Gene Symbol: ed
Description: echinoid
Alias: 1X5, CG12676, CG15424, CG16842, CT13476, CT35484, Dmel\CG12676, E(Elp)24D, E(Elp)[24D], l(2)k01102, echinoid, CG12676-PA, CG12676-PB, CG12676-PC, ed-PA, ed-PB, ed-PC
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Hortsch M. Drosophila Echinoid is an antagonist of Egfr signalling, but is not a member of the L1-type family of cell adhesion molecules. Development. 2003;130:5295 pubmed
  2. Escudero L, Wei S, Chiu W, Modolell J, Hsu J. Echinoid synergizes with the Notch signaling pathway in Drosophila mesothorax bristle patterning. Development. 2003;130:6305-16 pubmed
    b>echinoid (ed) encodes an immunoglobulin domain-containing cell adhesion molecule that negatively regulates the Egfr signaling pathway during Drosophila photoreceptor development. We show a novel function of Ed, i.e...
  3. Rawlins E, Lovegrove B, Jarman A. Echinoid facilitates Notch pathway signalling during Drosophila neurogenesis through functional interaction with Delta. Development. 2003;130:6475-84 pubmed
    ..We show that during sense organ precursor specification in Drosophila, the cell adhesion molecule Echinoid colocalises extensively with the Notch ligand, Delta, at the cell membrane and in early endosomes...
  4. Lin H, Chen H, Wei S, Chen L, Chang L, Sun Y, et al. Cell adhesion molecule Echinoid associates with unconventional myosin VI/Jaguar motor to regulate cell morphology during dorsal closure in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2007;311:423-33 pubmed
    b>Echinoid (Ed) is a homophilic immunoglobulin domain-containing cell adhesion molecule (CAM) that localizes to adherens junctions (AJs) and cooperates with Drosophila melanogaster epithelial (DE)-cadherin to mediate cell adhesion...
  5. Swan L, Schmidt M, Schwarz T, Ponimaskin E, Prange U, Boeckers T, et al. Complex interaction of Drosophila GRIP PDZ domains and Echinoid during muscle morphogenesis. EMBO J. 2006;25:3640-51 pubmed
    ..Yeast two-hybrid screening identifies the cell adhesion protein Echinoid's (Ed) type II PDZD-interaction motif as binding PDZDs 1, 2 and 7 of DGrip...
  6. Laplante C, Paul S, Beitel G, Nilson L. Echinoid regulates tracheal morphology and fusion cell fate in Drosophila. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:2509-19 pubmed publisher
    ..unexpected phenotypes resulting from maternal and zygotic (M/Z) loss of the homophilic cell adhesion molecule Echinoid (Ed), as well as the subcellular localization of Ed in the trachea...
  7. Sawyer J, Harris N, Slep K, Gaul U, Peifer M. The Drosophila afadin homologue Canoe regulates linkage of the actin cytoskeleton to adherens junctions during apical constriction. J Cell Biol. 2009;186:57-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Instead, Cno localizes to AJs by a Rap1- and actin-dependent mechanism. These data suggest that Cno regulates linkage between AJs and the actin cytoskeleton during morphogenesis. ..
  8. Spencer S, Cagan R. Echinoid is essential for regulation of Egfr signaling and R8 formation during Drosophila eye development. Development. 2003;130:3725-33 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that the transmembrane protein Echinoid is required to downregulate Egfr activity in the developing Drosophila eye, ensuring a normal array of R8 ..
  9. Wei S, Escudero L, Yu F, Chang L, Chen L, Ho Y, et al. Echinoid is a component of adherens junctions that cooperates with DE-Cadherin to mediate cell adhesion. Dev Cell. 2005;8:493-504 pubmed
    b>Echinoid is an immunoglobulin domain-containing transmembrane protein that modulates cell-cell signaling by Notch and the EGF receptors...

More Information


  1. Laplante C, Nilson L. Differential expression of the adhesion molecule Echinoid drives epithelial morphogenesis in Drosophila. Development. 2006;133:3255-64 pubmed
    ..We identify a role for Echinoid (Ed), an immunoglobulin domain-containing cell-adhesion molecule, in the generation of a contractile actomyosin ..
  2. Harris K, Tepass U. Cdc42 and Par proteins stabilize dynamic adherens junctions in the Drosophila neuroectoderm through regulation of apical endocytosis. J Cell Biol. 2008;183:1129-43 pubmed publisher
    ..This study reveals functional interactions between apical polarity proteins and endocytosis that are critical for stabilizing dynamic basolateral AJs. ..
  3. Ho Y, Lien M, Lin C, Wei S, Chang L, Hsu J. Echinoid regulates Flamingo endocytosis to control ommatidial rotation in the Drosophila eye. Development. 2010;137:745-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that both Echinoid (Ed), an adherens junction-associated cell adhesion molecule, and Flamingo (Fmi), a PCP determinant, are ..
  4. Fetting J, Spencer S, Wolff T. The cell adhesion molecules Echinoid and Friend of Echinoid coordinate cell adhesion and cell signaling to regulate the fidelity of ommatidial rotation in the Drosophila eye. Development. 2009;136:3323-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that the cell adhesion molecules Echinoid (Ed) and Friend of Echinoid (Fred) act throughout ommatidial rotation to modulate the degree of ommatidial ..
  5. Bai J, Chiu W, Wang J, Tzeng T, Perrimon N, Hsu J. The cell adhesion molecule Echinoid defines a new pathway that antagonizes the Drosophila EGF receptor signaling pathway. Development. 2001;128:591-601 pubmed
    ..We have identified echinoid (ed) as a novel putative cell adhesion molecule that negatively regulates EGFR signaling...
  6. Leibfried A, Fricke R, Morgan M, Bogdan S, Bellaiche Y. Drosophila Cip4 and WASp define a branch of the Cdc42-Par6-aPKC pathway regulating E-cadherin endocytosis. Curr Biol. 2008;18:1639-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether our results show that Cdc42 functions with Par6 and aPKC to regulate E-Cad endocytosis and define Cip4 and WASp as regulators of the early E-Cad endocytic events in epithelial tissue. ..
  7. Islam R, Wei S, Chiu W, Hortsch M, Hsu J. Neuroglian activates Echinoid to antagonize the Drosophila EGF receptor signaling pathway. Development. 2003;130:2051-9 pubmed
    b>echinoid (ed) encodes an cell-adhesion molecule (CAM) that contains immunoglobulin domains and regulates the EGFR signaling pathway during Drosophila eye development...
  8. Rawlins E, White N, Jarman A. Echinoid limits R8 photoreceptor specification by inhibiting inappropriate EGF receptor signalling within R8 equivalence groups. Development. 2003;130:3715-24 pubmed
    ..We show that the cell surface protein Echinoid is required to moderate Egfr signalling during R8 photoreceptor selection by the proneural gene atonal during ..
  9. Reuter G, Szidonya J. Cytogenetic analysis of variegation suppressors and a dominant temperature-sensitive lethal in region 23-26 of chromosome 2L in Drosophila melanogaster. Chromosoma. 1983;88:277-85 pubmed
    ..variegation, one dominant temperature-sensitive (DTS), three Minute genes, and two recessive visible mutants (ed, tkv) have been cytogenetically localized by using duplications and deficiencies in regions 23-25 of chromosome arm ..
  10. Lin C, Xu J, Yang W, Wang C, Li Y, Cheng L, et al. Smurf Downregulates Echinoid in the Amnioserosa To Regulate Drosophila Dorsal Closure. Genetics. 2017;206:985-992 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Echinoid (Ed)-a cell adhesion molecule of adherens junctions (AJs)-participates in several developmental processes...
  11. Burnette J, Miyamoto Sato E, Schaub M, Conklin J, Lopez A. Subdivision of large introns in Drosophila by recursive splicing at nonexonic elements. Genetics. 2005;170:661-74 pubmed
    ..We discuss currently known and potential roles for recursive splicing. ..
  12. McKinley R, Yu C, Harris T. Assembly of Bazooka polarity landmarks through a multifaceted membrane-association mechanism. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:1177-90 pubmed publisher
    ..We also identified specific downstream effects, including the promotion of epithelial structure, a positive-feedback loop that recruits aPKC, PAR-6 and Crumbs, and a negative-feedback loop that regulates Baz. ..
  13. Firth L, Baker N. EGF receptor signaling: a prickly proposition. Curr Biol. 2003;13:R773-4 pubmed
  14. Fregoso Lomas M, Hails F, Lachance J, Nilson L. Response to the dorsal anterior gradient of EGFR signaling in Drosophila oogenesis is prepatterned by earlier posterior EGFR activation. Cell Rep. 2013;4:791-802 pubmed publisher
    ..Spatial regulation of the EGFR pathway thus occurs both through localization of the ligand and through localized regulation of the cellular response. ..
  15. Bulgakova N, Grigoriev I, Yap A, Akhmanova A, Brown N. Dynamic microtubules produce an asymmetric E-cadherin-Bazooka complex to maintain segment boundaries. J Cell Biol. 2013;201:887-901 pubmed publisher
  16. Pickering K, Alves Silva J, Goberdhan D, Millard T. Par3/Bazooka and phosphoinositides regulate actin protrusion formation during Drosophila dorsal closure and wound healing. Development. 2013;140:800-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Depleting PIP3 results in defective epithelial closure during both dorsal closure and wound healing. These data reveal a novel mechanism that directly couples loss of epithelial integrity to activation of epithelial closure. ..
  17. Sarpal R, Pellikka M, Patel R, Hui F, Godt D, Tepass U. Mutational analysis supports a core role for Drosophila ?-catenin in adherens junction function. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:233-45 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that the ?-Cat mutant phenotype can be rescued by the expression of a DE-cadherin::?-Catenin fusion protein, which argues against an essential cytosolic, cadherin-independent role of Drosophila ?-Catenin. ..
  18. de Belle J, Sokolowski M, Hilliker A. Genetic analysis of the foraging microregion of Drosophila melanogaster. Genome. 1993;36:94-101 pubmed
    ..All lethal mutations in for resulted in an altered behavioural phenotype providing evidence that both vital and behavioural functions are encoded by for. ..
  19. Lecuit T. Cell adhesion: sorting out cell mixing with echinoid?. Curr Biol. 2005;15:R505-7 pubmed
    ..A recent study shows that Echinoid, a member of the immunoglobulin domain containing protein family, is a modulator of intercellular adhesion in ..
  20. Bogdan S, Klämbt C. Epidermal growth factor receptor signaling. Curr Biol. 2001;11:R292-5 pubmed
  21. Chandra S, Ahmed A, Vaessin H. The Drosophila IgC2 domain protein Friend-of-Echinoid, a paralogue of Echinoid, limits the number of sensory organ precursors in the wing disc and interacts with the Notch signaling pathway. Dev Biol. 2003;256:302-16 pubmed
    ..Here, we describe the Drosophila melanogaster gene friend of echinoid (fred), a paralogue of echinoid (ed), a gene recently identified as a negative regulator of the EGFR pathway...
  22. Abreu Blanco M, Verboon J, Liu R, Watts J, Parkhurst S. Drosophila embryos close epithelial wounds using a combination of cellular protrusions and an actomyosin purse string. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:5984-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Specifically, we find that myosin, E-cadherin, Echinoid, the plasma membrane, microtubules and the Cdc42 small GTPase respond dynamically during wound repair...
  23. Sun S, Reddy B, Irvine K. Localization of Hippo signalling complexes and Warts activation in vivo. Nat Commun. 2015;6:8402 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations define spatial relationships among Hippo signalling components and establish the functional importance of their localization to Warts activation. ..
  24. Boisclair Lachance J, Fregoso Lomas M, Eleiche A, Bouchard Kerr P, Nilson L. Graded Egfr activity patterns the Drosophila eggshell independently of autocrine feedback. Development. 2009;136:2893-902 pubmed publisher
  25. Yashiro H, Loza A, Skeath J, Longmore G. Rho1 regulates adherens junction remodeling by promoting recycling endosome formation through activation of myosin II. Mol Biol Cell. 2014;25:2956-69 pubmed publisher
    ..This work identifies spatially distinct functions for Rho1 in the regulation of DE-cadherin-containing vesicular trafficking during AJ remodeling in live epithelia. ..
  26. Shao W, Wu J, Chen J, Lee D, Tishkina A, Harris T. A modifier screen for Bazooka/PAR-3 interacting genes in the Drosophila embryo epithelium. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9938 pubmed publisher
    ..For 13 of the 17 genes, this is the first report of a link to baz or the regulation of epithelial structure. ..
  27. Seppa M, Johnson R, Bao S, Cagan R. Polychaetoid controls patterning by modulating adhesion in the Drosophila pupal retina. Dev Biol. 2008;318:1-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that Pyd modulates adherens junction strength and Roughest-mediated preferential cell adhesion. ..
  28. Morais de Sá E, Sunkel C. Adherens junctions determine the apical position of the midbody during follicular epithelial cell division. EMBO Rep. 2013;14:696-703 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, apical midbody localization is essential to maintain epithelial tissue architecture during proliferation. ..
  29. Irish V, Gelbart W. The decapentaplegic gene is required for dorsal-ventral patterning of the Drosophila embryo. Genes Dev. 1987;1:868-79 pubmed
  30. Bryant P, Huettner B, Held L, Ryerse J, Szidonya J. Mutations at the fat locus interfere with cell proliferation control and epithelial morphogenesis in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1988;129:541-54 pubmed
    ..The fat locus is located in cytogenetic interval 24D5.6-7, and 18 alleles are known including spontaneous, chemically induced, X-ray-induced, and dysgenic mutations. ..
  31. Tepass U, Harris K. Adherens junctions in Drosophila retinal morphogenesis. Trends Cell Biol. 2007;17:26-35 pubmed
    ..Adherens junctions are involved in the organization of simple cellular patterns, and more complex cell shape changes and cell movements that depend on the dynamic modulation of adherens junctions. ..
  32. Yue T, Tian A, Jiang J. The cell adhesion molecule echinoid functions as a tumor suppressor and upstream regulator of the Hippo signaling pathway. Dev Cell. 2012;22:255-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that Echinoid (Ed), an immunoglobulin domain-containing cell adhesion molecule, acts as an upstream regulator of the Hpo ..
  33. Zwarts L, Magwire M, Carbone M, Versteven M, Herteleer L, Anholt R, et al. Complex genetic architecture of Drosophila aggressive behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:17070-5 pubmed publisher
  34. Laplante C, Nilson L. Asymmetric distribution of Echinoid defines the epidermal leading edge during Drosophila dorsal closure. J Cell Biol. 2011;192:335-48 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that disappearance of the homophilic cell adhesion molecule Echinoid (Ed) from the amnioserosa just before dorsal closure eliminates homophilic interactions with the adjacent dorsal-..
  35. Desai R, Sarpal R, Ishiyama N, Pellikka M, Ikura M, Tepass U. Monomeric ?-catenin links cadherin to the actin cytoskeleton. Nat Cell Biol. 2013;15:261-73 pubmed publisher
  36. Toret C, D Ambrosio M, Vale R, Simon M, Nelson W. A genome-wide screen identifies conserved protein hubs required for cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion. J Cell Biol. 2014;204:265-79 pubmed publisher
    ..These experiments reveal roles for a diversity of cellular pathways that are required for cadherin function in Metazoa, including cytoskeleton organization, cell-substrate interactions, and nuclear and cytoplasmic signaling. ..
  37. Ahmed A, Chandra S, Magarinos M, Vaessin H. Echinoid mutants exhibit neurogenic phenotypes and show synergistic interactions with the Notch signaling pathway. Development. 2003;130:6295-304 pubmed
    ..b>Echinoid (Ed), a cell membrane associated Immunoglobulin C2-type protein, has previously been shown to be a negative ..
  38. Stern M, Ganetzky B. Identification and characterization of inebriated, a gene affecting neuronal excitability in Drosophila. J Neurogenet. 1992;8:157-72 pubmed
    ..Application of DDF to ine mutants had no effects either in the presence or absence of quinidine. We conclude that ine mutations increase neuronal membrane excitability and perhaps block a DDF-sensitive potassium channel. ..
  39. Young J, Armstrong J. Building the central complex in Drosophila: the generation and development of distinct neural subsets. J Comp Neurol. 2010;518:1525-41 pubmed publisher
    ..sets of CX neurons in the Drosophila brain using immunostaining for two cell adhesion molecules, DN-cadherin and Echinoid, and a set of seven enhancer trap lines...
  40. Hariharan I. Organ Size Control: Lessons from Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2015;34:255-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanical forces also appear to have an important role along with the Hippo pathway, which may integrate multiple types of inputs to regulate the extent of growth. ..
  41. Anais Tiberghien M, Lebreton G, Cribbs D, Benassayag C, Suzanne M. The Hox gene Dfd controls organogenesis by shaping territorial border through regulation of basal DE-Cadherin distribution. Dev Biol. 2015;405:183-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, these results reveal that Hox coordination of tissue morphogenesis relies on boundary fold formation through the modulation of DE-cad positioning. ..
  42. Chang L, Chen P, Lien M, Ho Y, Lin C, Pan Y, et al. Differential adhesion and actomyosin cable collaborate to drive Echinoid-mediated cell sorting. Development. 2011;138:3803-12 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Echinoid (Ed), a nectin ortholog, is an adherens junction protein in Drosophila, and cells mutant for ed sort out from the ..
  43. Schotman H, Karhinen L, Rabouille C. dGRASP-mediated noncanonical integrin secretion is required for Drosophila epithelial remodeling. Dev Cell. 2008;14:171-82 pubmed publisher
    ..We speculate that this mechanism might be used during development as a means of targeting a specific subset of transmembrane proteins to the plasma membrane. ..
  44. Johnston C, Hirono K, Prehoda K, Doe C. Identification of an Aurora-A/PinsLINKER/Dlg spindle orientation pathway using induced cell polarity in S2 cells. Cell. 2009;138:1150-63 pubmed publisher
    ..This "induced cortical polarity" assay is suitable for rapid identification of the proteins, domains, and amino acids regulating spindle orientation or cell polarity. ..
  45. Kwon M, Godinho S, Chandhok N, Ganem N, Azioune A, Thery M, et al. Mechanisms to suppress multipolar divisions in cancer cells with extra centrosomes. Genes Dev. 2008;22:2189-203 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, morphological features of cancer cells can be linked to unique genetic requirements for survival. ..
  46. Zhang L, Yang S, Wennmann D, Chen Y, Kremerskothen J, Dong J. KIBRA: In the brain and beyond. Cell Signal. 2014;26:1392-9 pubmed publisher
    ..At the biochemical level, KIBRA protein is highly phosphorylated by various kinases in epithelial cells. Here, we discuss the updates concerning the function and regulation of KIBRA in the brain and beyond. ..
  47. Li Y, Yang W, Cheng L, Lin C, Ho Y, Lin P, et al. Novel transport function of adherens junction revealed by live imaging in Drosophila. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;463:686-92 pubmed publisher
    Adherens junctions are known for their role in mediating cell-cell adhesion. DE-cadherin and Echinoid are the principle adhesion molecules of adherens junctions in Drosophila epithelia...
  48. Flores Benitez D, Knust E. Crumbs is an essential regulator of cytoskeletal dynamics and cell-cell adhesion during dorsal closure in Drosophila. elife. 2015;4: pubmed publisher
    ..Data presented here point to a critical role of Crumbs in regulating actomyosin dynamics, cell junctions and morphogenesis. ..
  49. Ding R, Weynans K, Bossing T, Barros C, Berger C. The Hippo signalling pathway maintains quiescence in Drosophila neural stem cells. Nat Commun. 2016;7:10510 pubmed publisher
    ..The Hippo pathway activity is modulated via inter-cellular transmembrane proteins Crumbs and Echinoid that are both expressed in a nutrient-dependent way in niche glial cells and NSCs...