Gene Symbol: EcR
Description: Ecdysone receptor
Alias: CG1765, CG8347, DEcR, Dhr23, DmEcR, Dmel\CG1765, ECR, ECR-C, EcR-A, EcR-B, EcR-B1, EcR1b, EcRA, EcRB, EcRB-1, EcRB1, EcRC, EcdR, Ecr, Ecr1B, NR1H1, anon-WO0229075.1, dECR, dmEcR, ecr, lie, ms(2)06410, ms(2)42A, snt, ecdysone receptor, CG1765-PA, CG1765-PB, CG1765-PC, CG1765-PD, CG1765-PE, CG1765-PG, EcR-PA, EcR-PB, EcR-PC, EcR-PD, EcR-PE, EcR-PG, ecdyson receptor 1b, ecdysone receptor complex, ecdysteroid receptor, ecdysterone receptor, long island expressway, male sterile(2)42A, snaggletooth
Species: fruit fly
Products:     EcR

Top Publications

  1. Lehmann M, Korge G. Ecdysone regulation of the Drosophila Sgs-4 gene is mediated by the synergistic action of ecdysone receptor and SEBP 3. EMBO J. 1995;14:716-26 pubmed
    ..We show here that the ecdysone receptor binds to two sites, element I and element II, in the regulatory region of Sgs-4...
  2. Dalton J, Lebo M, Sanders L, Sun F, Arbeitman M. Ecdysone receptor acts in fruitless- expressing neurons to mediate drosophila courtship behaviors. Curr Biol. 2009;19:1447-52 pubmed publisher
    ..the timing of which is coordinated by the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (ecdysone) through the ecdysone receptor, a heterodimer of the nuclear receptors EcR (isoforms are EcR-A, EcR-B1, or EcR-B2) and Ultraspiracle (USP) (..
  3. Palanker L, Necakov A, Sampson H, Ni R, Hu C, Thummel C, et al. Dynamic regulation of Drosophila nuclear receptor activity in vivo. Development. 2006;133:3549-62 pubmed
  4. Watts R, Hoopfer E, Luo L. Axon pruning during Drosophila metamorphosis: evidence for local degeneration and requirement of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Neuron. 2003;38:871-85 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that some forms of axon pruning during development may share similarities with degeneration of axons in response to injury. ..
  5. Tsai C, Kao H, Yao T, McKeown M, Evans R. SMRTER, a Drosophila nuclear receptor coregulator, reveals that EcR-mediated repression is critical for development. Mol Cell. 1999;4:175-86 pubmed
    The Drosophila ecdysone receptor (EcR)/ultraspiracle (USP) heterodimer is a key regulator in molting and metamorphoric processes, activating and repressing transcription in a sequence-specific manner...
  6. Johnston D, Sedkov Y, Petruk S, Riley K, Fujioka M, Jaynes J, et al. Ecdysone- and NO-mediated gene regulation by competing EcR/Usp and E75A nuclear receptors during Drosophila development. Mol Cell. 2011;44:51-61 pubmed publisher
    The Drosophila ecdysone receptor (EcR/Usp) is thought to activate or repress gene transcription depending on the presence or absence, respectively, of the hormone ecdysone...
  7. Thummel C. From embryogenesis to metamorphosis: the regulation and function of Drosophila nuclear receptor superfamily members. Cell. 1995;83:871-7 pubmed
  8. Baehrecke E. Steroid regulation of programmed cell death during Drosophila development. Cell Death Differ. 2000;7:1057-62 pubmed
    ..This article reviews the current knowledge of steroid signaling and the regulation of programmed cell death during development of Drosophila. ..
  9. Talbot W, Swyryd E, Hogness D. Drosophila tissues with different metamorphic responses to ecdysone express different ecdysone receptor isoforms. Cell. 1993;73:1323-37 pubmed
    ..We show that the EcR gene encodes three ecdysone receptor isoforms (EcR-A, EcR-B1, and EcR-B2) that have common DNA- and hormone-binding domains but different N-..

More Information


  1. Kirilly D, Wong J, Lim E, Wang Y, Zhang H, Wang C, et al. Intrinsic epigenetic factors cooperate with the steroid hormone ecdysone to govern dendrite pruning in Drosophila. Neuron. 2011;72:86-100 pubmed publisher
    ..Brm and CBP specifically activate a key ecdysone response gene, sox14, but not EcR-B1. Furthermore, the HAT activity of CBP is important for sox14 expression and dendrite pruning...
  2. Yao T, Forman B, Jiang Z, Cherbas L, Chen J, McKeown M, et al. Functional ecdysone receptor is the product of EcR and Ultraspiracle genes. Nature. 1993;366:476-9 pubmed
    ..The cloned ecdysone receptor (EcR) is by itself incapable of high-affinity DNA binding or transcriptional activation...
  3. Jiang C, Lamblin A, Steller H, Thummel C. A steroid-triggered transcriptional hierarchy controls salivary gland cell death during Drosophila metamorphosis. Mol Cell. 2000;5:445-55 pubmed
    ..This study identifies transcriptional regulators of programmed cell death in Drosophila and provides a direct link between a steroid signal and a programmed cell death response. ..
  4. Wang L, Lam G, Thummel C. Med24 and Mdh2 are required for Drosophila larval salivary gland cell death. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:954-64 pubmed publisher
    ..This study identifies novel mechanisms for controlling the destruction of larval tissues during Drosophila metamorphosis and provides new directions for our understanding of steroid-triggered programmed cell death. ..
  5. Kraft R, Levine R, Restifo L. The steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone enhances neurite growth of Drosophila mushroom body neurons isolated during metamorphosis. J Neurosci. 1998;18:8886-99 pubmed
    ..These results implicate 20E in enhancing axonal outgrowth of Kenyon cells to support MB remodeling during metamorphosis. ..
  6. Grad I, Niedziela Majka A, Kochman M, Ozyhar A. Analysis of Usp DNA binding domain targeting reveals critical determinants of the ecdysone receptor complex interaction with the response element. Eur J Biochem. 2001;268:3751-8 pubmed
    ..via a heterodimeric receptor formed by two members of the nuclear hormone receptors superfamily, the product of the EcR (EcR) and of the ultraspiracle (Usp) genes. Our previous study [Niedziela-Majka, A., Kochman, M., Ozyhar, A...
  7. Sedkov Y, Cho E, Petruk S, Cherbas L, Smith S, Jones R, et al. Methylation at lysine 4 of histone H3 in ecdysone-dependent development of Drosophila. Nature. 2003;426:78-83 pubmed
    ..Ecdysone works by binding to a nuclear receptor, EcR, which heterodimerizes with the retinoid X receptor homologue Ultraspiracle...
  8. Grueber W, Jan Y. Dendritic development: lessons from Drosophila and related branches. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2004;14:74-82 pubmed
    ..Here, we review some recent advances in our understanding of dendritic development in insects, focusing primarily on insights that have been gained from studies of Drosophila. ..
  9. Choi Y, Lee G, Park J. Programmed cell death mechanisms of identifiable peptidergic neurons in Drosophila melanogaster. Development. 2006;133:2223-32 pubmed
    ..Genetic and transgenic disruptions of ecdysone signal transduction involving ecdysone receptor-B (EcR-B) isoforms suppressed vCrz death, whereas transgenic re-introduction of either EcR-B1 or EcR-B2 ..
  10. Hackney J, Zolali Meybodi O, Cherbas P. Tissue damage disrupts developmental progression and ecdysteroid biosynthesis in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e49105 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that developmental delays induced by tissue damage are associated with decreased expression of genes involved in ecdysteroid synthesis and signaling. ..
  11. Karim F, Thummel C. Temporal coordination of regulatory gene expression by the steroid hormone ecdysone. EMBO J. 1992;11:4083-93 pubmed
    ..animals and cultured organs to study the transcription of three primary response regulatory genes, E75, BR-C and EcR. Remarkably, their patterns of transcription in late larvae can be defined in terms of two responses to different ..
  12. King Jones K, Thummel C. Nuclear receptors--a perspective from Drosophila. Nat Rev Genet. 2005;6:311-23 pubmed
    ..Here, we review recent breakthroughs in our understanding of D. melanogaster nuclear receptors, and interpret these results in light of findings from their evolutionarily conserved vertebrate homologues. ..
  13. Beckstead R, Ortiz J, Sanchez C, Prokopenko S, Chambon P, Losson R, et al. Bonus, a Drosophila homolog of TIF1 proteins, interacts with nuclear receptors and can inhibit betaFTZ-F1-dependent transcription. Mol Cell. 2001;7:753-65 pubmed
    ..Bon binds via an LxxLL motif to the AF-2 activation domain present in the ligand binding domain of betaFTZ-F1 and behaves as a transcriptional inhibitor in vivo. ..
  14. Rus F, Flatt T, Tong M, Aggarwal K, Okuda K, Kleino A, et al. Ecdysone triggered PGRP-LC expression controls Drosophila innate immunity. EMBO J. 2013;32:1626-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results demonstrate that Drosophila use complex mechanisms to modulate innate immune responses, and identify a transcriptional hierarchy that integrates steroid signalling and immunity in animals. ..
  15. Vogtli M, Elke C, Imhof M, Lezzi M. High level transactivation by the ecdysone receptor complex at the core recognition motif. Nucleic Acids Res. 1998;26:2407-14 pubmed
    Ecdysteroid signaling in insects is mediated by the ecdysone receptor complex that is composed of a heterodimer of the ecdysone receptor and Ultraspiracle...
  16. Bialecki M, Shilton A, Fichtenberg C, Segraves W, Thummel C. Loss of the ecdysteroid-inducible E75A orphan nuclear receptor uncouples molting from metamorphosis in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2002;3:209-20 pubmed
    ..We propose that ecdysteroid-induced E75A expression defines a feed-forward pathway that amplifies or maintains the ecdysteroid titer during larval development, ensuring proper temporal progression through the life cycle. ..
  17. Gorostiza E, Ceriani M. Retrograde bone morphogenetic protein signaling shapes a key circadian pacemaker circuit. J Neurosci. 2013;33:687-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we have uncovered a novel mechanism that provides an early "tagging" of synaptic targets that will guide circuit refinement later in development. ..
  18. Meister M, Richards G. Ecdysone and insect immunity: the maturation of the inducibility of the diptericin gene in Drosophila larvae. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 1996;26:155-60 pubmed
    ..However, experiments with the late larval lethal Broad-Complex mutant l(1)t435 show that the regulation of this response is distinct from the developmental ecdysone regulated hierarchies. ..
  19. Dela Cruz F, Kirsch D, Heinrich J. Transcriptional activity of Drosophila melanogaster ecdysone receptor isoforms and ultraspiracle in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Mol Endocrinol. 2000;24:183-91 pubmed
    The Drosophila melanogaster ecdysone receptor (EcR) is produced in three isoforms, which mediate developmental processes such as metamorphosis...
  20. Akdemir F, Farkas R, Chen P, Juhasz G, Medved ová L, Sass M, et al. Autophagy occurs upstream or parallel to the apoptosome during histolytic cell death. Development. 2006;133:1457-65 pubmed
  21. Brennan C, Li T, Bender M, Hsiung F, Moses K. Broad-complex, but not ecdysone receptor, is required for progression of the morphogenetic furrow in the Drosophila eye. Development. 2001;128:1-11 pubmed
    ..DHR78, which encodes another candidate ecdysteroid receptor, is also not required...
  22. Rewitz K, Yamanaka N, O Connor M. Steroid hormone inactivation is required during the juvenile-adult transition in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2010;19:895-902 pubmed publisher
    ..The coupling of hormone clearance to ?FTZ-F1 expression suggests a general mechanism by which transient signaling drives unidirectional progression through a multistep process. ..
  23. Brennan C, Ashburner M, Moses K. Ecdysone pathway is required for furrow progression in the developing Drosophila eye. Development. 1998;125:2653-64 pubmed
    ..we show that ecdysone-dependent gene expression, both of a reporter of transcriptional activity of the Ecdysone Receptor and of the Z1 isoform of the Broad Complex, are localized in and close to the furrow...
  24. Sprecher S, Desplan C. Switch of rhodopsin expression in terminally differentiated Drosophila sensory neurons. Nature. 2008;454:533-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that Ecdysone receptor (EcR) functions autonomously both for the death of larval Rh6 photoreceptors and for the sensory switch of ..
  25. Pecasse F, Beck Y, Ruiz C, Richards G. Krüppel-homolog, a stage-specific modulator of the prepupal ecdysone response, is essential for Drosophila metamorphosis. Dev Biol. 2000;221:53-67 pubmed
    ..Our studies on the corresponding gene, named Krüppel-homolog (Kr-h), add to a growing body of evidence that specific isoforms of a number of key genes are implicated in both embryogenesis and metamorphosis. ..
  26. Lehmann M. Drosophila Sgs genes: stage and tissue specificity of hormone responsiveness. Bioessays. 1996;18:47-54 pubmed
    ..g. secretion enhancer binding proteins, which act together in a synergistic manner with the 20E receptor and early gene products to establish a stage- and tissue-specific expression pattern. ..
  27. Hodin J, Riddiford L. The ecdysone receptor and ultraspiracle regulate the timing and progression of ovarian morphogenesis during Drosophila metamorphosis. Dev Genes Evol. 1998;208:304-17 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that proper expression of the ecdysone receptor complex is required to maintain the normal progression and timing of the events of ovarian differentiation in ..
  28. Takaesu N, Hyman Walsh C, Ye Y, Wisotzkey R, Stinchfield M, O Connor M, et al. dSno facilitates baboon signaling in the Drosophila brain by switching the affinity of Medea away from Mad and toward dSmad2. Genetics. 2006;174:1299-313 pubmed
    ..Pathway switching in target cells is a previously unreported mechanism for regulating TGFbeta signaling and a novel function for Sno/Ski family proteins. ..
  29. Zheng X, Wang J, Haerry T, Wu A, Martin J, O Connor M, et al. TGF-beta signaling activates steroid hormone receptor expression during neuronal remodeling in the Drosophila brain. Cell. 2003;112:303-15 pubmed
    ..Binding of the insect steroid hormone ecdysone to distinct ecdysone receptor isoforms induces different metamorphic responses in various larval tissues...
  30. Ables E, Drummond Barbosa D. The steroid hormone ecdysone functions with intrinsic chromatin remodeling factors to control female germline stem cells in Drosophila. Cell Stem Cell. 2010;7:581-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings support a link between systemic steroid hormones and the intrinsic chromatin remodeling machinery as a potential mechanism to promote broad transcriptional programs required for adult stem cell self-renewal. ..
  31. Kozlova T, Thummel C. Essential roles for ecdysone signaling during Drosophila mid-embryonic development. Science. 2003;301:1911-4 pubmed
    ..We show that the EcR-USP ecdysone receptor is first activated in the extraembryonic amnioserosa, implicating this tissue as a source of active ..
  32. Schwedes C, Tulsiani S, Carney G. Ecdysone receptor expression and activity in adult Drosophila melanogaster. J Insect Physiol. 2011;57:899-907 pubmed publisher
    ..status, environmental stress, ecdysone treatment or gender but is reduced when a constitutively inactive ecdysone receptor is present...
  33. Hoopfer E, McLaughlin T, Watts R, Schuldiner O, O Leary D, Luo L. Wlds protection distinguishes axon degeneration following injury from naturally occurring developmental pruning. Neuron. 2006;50:883-95 pubmed
    ..Thus, mechanistically, naturally occurring developmental axon pruning by degeneration and injury-induced axon degeneration differ significantly in early steps, but may converge onto a common execution pathway. ..
  34. Hackney J, Pucci C, Naes E, Dobens L. Ras signaling modulates activity of the ecdysone receptor EcR during cell migration in the Drosophila ovary. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:1213-26 pubmed
    b>Ecdysone Receptor (EcR) mediates effects of the hormone ecdysone during larval molts, pupal metamorphosis, and adult female oogenesis...
  35. Li T, Bender M. A conditional rescue system reveals essential functions for the ecdysone receptor (EcR) gene during molting and metamorphosis in Drosophila. Development. 2000;127:2897-905 pubmed
    ..of these developmental stages, the ecdysone signal is thought to act through a heteromeric receptor composed of the EcR and USP nuclear receptor proteins...
  36. Bender M, Imam F, Talbot W, Ganetzky B, Hogness D. Drosophila ecdysone receptor mutations reveal functional differences among receptor isoforms. Cell. 1997;91:777-88 pubmed
    ..directs Drosophila metamorphosis via three heterodimeric receptors that differ according to which of three ecdysone receptor isoforms encoded by the EcR gene (EcR-A, EcR-B1, or EcR-B2) is activated by the orphan nuclear receptor USP...
  37. Ninov N, Chiarelli D, Martin Blanco E. Extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms directing epithelial cell sheet replacement during Drosophila metamorphosis. Development. 2007;134:367-79 pubmed
    ..Finally, we show that histoblast spreading and the death of larval cells depend on a mutual exchange of signals and are non-autonomous processes. ..
  38. Sutherland J, Kozlova T, Tzertzinis G, Kafatos F. Drosophila hormone receptor 38: a second partner for Drosophila USP suggests an unexpected role for nuclear receptors of the nerve growth factor-induced protein B type. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:7966-70 pubmed
    In Drosophila the response to the hormone ecdysone is mediated in part by Ultraspiracle (USP) and ecdysone receptor (EcR), which are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily...
  39. Flatt T, Heyland A, Rus F, Porpiglia E, Sherlock C, Yamamoto R, et al. Hormonal regulation of the humoral innate immune response in Drosophila melanogaster. J Exp Biol. 2008;211:2712-24 pubmed publisher
    ..RNA silencing of either partner of the ecdysone receptor heterodimer (EcR or Usp) in S2 cells prevented the 20E-induced immune potentiation...
  40. Pakuła S, Orłowski M, Rymarczyk G, Krusiński T, Jakób M, Zoglowek A, et al. Conformational changes in the DNA-binding domains of the ecdysteroid receptor during the formation of a complex with the hsp27 response element. J Biomol Struct Dyn. 2012;30:379-93 pubmed publisher
    The ecdysone receptor (EcR) and the ultraspiracle protein (Usp) form the functional receptor for ecdysteroids that initiates metamorphosis in insects...
  41. Gauhar Z, Sun L, Hua S, Mason C, Fuchs F, Li T, et al. Genomic mapping of binding regions for the Ecdysone receptor protein complex. Genome Res. 2009;19:1006-13 pubmed publisher
    We determined the physical locations of the heterodimeric Ecdysone receptor/Ultraspiracle (ECR/USP) nuclear hormone receptor complex throughout the entire nonrepetitive genome of Drosophila melanogaster using a cell line (Kc167) that ..
  42. Thomas H, Stunnenberg H, Stewart A. Heterodimerization of the Drosophila ecdysone receptor with retinoid X receptor and ultraspiracle. Nature. 1993;362:471-5 pubmed
    ..The ecdysone receptor (EcR) was recently confirmed as a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily by cloning and characterization ..
  43. Yu X, Gutman I, Mosca T, Iram T, Ozkan E, Garcia K, et al. Plum, an immunoglobulin superfamily protein, regulates axon pruning by facilitating TGF-? signaling. Neuron. 2013;78:456-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Plum promotes MB ? neuron axon pruning by regulating the expression of Ecdysone Receptor-B1, a key initiator of axon pruning...
  44. Hall B, Thummel C. The RXR homolog ultraspiracle is an essential component of the Drosophila ecdysone receptor. Development. 1998;125:4709-17 pubmed
    ..In vitro studies have demonstrated that the EcR ecdysone receptor requires an RXR heterodimer partner for its activity, encoded by the ultraspiracle (usp) locus...
  45. Schubiger M, Wade A, Carney G, Truman J, Bender M. Drosophila EcR-B ecdysone receptor isoforms are required for larval molting and for neuron remodeling during metamorphosis. Development. 1998;125:2053-62 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila, expression of specific ecdysone receptor (EcR) isoforms has been correlated with particular responses, suggesting that different EcR isoforms may ..
  46. Lehmann M, Wattler F, Korge G. Two new regulatory elements controlling the Drosophila Sgs-3 gene are potential ecdysone receptor and fork head binding sites. Mech Dev. 1997;62:15-27 pubmed
    ..two regulatory elements in the upstream region of the Drosophila Sgs-3 gene which are both able to bind the ecdysone receptor (EcR/USP) and the product of the fork head gene...
  47. Vaskova M, Bentley A, Marshall S, Reid P, Thummel C, Andres A. Genetic analysis of the Drosophila 63F early puff. Characterization of mutations in E63-1 and maggie, a putative Tom22. Genetics. 2000;156:229-44 pubmed
    ..We show that mge mutations lead to first-instar larval lethality and that Mge protein is similar to the Tom22 mitochondrial import proteins of fungi, suggesting that it has a role in mitochondrial function. ..
  48. Liu Z, Chen Y, Wang D, Wang S, Zhang Y. Distinct presynaptic and postsynaptic dismantling processes of Drosophila neuromuscular junctions during metamorphosis. J Neurosci. 2010;30:11624-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that presynaptic and postsynaptic dismantling takes place through different mechanisms and that the postsynaptic side plays an instructive role in synapse dismantling. ..
  49. Chauhan C, Zraly C, Parilla M, Diaz M, Dingwall A. Histone recognition and nuclear receptor co-activator functions of Drosophila cara mitad, a homolog of the N-terminal portion of mammalian MLL2 and MLL3. Development. 2012;139:1997-2008 pubmed publisher
    ..The cmi gene is essential and its functions are dosage sensitive. CMI associates with TRR, as well as the EcR-USP receptor, and is required for hormone-dependent transcription...
  50. Morris L, Spradling A. Steroid signaling within Drosophila ovarian epithelial cells sex-specifically modulates early germ cell development and meiotic entry. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e46109 pubmed publisher
    ..Knocking down expression of the heterodimeric ecdysteroid receptor (EcR/Usp) or the E75 early response gene in escort cells disrupts 16-cell cyst production, meiotic entry ..
  51. Bai J, Uehara Y, Montell D. Regulation of invasive cell behavior by taiman, a Drosophila protein related to AIB1, a steroid receptor coactivator amplified in breast cancer. Cell. 2000;103:1047-58 pubmed
    ..TAI protein colocalized with the ecdysone receptor in vivo and augmented transcriptional activation by the ecdysone receptor in cultured cells...
  52. Bashirullah A, Lam G, Yin V, Thummel C. dTrf2 is required for transcriptional and developmental responses to ecdysone during Drosophila metamorphosis. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:3173-9 pubmed
    ..The transcription of key ecdysone-regulated target genes is delayed and reduced in dTrf2 mutants. dTrf2 appears to be required for the proper timing and levels of ecdysone-regulated gene expression required for entry into metamorphosis. ..
  53. Ishimoto H, Kitamoto T. The steroid molting hormone Ecdysone regulates sleep in adult Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2010;185:269-81 pubmed publisher
  54. Regan J, Brandão A, Leitão A, Mantas Dias A, Sucena E, Jacinto A, et al. Steroid hormone signaling is essential to regulate innate immune cells and fight bacterial infection in Drosophila. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003720 pubmed publisher
    ..Microarray analysis of hemocytes revealed a large set of genes regulated at metamorphosis by EcR signaling, among which many are known to function in cell motility, cell shape or phagocytosis...
  55. McBrayer Z, Ono H, Shimell M, Parvy J, Beckstead R, Warren J, et al. Prothoracicotropic hormone regulates developmental timing and body size in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2007;13:857-71 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that final body size in insects is determined by a balance between growth-rate regulators such as insulin and developmental timing cues such as PTTH that set the duration of the feeding interval. ..
  56. Davis M, Carney G, Robertson A, Bender M. Phenotypic analysis of EcR-A mutants suggests that EcR isoforms have unique functions during Drosophila development. Dev Biol. 2005;282:385-96 pubmed
    ..triggers transitions between developmental stages in Drosophila by acting through a heterodimer consisting of the EcR and USP nuclear receptors...
  57. Williams D, Truman J. Cellular mechanisms of dendrite pruning in Drosophila: insights from in vivo time-lapse of remodeling dendritic arborizing sensory neurons. Development. 2005;132:3631-42 pubmed
    ..Finally, we find that phagocytic blood cells not only engulf neuronal debris but also attack and sever intact branches that show signs of destabilization. ..
  58. Buszczak M, Freeman M, Carlson J, Bender M, Cooley L, Segraves W. Ecdysone response genes govern egg chamber development during mid-oogenesis in Drosophila. Development. 1999;126:4581-9 pubmed
    ..E75, E74 and BR-C are expressed in a stage-specific manner while EcR expression is ubiquitous throughout oogenesis...
  59. Draizen T, Ewer J, Robinow S. Genetic and hormonal regulation of the death of peptidergic neurons in the Drosophila central nervous system. J Neurobiol. 1999;38:455-65 pubmed
    ..These observations support the notion that 20E controls apoptosis by regulating the expression of genes that induce apoptosis. ..
  60. Brodu V, Mugat B, Roignant J, Lepesant J, Antoniewski C. Dual requirement for the EcR/USP nuclear receptor and the dGATAb factor in an ecdysone response in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:5732-42 pubmed
    The EcR/USP nuclear receptor controls Drosophila metamorphosis by activating complex cascades of gene transcription in response to pulses of the steroid hormone ecdysone at the end of larval development...
  61. Sawatsubashi S, Murata T, Lim J, Fujiki R, Ito S, Suzuki E, et al. A histone chaperone, DEK, transcriptionally coactivates a nuclear receptor. Genes Dev. 2010;24:159-70 pubmed publisher
    ..By colocalization of the nuclear ecdysone receptor (EcR) on the ecdysone-induced puff in the salivary gland, Drosophila DEK (dDEK) was genetically identified ..
  62. Niedziela Majka A, Rymarczyk G, Kochman M, Ozyhar A. GST-Induced dimerization of DNA-binding domains alters characteristics of their interaction with DNA. Protein Expr Purif. 1998;14:208-20 pubmed
    ..This is the first report on expression and purification of the soluble DBDs of the functional ecdysteroid receptor with satisfying yields...
  63. Laudet V, Hanni C, Coll J, Catzeflis F, Stehelin D. Evolution of the nuclear receptor gene superfamily. EMBO J. 1992;11:1003-13 pubmed
    ..These data suggest a complex evolutionary history for nuclear receptor genes in which gene duplication events and swapping between domains of different origins took place. ..
  64. Robinow S, Talbot W, Hogness D, Truman J. Programmed cell death in the Drosophila CNS is ecdysone-regulated and coupled with a specific ecdysone receptor isoform. Development. 1993;119:1251-9 pubmed
    ..300 neurons, which are unique in that they express 10-fold higher levels of the A isoform of the ecdysone receptor (EcR-A) than do other central neurons...
  65. Cherbas L, Lee K, Cherbas P. Identification of ecdysone response elements by analysis of the Drosophila Eip28/29 gene. Genes Dev. 1991;5:120-31 pubmed
    ..The similarity of the EcRE sequence to response elements for estrogen, thyroid hormone, and retinoic acid receptors suggests that the steroid receptors and their signal transduction mechanisms have been strongly and broadly conserved. ..
  66. Ghbeish N, Tsai C, Schubiger M, Zhou J, Evans R, McKeown M. The dual role of ultraspiracle, the Drosophila retinoid X receptor, in the ecdysone response. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:3867-72 pubmed
    The Drosophila homolog of the retinoid X receptor, ultraspiracle (USP), heterodimerizes with the ecdysone receptor (EcR) to form a functional complex that mediates the effects of the steroid molting hormone ecdysone by activating and ..
  67. Cherbas L, Hu X, Zhimulev I, Belyaeva E, Cherbas P. EcR isoforms in Drosophila: testing tissue-specific requirements by targeted blockade and rescue. Development. 2003;130:271-84 pubmed
    The three Drosophila EcR isoforms differ only at their N termini; thus, they share the conserved ligand-binding domain transcriptional activation function (AF2) and only differ in the unconserved A/B region, which contains a second, ..
  68. Kucherenko M, Barth J, Fiala A, Shcherbata H. Steroid-induced microRNA let-7 acts as a spatio-temporal code for neuronal cell fate in the developing Drosophila brain. EMBO J. 2012;31:4511-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data propose a novel role for miRNAs as transducers between chronologically regulated developmental signalling and physical cell adhesion. ..
  69. Lee C, Wendel D, Reid P, Lam G, Thummel C, Baehrecke E. E93 directs steroid-triggered programmed cell death in Drosophila. Mol Cell. 2000;6:433-43 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, expression of E93 is sufficient to induce programmed cell death. We propose that the steroid induction of E93 determines a programmed cell death response during development. ..
  70. Zheng X, Zugates C, Lu Z, Shi L, Bai J, Lee T. Baboon/dSmad2 TGF-beta signaling is required during late larval stage for development of adult-specific neurons. EMBO J. 2006;25:615-27 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that Babo/dSmad2 signaling prior to metamorphosis may be widely required to prepare neurons for the dynamic environment present during metamorphosis. ..
  71. Francis V, Zorzano A, Teleman A. dDOR is an EcR coactivator that forms a feed-forward loop connecting insulin and ecdysone signaling. Curr Biol. 2010;20:1799-808 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that dDOR is a novel coactivator of ecdysone receptor (EcR) that is needed during metamorphosis...
  72. Roy B, Singh A, Shetty C, Chaudhary V, North A, Landgraf M, et al. Metamorphosis of an identified serotonergic neuron in the Drosophila olfactory system. Neural Dev. 2007;2:20 pubmed
    ..We show that expression of a dominant-negative form of the ecdysterone receptor prevents remodeling...
  73. Awasaki T, Huang Y, O Connor M, Lee T. Glia instruct developmental neuronal remodeling through TGF-? signaling. Nat Neurosci. 2011;14:821-3 pubmed publisher
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