Elgin S. Element 1360 and RNAi components contribute to HP1-dependent silencing of a pericentric reporter. Curr Biol. 2006;16:2222-7 pubmed..Silencing of the 1360, hsp70-white reporter is sensitive to mutations in RNAi components. Our results implicate 1360 as a target for sequence-specific heterochromatic silencing through an RNAi-dependent mechanism. ..
- Ebert A, Schotta G, Lein S, Kubicek S, Krauss V, Jenuwein T, et al. Su(var) genes regulate the balance between euchromatin and heterochromatin in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 2004;18:2973-83 pubmed
- Krauss V, Reuter G. Two genes become one: the genes encoding heterochromatin protein Su(var)3-9 and translation initiation factor subunit eIF-2gamma are joined to a dicistronic unit in holometabolic insects. Genetics. 2000;156:1157-67 pubmed
- Cryderman D, Grade S, Li Y, Fanti L, Pimpinelli S, Wallrath L. Role of Drosophila HP1 in euchromatic gene expression. Dev Dyn. 2005;232:767-74 pubmed..Collectively, these data demonstrate multiple mechanisms for HP1 localization within euchromatin and show that some genes associated with HP1 are not affected by alterations in Su(var)3-9 dosage. ..
- Schotta G, Ebert A, Reuter G. SU(VAR)3-9 is a conserved key function in heterochromatic gene silencing. Genetica. 2003;117:149-58 pubmed..This is also demonstrated by the rescue of Drosophila Su(var)3-9 mutant phenotypes with human SUV39H1 transgenes. ..
- Aagaard L, Laible G, Selenko P, Schmid M, Dorn R, Schotta G, et al. Functional mammalian homologues of the Drosophila PEV-modifier Su(var)3-9 encode centromere-associated proteins which complex with the heterochromatin component M31. EMBO J. 1999;18:1923-38 pubmed..These data indicate the existence of a mammalian SU(VAR) complex and define Suv39h1/SUV39H1 as novel components of mammalian higher order chromatin. ..
- Delattre M, Spierer A, Jaquet Y, Spierer P. Increased expression of Drosophila Su(var)3-7 triggers Su(var)3-9-dependent heterochromatin formation. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:6239-47 pubmed..Moreover they show that Su(var)3-7 expression is sufficient to induce Su(var)3-9-dependent ectopic heterochromatinisation and suggest a functional link between Su(var)3-7 and the histone-methyltransferase Su(var)3-9. ..
- Hwang K, Eissenberg J, Worman H. Transcriptional repression of euchromatic genes by Drosophila heterochromatin protein 1 and histone modifiers. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:11423-7 pubmed..These data provide genetic evidence that an HP1-family protein represses the expression of euchromatic genes in a metazoan, and that histone modifiers cooperate with HP1 in euchromatic gene repression. ..
- Csink A, Linsk R, Birchler J. The Lighten up (Lip) gene of Drosophila melanogaster, a modifier of retroelement expression, position effect variegation and white locus insertion alleles. Genetics. 1994;138:153-63 pubmed..Additionally, Lip modifies the total transcript abundance of both the blood and copia retrotransposons, having an inverse effect on the steady state level of blood transcripts, while showing a non-additive effect on copia RNA. ..
- Andreyeva E, Kolesnikova T, Demakova O, Mendez Lago M, Pokholkova G, Belyaeva E, et al. High-resolution analysis of Drosophila heterochromatin organization using SuUR Su(var)3-9 double mutants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:12819-24 pubmed..This region is enriched in H3diMetK9 and H4triMetK20 but is devoid of other proteins analyzed. ..
- Greil F, de Wit E, Bussemaker H, van Steensel B. HP1 controls genomic targeting of four novel heterochromatin proteins in Drosophila. EMBO J. 2007;26:741-51 pubmed..These results indicate that HP1 acts as a docking platform for several mediator proteins that contribute to heterochromatin function. ..
- Boeke J, Regnard C, Cai W, Johansen J, Johansen K, Becker P, et al. Phosphorylation of SU(VAR)3-9 by the chromosomal kinase JIL-1. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10042 pubmed publisher..We show that SU(VAR)3-9 is a substrate for JIL-1 in vitro as well as in vivo and map the site of phosphorylation. These findings may provide a molecular explanation for the observed genetic interaction between SU(VAR)3-9 and JIL-1. ..
- Brehm A, Tufteland K, Aasland R, Becker P. The many colours of chromodomains. Bioessays. 2004;26:133-40 pubmed
- Mis J, Ner S, Grigliatti T. Identification of three histone methyltransferases in Drosophila: dG9a is a suppressor of PEV and is required for gene silencing. Mol Genet Genomics. 2006;275:513-26 pubmed..The combined Su(var)3-9 and dG9a mutations have severe developmental defects suggesting an overlapping role for dG9a and Su(var)3-9 in the packaging of heterochromatin and gene silencing via a K9H3 methylation pathway. ..
- Haynes K, Gracheva E, Elgin S. A Distinct type of heterochromatin within Drosophila melanogaster chromosome 4. Genetics. 2007;175:1539-42 pubmed..distal arm chromosome 4 heterochromatin, distinguishing these two heterochromatin types. ..
- Hediger F, Gasser S. Heterochromatin protein 1: don't judge the book by its cover!. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2006;16:143-50 pubmed..Not only do HP1 isoforms have specific binding sites in both heterochromatic and euchromatic domains but they might also participate in the repression and activation of transcription in both compartments. ..
- Alvarez Venegas R, Avramova Z. SET-domain proteins of the Su(var)3-9, E(z) and trithorax families. Gene. 2002;285:25-37 pubmed..The architecture of the entire protein supported the distribution pattern built upon SET-domain similarity. Parallel cladistic and protein-architecture analyses outlined two plausible criteria for predicting function...
- Eskeland R, Eberharter A, Imhof A. HP1 binding to chromatin methylated at H3K9 is enhanced by auxiliary factors. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:453-65 pubmed..These findings have implications for the mechanisms of recognition of specific chromatin modifications in vivo. ..
- Eskeland R, Czermin B, Boeke J, Bonaldi T, Regula J, Imhof A. The N-terminus of Drosophila SU(VAR)3-9 mediates dimerization and regulates its methyltransferase activity. Biochemistry. 2004;43:3740-9 pubmed..The dimerization of dSU(VAR)3-9 and the subsequent increase of its methyltransferase activity provide a starting point to understand the molecular details of the formation of heterochromatic structures in vivo. ..
- Naumann K, Fischer A, Hofmann I, Krauss V, Phalke S, Irmler K, et al. Pivotal role of AtSUVH2 in heterochromatic histone methylation and gene silencing in Arabidopsis. EMBO J. 2005;24:1418-29 pubmed..Gene silencing by SUVH2 depends on MET1 and DDM1, but not CMT3. In Arabidopsis, SUVH2 with its histone H3K9 and H4K20 methylation activity has a central role in heterochromatic gene silencing. ..
- Rudolph T, Yonezawa M, Lein S, Heidrich K, Kubicek S, Schafer C, et al. Heterochromatin formation in Drosophila is initiated through active removal of H3K4 methylation by the LSD1 homolog SU(VAR)3-3. Mol Cell. 2007;26:103-15 pubmed
- Danzer J, Wallrath L. Mechanisms of HP1-mediated gene silencing in Drosophila. Development. 2004;131:3571-80 pubmed..Silencing was minimally affected at 1.9 kb, but eliminated at 3.7 kb, suggesting that HP1-mediated silencing can operate in a SU(VAR)3-9-independent and -dependent manner. ..
- Grewal S, Elgin S. Transcription and RNA interference in the formation of heterochromatin. Nature. 2007;447:399-406 pubmed..Silencing of chromatin might involve trans-acting sources of the crucial small RNAs that carry out RNA interference, but in some cases, transcription of the region to be silenced seems to be required--an apparent contradiction. ..
- Hayashi S, Ruddell A, Sinclair D, Grigliatti T. Chromosomal structure is altered by mutations that suppress or enhance position effect variegation. Chromosoma. 1990;99:391-400 pubmed..We suggest that the changes in gene expression resulting from position effect variegation and the action of the Su(var) mutations involve alterations in chromosomal packaging. ..
- Csink A, Henikoff S. Genetic modification of heterochromatic association and nuclear organization in Drosophila. Nature. 1996;381:529-31 pubmed..This suggests that heterochromatin and proteins involved in its formation provide a structural framework for the interphase nucleus. ..
- Tschiersch B, Hofmann A, Krauss V, Dorn R, Korge G, Reuter G. The protein encoded by the Drosophila position-effect variegation suppressor gene Su(var)3-9 combines domains of antagonistic regulators of homeotic gene complexes. EMBO J. 1994;13:3822-31 pubmed
- Ner S, Harrington M, Grigliatti T. A role for the Drosophila SU(VAR)3-9 protein in chromatin organization at the histone gene cluster and in suppression of position-effect variegation. Genetics. 2002;162:1763-74 pubmed..The chromosomal deficiency for the HIS-C is also a suppressor of PEV. In contrast to what might be expected, we show that hemizygosity for the HIS-C locus leads to a substantial increase in the histone transcripts. ..
- Popkova A, Rasheva V, Tolchkov E, Alatortsev V. [Trans-effect of modifiers on position-effect variegation in a set of euchromatin-heterochromatin rearrangements in Drosophila melanogaster]. Genetika. 2001;37:1430-4 pubmed..Su-var(3)9, a known suppressor of the position-effect variegation, had a considerably weaker suppressing effect. The RT chromosome had the strongest suppressing effect on the rearrangement r20. ..
- Scaria G, Ramsay G, Katzen A. Two components of the Myb complex, DMyb and Mip130, are specifically associated with euchromatin and degraded during prometaphase throughout development. Mech Dev. 2008;125:646-61 pubmed publisher..We conclude that cell cycle specific degradation of DMyb and Mip130 is likely to be utilized as a key regulatory mechanism in down-regulating their levels and the activity of the Myb complex. ..
- Pindyurin A, Boldyreva L, Shloma V, Kolesnikova T, Pokholkova G, Andreyeva E, et al. Interaction between the Drosophila heterochromatin proteins SUUR and HP1. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:1693-703 pubmed publisher..Finally, HP1 binds to intercalary heterochromatin when histone methyltransferase activity of SU(VAR)3-9 is increased. We propose that interaction with HP1 is crucial for the association of SUUR with chromatin. ..
- Erhardt S, Lyko F, Ainscough J, Surani M, Paro R. Polycomb-group proteins are involved in silencing processes caused by a transgenic element from the murine imprinted H19/Igf2 region in Drosophila. Dev Genes Evol. 2003;213:336-44 pubmed..Polycomb group proteins are essential for gene silencing during development. Our results indicate that Polycomb group proteins may also be involved in the regulation of mammalian imprinted genes. ..
- Bai X, Larschan E, Kwon S, Badenhorst P, Kuroda M. Regional control of chromatin organization by noncoding roX RNAs and the NURF remodeling complex in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2007;176:1491-9 pubmed..Together, these results demonstrate the importance of a local balance between modifying activities that promote and antagonize chromatin compaction within defined chromatin domains in higher organisms. ..
- Belyaeva E, Boldyreva L, Volkova E, Nanayev R, Alekseyenko A, Zhimulev I. Effect of the Suppressor of Underreplication (SuUR) gene on position-effect variegation silencing in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2003;165:1209-20 pubmed..In contrast, SuUR+ in extra doses and its overexpression enhance variegation. Thus, SuUR affects PEV silencing in a dose-dependent manner. However, its effect is expressed weaker than that of the strong modifier Su(var)2-5. ..
- Lu B, Eissenberg J. Time out: developmental regulation of heterochromatic silencing in Drosophila. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1998;54:50-9 pubmed
- Kalmykova A, Klenov M, Gvozdev V. Argonaute protein PIWI controls mobilization of retrotransposons in the Drosophila male germline. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005;33:2052-9 pubmed..Our results provide the first evidence that protein of the Argonaute family prevents retrotranspositions. It is supposed that the disturbance of RNA silencing system in germinal cells might cause transposition burst. ..
- Krauss V, Fassl A, Fiebig P, Patties I, Sass H. The evolution of the histone methyltransferase gene Su(var)3-9 in metazoans includes a fusion with and a re-fission from a functionally unrelated gene. BMC Evol Biol. 2006;6:18 pubmed publisher..major heterochromatic H3K9 methyltransferase Su(var)3-9 and the functionally unrelated gamma subunit of the translation initiation factor eIF2 are fused in Drosophila melanogaster...
- Sakaguchi A, Karachentsev D, Seth Pasricha M, Druzhinina M, Steward R. Functional characterization of the Drosophila Hmt4-20/Suv4-20 histone methyltransferase. Genetics. 2008;179:317-22 pubmed publisher..We find that even with this biochemical function, Suv4-20 is not required for survival and does not control position-effect variegation (PEV). ..
- Paredes S, Maggert K. Ribosomal DNA contributes to global chromatin regulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:17829-34 pubmed publisher..We propose that the rDNA contributes to a balance between heterochromatin and euchromatin in the nucleus, and alterations in rDNA--induced or natural--affect this balance. ..
- Eissenberg J, Elgin S. The HP1 protein family: getting a grip on chromatin. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2000;10:204-10 pubmed..A number of intriguing interactions between HP1 and other proteins have been described, implicating HP1 in gene regulation, DNA replication, and nuclear architecture. ..
- Vogel M, Pagie L, Talhout W, Nieuwland M, Kerkhoven R, van Steensel B. High-resolution mapping of heterochromatin redistribution in a Drosophila position-effect variegation model. Epigenetics Chromatin. 2009;2:1 pubmed publisher..Our data suggest that the white gene has an unusual intrinsic affinity for heterochromatin, which may cause this gene to be more sensitive to PEV than most other genes. ..
- Koryakov D, Walther M, Ebert A, Lein S, Zhimulev I, Reuter G. The SUUR protein is involved in binding of SU(VAR)3-9 and methylation of H3K9 and H3K27 in chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster. Chromosome Res. 2011;19:235-49 pubmed publisher..Artificial expression of the SuUR gene on the SuUR (-) background restores the pattern of methylated residues characteristic for the wild type. ..
- Li Y, Danzer J, Alvarez P, Belmont A, Wallrath L. Effects of tethering HP1 to euchromatic regions of the Drosophila genome. Development. 2003;130:1817-24 pubmed..Silencing was not dependent on SU(VAR)3-9 dosage, suggesting a bypass of the requirement for histone methylation...
- McNairn A, Gilbert D. Epigenomic replication: linking epigenetics to DNA replication. Bioessays. 2003;25:647-56 pubmed..Since transcriptionally active and inactive chromosome domains generally replicate at different times during S-phase, this spatiotemporal regulation of chromatin assembly proteins may be an integral part of epigenetic inheritance. ..
- Swaminathan J, Baxter E, Corces V. The role of histone H2Av variant replacement and histone H4 acetylation in the establishment of Drosophila heterochromatin. Genes Dev. 2005;19:65-76 pubmed
- Qi D, Jin H, Lilja T, Mannervik M. Drosophila Reptin and other TIP60 complex components promote generation of silent chromatin. Genetics. 2006;174:241-51 pubmed..This shows that the TIP60 complex can promote the generation of silent chromatin. ..
- Tartof K, Bishop C, Jones M, Hobbs C, Locke J. Towards an understanding of position effect variegation. Dev Genet. 1989;10:162-76 pubmed..Of these, most appear to be of the class I type whereas only two class II modifiers have been identified so far.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) ..
- Phalke S, Nickel O, Walluscheck D, Hortig F, Onorati M, Reuter G. Retrotransposon silencing and telomere integrity in somatic cells of Drosophila depends on the cytosine-5 methyltransferase DNMT2. Nat Genet. 2009;41:696-702 pubmed publisher..Together, these results demonstrate a previously unappreciated role of DNA methylation in retrotransposon silencing and telomere integrity in Drosophila. ..
- Wakimoto B. Beyond the nucleosome: epigenetic aspects of position-effect variegation in Drosophila. Cell. 1998;93:321-4 pubmed
- Balasov M, Beliaeva E, Shestopal S, Makunin I, Zhimulev I. [Position effect variegation of the mosaic type, arising as a result of transposition AR4-24P[white, rosy] in the Drosophila melanogaster genome]. Genetika. 2000;36:782-91 pubmed..The genomic fragments captured by the transposon may contain DNA sequences that autonomously induce mosaic PEV of the white gene. ..
- Hearn M, Hedrick A, Grigliatti T, Wakimoto B. The effect of modifiers of position-effect variegation on the variegation of heterochromatic genes of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1991;128:785-97 pubmed..We conclude that these heterochromatic genes have fundamentally different regulatory requirements compared to those typical of euchromatic genes. ..
- Locke J. Examination of DNA sequences undergoing chromatin conformation changes at a variegating breakpoint in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetica. 1993;92:33-41 pubmed..En(var) mutation bearing samples appeared delayed in the digestion, relative to Su(var).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
- Bazin C, Dejonghe B, Higuet D. Is hobo permissivity related to I reactivity and sensitive to chromatin compaction in Drosophila melanogaster?. Genet Res. 2004;84:71-9 pubmed..Our results suggest a model of regulation in which permissivity could depend on the chromatin state and on the hobo vestigial sequences. ..
- Weiler K, Wakimoto B. Heterochromatin and gene expression in Drosophila. Annu Rev Genet. 1995;29:577-605 pubmed
- Birchler J, Kavi H, Fernandez H. Heterochromatin: RNA points the way. Curr Biol. 2004;14:R759-61 pubmed
- Zhang W, Deng H, Bao X, Lerach S, Girton J, Johansen J, et al. The JIL-1 histone H3S10 kinase regulates dimethyl H3K9 modifications and heterochromatic spreading in Drosophila. Development. 2006;133:229-35 pubmed..Based on these findings, we propose a model where JIL-1 kinase activity functions to maintain euchromatic regions by antagonizing Su(var)3-9-mediated heterochromatization. ..
- Balasov M. Genetic factors controlling white gene expression of the transposon A(R) 4-24 at a telomere in Drosophila melanogaster. Genome. 2002;45:1025-34 pubmed..To explain the results obtained with these modifiers, it is proposed that PEV and telomeric position effect can counteract each other at this particular cytological site...
- Czermin B, Melfi R, McCabe D, Seitz V, Imhof A, Pirrotta V. Drosophila enhancer of Zeste/ESC complexes have a histone H3 methyltransferase activity that marks chromosomal Polycomb sites. Cell. 2002;111:185-96 pubmed..Histone H3 methylated in vitro by the E(Z)/ESC complex binds specifically to Polycomb protein. ..
- Huang H, Yu Z, Zhang S, Liang X, Chen J, Li C, et al. Drosophila CAF-1 regulates HP1-mediated epigenetic silencing and pericentric heterochromatin stability. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:2853-61 pubmed publisher..Together, these findings suggest that Drosophila CAF-1 p180 is an essential factor in the epigenetic control of heterochromatin formation and/or maintenance. ..
- Klar A. Propagating epigenetic states through meiosis: where Mendel's gene is more than a DNA moiety. Trends Genet. 1998;14:299-301 pubmed
- Workman J, Abmayr S. Histone H3 variants and modifications on transcribed genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:1429-30 pubmed
- Skora A, Spradling A. Epigenetic stability increases extensively during Drosophila follicle stem cell differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:7389-94 pubmed publisher..Modulating epigenetic inheritance may be a critical process controlling transitions between the pleuripotent and differentiated states. ..
- Shareef M, Badugu R, Kellum R. HP1/ORC complex and heterochromatin assembly. Genetica. 2003;117:127-34 pubmed..The roles of highly phosphorylated HP1, other DNA-binding proteins known to interact with HP1, and histone modifying activities in heterochromatin assembly are also addressed. ..
- Nowak S, Corces V. Phosphorylation of histone H3: a balancing act between chromosome condensation and transcriptional activation. Trends Genet. 2004;20:214-20 pubmed..3 variant, which has a conserved N-terminal tail, can replace histone H3 at sites of active transcription, adds a new layer of complexity and possibilities to the regulation of transcription through changes in chromatin structure. ..
- Stassen M, Bailey D, Nelson S, Chinwalla V, Harte P. The Drosophila trithorax proteins contain a novel variant of the nuclear receptor type DNA binding domain and an ancient conserved motif found in other chromosomal proteins. Mech Dev. 1995;52:209-23 pubmed..This pattern is transient and evolves into a broader expression domain encompassing the entire germ band during the extended germ band stage. ..
- Cryderman D, Vitalini M, Wallrath L. Heterochromatin protein 1a is required for an open chromatin structure. Transcription. 2011;2:95-99 pubmed..In HP1a-deficient flies, the Dyrk3 and Caps promoters displayed diminished accessibility to nuclease digestion, revealing a surprising role for HP1a in opening chromatin. ..
- Joanis V, Lloyd V. Genomic imprinting in Drosophila is maintained by the products of Suppressor of variegation and trithorax group, but not Polycomb group, genes. Mol Genet Genomics. 2002;268:103-12 pubmed
- Kunert N, Marhold J, Stanke J, Stach D, Lyko F. A Dnmt2-like protein mediates DNA methylation in Drosophila. Development. 2003;130:5083-90 pubmed..These results demonstrate that Dnmt2 is both necessary and sufficient for DNA methylation in Drosophila and suggest a novel CpT/A-specific DNA methyltransferase activity for Dnmt2 proteins. ..
- Seum C, Bontron S, Reo E, Delattre M, Spierer P. Drosophila G9a is a nonessential gene. Genetics. 2007;177:1955-7 pubmed..Here, we characterize the Drosophila homolog of G9a, dG9a. We generated a dG9a deletion allele by homologous recombination. Analysis of this allele revealed that, in contrast to recent findings, dG9a is not required for fly viability. ..
- Fanti L, Perrini B, Piacentini L, Berloco M, Marchetti E, Palumbo G, et al. The trithorax group and Pc group proteins are differentially involved in heterochromatin formation in Drosophila. Chromosoma. 2008;117:25-39 pubmed..These results strongly suggest that trx-G proteins, along with some Pc-G proteins, play an active role in heterochromatin formation in Drosophila. ..
- Pickersgill H, Kalverda B, de Wit E, Talhout W, Fornerod M, van Steensel B. Characterization of the Drosophila melanogaster genome at the nuclear lamina. Nat Genet. 2006;38:1005-14 pubmed..This genome-wide analysis gives clear insight into the nature and dynamic behavior of the genome at the nuclear lamina, and implies that intergenic DNA functions in the global organization of chromatin in the nucleus. ..
- Hofmann A, Brünner M, Korge G. The winged-helix transcription factor JUMU is a haplo-suppressor/triplo-enhancer of PEV in various tissues but exhibits reverse PEV effects in the brain of Drosophila melanogaster. Chromosome Res. 2009;17:347-58 pubmed publisher..Like jumu, the Su(var)3-9 gene also behaves as a haplo-suppressor/triplo-enhancer, but in our test system does not show any PEV effect in the brains. ..
- Sass G, Henikoff S. Comparative analysis of position-effect variegation mutations in Drosophila melanogaster delineates the targets of modifiers. Genetics. 1998;148:733-41 pubmed..In addition, our observations support a model in which there are different constraints on the process of heterochromatin-induced silencing in classical vs. nonclassical PEV mutations. ..