Gene Symbol: egl
Description: egalitarian
Alias: CG4051, Dmel\CG4051, EGL, Egl, egal, egalitarian, CG4051-PB, CG4051-PC, egl-PB, egl-PC
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Li X, Kuromi H, Briggs L, Green D, Rocha J, Sweeney S, et al. Bicaudal-D binds clathrin heavy chain to promote its transport and augments synaptic vesicle recycling. EMBO J. 2010;29:992-1006 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results implicate BicD as a new player in clathrin-associated trafficking processes and show a novel requirement for microtubule-based motor transport in the synaptic vesicle cycle. ..
  2. Delanoue R, Davis I. Dynein anchors its mRNA cargo after apical transport in the Drosophila blastoderm embryo. Cell. 2005;122:97-106 pubmed
    ..We propose a general principle that could also apply to other dynein cargo and to some other molecular motors, whereby cargo transport and anchoring reside in the same molecule. ..
  3. Lantz V, Chang J, Horabin J, Bopp D, Schedl P. The Drosophila orb RNA-binding protein is required for the formation of the egg chamber and establishment of polarity. Genes Dev. 1994;8:598-613 pubmed
    ..It then functions in the differentiation of the oocyte and is required for the three-dimensional reorganization of the germ cells in the cyst as well as for the establishment of normal germ-line-soma interactions in the egg chamber. ..
  4. Delanoue R, Herpers B, Soetaert J, Davis I, Rabouille C. Drosophila Squid/hnRNP helps Dynein switch from a gurken mRNA transport motor to an ultrastructural static anchor in sponge bodies. Dev Cell. 2007;13:523-38 pubmed
    ..Dynein in nonmembranous electron-dense transport particles that also contain Squid and the transport cofactors Egalitarian and Bicaudal-D...
  5. Godt D, Tepass U. Drosophila oocyte localization is mediated by differential cadherin-based adhesion. Nature. 1998;395:387-91 pubmed
    ..This is, to our knowledge, the first in vivo example of a cell-sorting process that depends on differential adhesion mediated by a cadherin. ..
  6. Theurkauf W, Alberts B, Jan Y, Jongens T. A central role for microtubules in the differentiation of Drosophila oocytes. Development. 1993;118:1169-80 pubmed
    ..Recessive mutations at the Bicaudal-D (Bic-D) and egalitarian (egl) loci, which block oocyte differentiation, disrupt formation and maintenance of this polarized microtubule ..
  7. Ephrussi A, Dickinson L, Lehmann R. Oskar organizes the germ plasm and directs localization of the posterior determinant nanos. Cell. 1991;66:37-50 pubmed
    ..We propose that the pole plasm is assembled stepwise and that continued interaction among its components is required for germ cell determination. ..
  8. Bolivar J, Huynh J, Lopez Schier H, Gonzalez C, St Johnston D, González Reyes A. Centrosome migration into the Drosophila oocyte is independent of BicD and egl, and of the organisation of the microtubule cytoskeleton. Development. 2001;128:1889-97 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly, the centrosomes still localise to one cell after colcemid treatment, and in BicD and egl mutants, which abolish the localisation of all other oocyte markers and the polarisation of the microtubule ..
  9. Huynh J, St Johnston D. The role of BicD, Egl, Orb and the microtubules in the restriction of meiosis to the Drosophila oocyte. Development. 2000;127:2785-94 pubmed
    ..Although BicD and egl mutants both cause the development of cysts with no oocyte, they have opposite effects on the behaviour of the SC: ..

More Information


  1. González Reyes A, St Johnston D. The Drosophila AP axis is polarised by the cadherin-mediated positioning of the oocyte. Development. 1998;125:3635-44 pubmed
    ..The Drosophila anterior-posterior axis therefore becomes polarised by an unusual cadherin-mediated adhesion between a germ cell and mesodermal follicle cells. ..
  2. Lin H, Yue L, Spradling A. The Drosophila fusome, a germline-specific organelle, contains membrane skeletal proteins and functions in cyst formation. Development. 1994;120:947-56 pubmed
    ..Our results imply that Drosophila fusomes are required for ovarian cyst formation and suggest that membrane skeletal proteins regulate cystocyte divisions. ..
  3. Styhler S, Nakamura A, Swan A, Suter B, Lasko P. vasa is required for GURKEN accumulation in the oocyte, and is involved in oocyte differentiation and germline cyst development. Development. 1998;125:1569-78 pubmed
    ..However, GRK accumulation in the oocyte is severely reduced in the absence of vasa function, suggesting a function for VASA in activating gurken translation in wild-type ovaries. ..
  4. Dienstbier M, Boehl F, Li X, Bullock S. Egalitarian is a selective RNA-binding protein linking mRNA localization signals to the dynein motor. Genes Dev. 2009;23:1546-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we provide evidence that direct recognition of these mRNA localization signals is mediated by the Egalitarian (Egl) protein...
  5. Mach J, Lehmann R. An Egalitarian-BicaudalD complex is essential for oocyte specification and axis determination in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 1997;11:423-35 pubmed
    ..and maintenance of a polarized microtubule network within the Drosophila oocyte require the activity of the egalitarian (egl) and BicaudalD (BicD) genes...
  6. de Cuevas M, Spradling A. Morphogenesis of the Drosophila fusome and its implications for oocyte specification. Development. 1998;125:2781-9 pubmed
    ..Based on these observations, we argue that the oocyte is specified at the first cyst division. ..
  7. Bullock S, Ish Horowicz D. Conserved signals and machinery for RNA transport in Drosophila oogenesis and embryogenesis. Nature. 2001;414:611-6 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate in vivo that Egalitarian (Egl) and Bicaudal D (BicD), maternal proteins required for oocyte determination, are selectively recruited by, ..
  8. Bullock S, Nicol A, Gross S, Zicha D. Guidance of bidirectional motor complexes by mRNA cargoes through control of dynein number and activity. Curr Biol. 2006;16:1447-52 pubmed
    ..Increased minus-end motility is dependent on the dosage of RNA elements and the proteins Egalitarian (Egl) and Bicaudal-D (BicD)...
  9. Navarro C, Puthalakath H, Adams J, Strasser A, Lehmann R. Egalitarian binds dynein light chain to establish oocyte polarity and maintain oocyte fate. Nat Cell Biol. 2004;6:427-35 pubmed
    ..The cytoplasmic dynein microtubule motor complex is involved in this process. In Drosophila melanogaster, the Egalitarian (Egl) and Bicaudal-D (BicD) proteins are also essential for the transport of macromolecules to the oocyte and ..
  10. Cox R, Spradling A. A Balbiani body and the fusome mediate mitochondrial inheritance during Drosophila oogenesis. Development. 2003;130:1579-90 pubmed
    ..requires an intact fusome and microtubule cytoskeleton as it is blocked by mutations in hu-li tai shao, while egalitarian mutant follicles accumulate a large mitochondrial aggregate in all 16 cyst cells...
  11. Bullock S, Zicha D, Ish Horowicz D. The Drosophila hairy RNA localization signal modulates the kinetics of cytoplasmic mRNA transport. EMBO J. 2003;22:2484-94 pubmed publisher
    ..types, mRNA transport depends on microtubules, the molecular motor dynein and trans-acting factors including Egalitarian and Bicaudal-D...
  12. Iida T, Lilly M. missing oocyte encodes a highly conserved nuclear protein required for the maintenance of the meiotic cycle and oocyte identity in Drosophila. Development. 2004;131:1029-39 pubmed
    ..Our data strongly suggest that the product of the missing oocyte gene acts in the oocyte nucleus to facilitate the execution of the unique cell cycle and developmental programs that produce the mature haploid gamete. ..
  13. Lasko P. RNA sorting in Drosophila oocytes and embryos. FASEB J. 1999;13:421-33 pubmed
    ..Prospects for filling gaps in our knowledge about the mechanisms of localizing RNAs and the importance of RNA sorting in regulating gene expression are also explored. ..
  14. Swan A, Nguyen T, Suter B. Drosophila Lissencephaly-1 functions with Bic-D and dynein in oocyte determination and nuclear positioning. Nat Cell Biol. 1999;1:444-9 pubmed
    Here we show that the Drosophila homologue of Lissencephaly-1, DLis-1, acts together with Bicaudal-D (Bic-D), Egalitarian (Egl), dynein and microtubules to determine oocyte identity...
  15. Carpenter A. Egalitarian and the choice of cell fates in Drosophila melanogaster oogenesis. Ciba Found Symp. 1994;182:223-46; discussion 246-54 pubmed
    ..In flies homozygous for the female-sterile mutation egalitarian (egl) all 16 cells follow the same intermediate pathway...
  16. Saxton W. Microtubules, motors, and mRNA localization mechanisms: watching fluorescent messages move. Cell. 2001;107:707-10 pubmed
    ..To dissect the mechanisms of localization, several groups are employing advanced fluorescence microscopy to track RNA movements in live oocytes and embryos. ..
  17. Suter B, Steward R. Requirement for phosphorylation and localization of the Bicaudal-D protein in Drosophila oocyte differentiation. Cell. 1991;67:917-26 pubmed
  18. Wei Y, Reveal B, Reich J, Laursen W, Senger S, Akbar T, et al. TORC1 regulators Iml1/GATOR1 and GATOR2 control meiotic entry and oocyte development in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:E5670-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data imply that the central role of the Iml1/GATOR1 complex in the regulation of TORC1 activity in the early meiotic cycle has been conserved from single cell to multicellular organisms. ..
  19. Mahone M, Saffman E, Lasko P. Localized Bicaudal-C RNA encodes a protein containing a KH domain, the RNA binding motif of FMR1. EMBO J. 1995;14:2043-55 pubmed
    ..Alteration of a highly conserved KH domain codon by mutation abrogates in vivo Bic-C function. These results suggest roles for the Bic-C protein in localizing RNAs and in intercellular signaling. ..
  20. Costa A, Schedl P. Conservation signals location. Nature. 2001;414:593-5 pubmed
  21. Cooley L, Theurkauf W. Cytoskeletal functions during Drosophila oogenesis. Science. 1994;266:590-6 pubmed
    ..Genetic, molecular, and cytological studies have shed light on the specific functions of the cytoskeleton during oogenesis. The results of these studies are reviewed here, and their mechanistic implications are considered. ..
  22. Liu Y, Salter H, Holding A, Johnson C, Stephens E, Lukavsky P, et al. Bicaudal-D uses a parallel, homodimeric coiled coil with heterotypic registry to coordinate recruitment of cargos to dynein. Genes Dev. 2013;27:1233-46 pubmed publisher
    ..We identify a shared binding site for two cargo-associated proteins-Rab6 and the RNA-binding protein Egalitarian (Egl)-within a region of the BicD structure with classical, homotypic core packing...
  23. Moser M, Holley W, Chatterjee A, Mian I. The proofreading domain of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I and other DNA and/or RNA exonuclease domains. Nucleic Acids Res. 1997;25:5110-8 pubmed
    ..factor 1; Xenopus laevis XPMC2, prevention of mitotic catastrophe in fission yeast; Drosophila melanogaster egalitarian, oocyte specification and axis determination, and exuperantia, establishment of oocyte polarity; H...
  24. Oh J, Steward R. Bicaudal-D is essential for egg chamber formation and cytoskeletal organization in drosophila oogenesis. Dev Biol. 2001;232:91-104 pubmed
    ..To explain the multiple functions suggested by the pleiotropic Bic-D phenotype, we propose that Bic-D protein could form itself a filamentous structure and represent an integral, essential part of the cytoskeleton. ..
  25. Wodarz A. Establishing cell polarity in development. Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:E39-44 pubmed
    ..There is growing evidence that the proteins encoded by these genes interact with key regulators of both the actin and the microtubule cytoskeletons. ..
  26. Mukherjee A, Melnattur K, Zhang M, Nambu J. Maternal expression and function of the Drosophila sox gene Dichaete during oogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:2828-35 pubmed
    ..Dichaete protein was shown to possess RNA-binding capabilities, suggesting a direct post-transcriptional role in regulating RNA functions. ..
  27. Flatt T, Min K, D Alterio C, Villa Cuesta E, Cumbers J, Lehmann R, et al. Drosophila germ-line modulation of insulin signaling and lifespan. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:6368-73 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that signals from the gonad regulate lifespan and modulate insulin sensitivity in the fly and that the gonadal regulation of aging is evolutionarily conserved. ..
  28. Jagut M, Mihaila Bodart L, Molla Herman A, Alin M, Lepesant J, Huynh J. A mosaic genetic screen for genes involved in the early steps of Drosophila oogenesis. G3 (Bethesda). 2013;3:409-25 pubmed publisher
    ..This collection of mutants will be useful to investigate further the early steps of Drosophila oogenesis at a genetic level. ..
  29. McKearin D. The Drosophila fusome, organelle biogenesis and germ cell differentiation: if you build it. Bioessays. 1997;19:147-52 pubmed
    ..Future efforts will consider to what extent an organelle assembly-dependent model for differentiation is heuristic and whether the Drosophila fusome represents a homolog of a similar organelle in vertebrate lymphocytes. ..
  30. Page S, Hawley R. c(3)G encodes a Drosophila synaptonemal complex protein. Genes Dev. 2001;15:3130-43 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the observation of interference among the residual exchanges in these mutant oocytes implies that complete SC formation is not required for crossover interference in Drosophila. ..
  31. Spradling A. Germline cysts: communes that work. Cell. 1993;72:649-51 pubmed
  32. Navarro C, Bullock S, Lehmann R. Altered dynein-dependent transport in piRNA pathway mutants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:9691-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that aggregate formation is a cellular response to protect germ cells from DNA damage caused by elevated retrotransposon expression. ..
  33. Sardet C, Prodon F, Dumollard R, Chang P, Chenevert J. Structure and function of the egg cortex from oogenesis through fertilization. Dev Biol. 2002;241:1-23 pubmed
  34. Shav Tal Y, Singer R. RNA localization. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:4077-81 pubmed
  35. Sanghavi P, Liu G, Veeranan Karmegam R, Navarro C, Gonsalvez G. Multiple Roles for Egalitarian in Polarization of the Drosophila Egg Chamber. Genetics. 2016;203:415-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous work has shown that Egalitarian (Egl) is required for specification and maintenance of oocyte fate...
  36. Theurkauf W. Microtubules and cytoplasm organization during Drosophila oogenesis. Dev Biol. 1994;165:352-60 pubmed
  37. Schonbaum C, Perrino J, Mahowald A. Regulation of the vitellogenin receptor during Drosophila melanogaster oogenesis. Mol Biol Cell. 2000;11:511-21 pubmed
    ..However, during oogenesis in yl mutants that express full-length protein yet fail to incorporate yolk proteins, the receptor remains evenly distributed throughout the oocyte. ..
  38. Chang J, Tan L, Schedl P. The Drosophila CPEB homolog, orb, is required for oskar protein expression in oocytes. Dev Biol. 1999;215:91-106 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that Orb is required to activate the translation of osk mRNA and at that this may be accomplished by a mechanism similar to that used by the Xenopus CPEB protein to control translation of "masked" mRNAs. ..
  39. Mahajan Miklos S, Cooley L. Intercellular cytoplasm transport during Drosophila oogenesis. Dev Biol. 1994;165:336-51 pubmed
  40. Digilio F, Pannuti A, Lucchesi J, Furia M, Polito L. Tosca: a Drosophila gene encoding a nuclease specifically expressed in the female germline. Dev Biol. 1996;178:90-100 pubmed
    ..The definite oocyte localization of tos transcript during meiosis and its ubiquitous distribution in early embryos suggest that tos may play a role in mismatch repair during genetic recombination and early cleavage divisions. ..
  41. Vazquez Pianzola P, Urlaub H, Suter B. Pabp binds to the osk 3'UTR and specifically contributes to osk mRNA stability and oocyte accumulation. Dev Biol. 2011;357:404-18 pubmed publisher
    RNA localization is tightly coordinated with RNA stability and translation control. Bicaudal-D (Bic-D), Egalitarian (Egl), microtubules and their motors are part of a Drosophila transport machinery that localizes mRNAs to specific ..
  42. Lehner C, Lane M. Cell cycle regulators in Drosophila: downstream and part of developmental decisions. J Cell Sci. 1997;110 ( Pt 5):523-8 pubmed
  43. Clark K, McKearin D. The Drosophila stonewall gene encodes a putative transcription factor essential for germ cell development. Development. 1996;122:937-50 pubmed
    ..We suggest that Stonewall transcriptional regulation is essential in cystocytes for maturation into specialized nurse cells and oocyte. ..
  44. Li Q, Xin T, Chen W, Zhu M, Li M. Lethal(2)giant larvae is required in the follicle cells for formation of the initial AP asymmetry and the oocyte polarity during Drosophila oogenesis. Cell Res. 2008;18:372-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we provide the first demonstration that lgl is implicated in the formation of the initial AP asymmetry and the patterning of the AP and DV axes in the oocyte by acting in the specification of a subset of somatic follicle cells. ..
  45. Barnes A, Boone J, Partridge L, Chapman T. A functioning ovary is not required for sex peptide to reduce receptivity to mating in D. melanogaster. J Insect Physiol. 2007;53:343-8 pubmed
    ..The results show that the effects of SP on receptivity are not dependent upon a fully functional ovary, and hence that egg development or laying is not causal in the SP receptivity response. ..
  46. Capri M, Santoni M, Thomas Delaage M, Ait Ahmed O. Implication of a 5' coding sequence in targeting maternal mRNA to the Drosophila oocyte. Mech Dev. 1997;68:91-100 pubmed
    ..We show that the 5' coding sequence is necessary for the early accumulation of yem-alpha RNA in the oocyte and for its localization pattern during oogenesis. ..
  47. Vazquez Pianzola P, Adam J, Haldemann D, Hain D, Urlaub H, Suter B. Clathrin heavy chain plays multiple roles in polarizing the Drosophila oocyte downstream of Bic-D. Development. 2014;141:1915-26 pubmed publisher
    Bicaudal-D (Bic-D), Egalitarian (Egl), microtubules and their motors form a transport machinery that localizes a remarkable diversity of mRNAs to specific cellular regions during oogenesis and embryogenesis...
  48. Parma D, Bennett P, Boswell R. Mago Nashi and Tsunagi/Y14, respectively, regulate Drosophila germline stem cell differentiation and oocyte specification. Dev Biol. 2007;308:507-19 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, Tsunagi/Y14 is essential for restricting oocyte fate to a single cell and may function with mago nashi in this process. ..
  49. Xu X, Brechbiel J, Gavis E. Dynein-dependent transport of nanos RNA in Drosophila sensory neurons requires Rumpelstiltskin and the germ plasm organizer Oskar. J Neurosci. 2013;33:14791-800 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal adaptability of localization factors for regulation of a target transcript in different cellular contexts. ..
  50. Van de Bor V, Zimniak G, Cerezo D, Schaub S, Noselli S. Asymmetric localisation of cytokine mRNA is essential for JAK/STAT activation during cell invasiveness. Development. 2011;138:1383-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal a novel post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism of JAK/STAT signalling in the control of epithelial cell invasiveness. ..
  51. Pare C, Suter B. Subcellular localization of Bic-D::GFP is linked to an asymmetric oocyte nucleus. J Cell Sci. 2000;113 ( Pt 12):2119-27 pubmed
    ..Genes predicted to encode proteins that interact with RNA (egalitarian and orb) are required for the normal subcellular distribution of Bic-D::GFP in the germarium, and another ..
  52. Li M, McGrail M, Serr M, Hays T. Drosophila cytoplasmic dynein, a microtubule motor that is asymmetrically localized in the oocyte. J Cell Biol. 1994;126:1475-94 pubmed
    ..This distribution and its disruption by specific maternal effect mutations lends support to recent models suggesting that microtubule motors participate in the transport of these morphogens from the nurse cell cytoplasm to the oocyte. ..
  53. Knowles B, Cooley L. The specialized cytoskeleton of the Drosophila egg chamber. Trends Genet. 1994;10:235-41 pubmed
    ..Homologs or relatives of many known cytoskeletal proteins play key roles in these events. ..
  54. Oh J, Baksa K, Steward R. Functional domains of the Drosophila bicaudal-D protein. Genetics. 2000;154:713-24 pubmed
    ..The yeast two-hybrid interaction assay shows that Bic-D forms homodimers. Furthermore, we found that Bic-D exists as a multimeric protein complex consisting of Egl and at least two Bic-D monomers.
  55. Vaccari T, Ephrussi A. The fusome and microtubules enrich Par-1 in the oocyte, where it effects polarization in conjunction with Par-3, BicD, Egl, and dynein. Curr Biol. 2002;12:1524-8 pubmed
    ..the combined actions of the fusome, MT, and Baz, Par-1 is selectively enriched and localized within the oocyte, where, in conjunction with BicD, Egalitarian (Egl), and Dynein, it acts on the MT cytoskeleton to effect polarization.
  56. Dix C, Soundararajan H, Dzhindzhev N, Begum F, Suter B, Ohkura H, et al. Lissencephaly-1 promotes the recruitment of dynein and dynactin to transported mRNAs. J Cell Biol. 2013;202:479-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data therefore reveal a critical role for Lis1 within the mRNA localization machinery and suggest a model in which Lis1 facilitates motor complex association with cargos by promoting the interaction of dynein with dynactin. ..
  57. Cognigni P, Bailey A, Miguel Aliaga I. Enteric neurons and systemic signals couple nutritional and reproductive status with intestinal homeostasis. Cell Metab. 2011;13:92-104 pubmed publisher
  58. Tirronen M, Partanen M, Heino T, Heino T, Roos C. Analyses of the Drosophila quit, ovarian tumor and shut down mutants in oocyte differentiation using in situ hybridisation. Mech Dev. 1993;40:113-26 pubmed
    ..We also show that one function of qui+ is to enhance otu+ mRNA expression, suggesting that these genes control the cystocyte maturation via the same pathway. ..
  59. Clark A, Meignin C, Davis I. A Dynein-dependent shortcut rapidly delivers axis determination transcripts into the Drosophila oocyte. Development. 2007;134:1955-65 pubmed
    ..but not control transcripts, recruit the cytoplasmic Dynein-associated co-factors Bicaudal D (BicD) and Egalitarian in the nurse cells...
  60. Röper K. Rtnl1 is enriched in a specialized germline ER that associates with ribonucleoprotein granule components. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:1081-92 pubmed
    ..As the ER is actively transported into the oocyte, this colocalization suggests a role for the Rtnl1-containing subdomain in anchoring the ribonucleoprotein complexes within and/or transporting them into the oocyte. ..
  61. Mohler J, Wieschaus E. Dominant maternal-effect mutations of Drosophila melanogaster causing the production of double-abdomen embryos. Genetics. 1986;112:803-22 pubmed
    ..Mutations at all these loci (bic, BicC and BicD) act as mutual enhancers of each other, and a number of other maternal-effect mutations also act to either enhance or suppress the expression of these dominant bicaudal mutations. ..
  62. Bullock S, Stauber M, Prell A, Hughes J, Ish Horowicz D, Schmidt Ott U. Differential cytoplasmic mRNA localisation adjusts pair-rule transcription factor activity to cytoarchitecture in dipteran evolution. Development. 2004;131:4251-61 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that mRNA localisation signals in pair-rule transcripts affect nuclear protein uptake and thereby adjust gene activity to a variety of dipteran blastoderm cytoarchitectures. ..
  63. Grunert S, St Johnston D. RNA localization and the development of asymmetry during Drosophila oogenesis. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1996;6:395-402 pubmed
    ..Each of these symmetry-breaking steps involves the asymmetric localization of a unique structure, leading to polarization of the cytoskeleton and the localization of specific mRNAs. ..
  64. Pokrywka N, Stephenson E. Localized RNAs are enriched in cytoskeletal extracts of Drosophila oocytes. Dev Biol. 1994;166:210-9 pubmed
    ..The cortical cytoskeleton of the oocyte is a likely candidate for the localization substratum. ..
  65. Lasko P, Ashburner M. Posterior localization of vasa protein correlates with, but is not sufficient for, pole cell development. Genes Dev. 1990;4:905-21 pubmed
    ..These results are discussed with respect to the multiple functions of the vasa gene. ..
  66. McGrail M, Gepner J, Silvanovich A, Ludmann S, Serr M, Hays T. Regulation of cytoplasmic dynein function in vivo by the Drosophila Glued complex. J Cell Biol. 1995;131:411-25 pubmed
    ..Together with the observed dependency of Glued localization on dynein function, these genetic interactions demonstrate a functional association between the Drosophila dynein motor and Glued complexes. ..
  67. Ahringer J. Control of cell polarity and mitotic spindle positioning in animal cells. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2003;15:73-81 pubmed
    ..Microtubules and conserved PAR proteins are essential mediators of cell polarity, and mitotic spindle positioning depends on heterotrimeric G protein signalling and the microtubule motor protein dynein. ..