Gene Symbol: eas
Description: easily shocked
Alias: CG3525, Dmel\CG3525, EP770, EtnK, PC80, RE10142, RH11, ala, easily shocked, CG3525-PA, CG3525-PB, CG3525-PC, CG3525-PF, CG3525-PG, CG3525-PH, CG3525-PI, CG3525-PJ, alpha lobes absent, alpha-lobe absent, eas-PA, eas-PB, eas-PC, eas-PF, eas-PG, eas-PH, eas-PI, eas-PJ, easily-shocked, ethanolamine kinase
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Hekmat Scafe D, Lundy M, Ranga R, Tanouye M. Mutations in the K+/Cl- cotransporter gene kazachoc (kcc) increase seizure susceptibility in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2006;26:8943-54 pubmed
    ..The kcc mutants provide an excellent model system in which to investigate how modulation of GABAergic signaling influences neuronal excitability and epileptogenesis. ..
  2. Pavlidis P, Tanouye M. Seizures and failures in the giant fiber pathway of Drosophila bang-sensitive paralytic mutants. J Neurosci. 1995;15:5810-9 pubmed
    ..Previously, we have shown that in easily shocked (eas), a typical bang-sensitive mutant, electrical shocks delivered to the brain cause seizure-like activity ..
  3. Pavlidis P, Ramaswami M, Tanouye M. The Drosophila easily shocked gene: a mutation in a phospholipid synthetic pathway causes seizure, neuronal failure, and paralysis. Cell. 1994;79:23-33 pubmed
    ..germline transformation, and biochemical experiments show that eas mutants are defective in the gene for ethanolamine kinase, which is required for a pathway of phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis...
  4. Parker L, Padilla M, Du Y, Dong K, Tanouye M. Drosophila as a model for epilepsy: bss is a gain-of-function mutation in the para sodium channel gene that leads to seizures. Genetics. 2011;187:523-34 pubmed publisher
  5. Kuebler D, Tanouye M. Modifications of seizure susceptibility in Drosophila. J Neurophysiol. 2000;83:998-1009 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate the utility of Drosophila as a model system for studying human seizure disorders and provide insights into the possible mechanisms by which seizure susceptibility is modified...
  6. Song J, Tanouye M. Seizure suppression by shakB2, a gap junction mutation in Drosophila. J Neurophysiol. 2006;95:627-35 pubmed
    ..Seizures caused by easily shocked (eas) and technical knockout (tko) mutations are partially suppressed by shakB2...
  7. Reynolds E, Stauffer E, Feeney L, Rojahn E, Jacobs B, McKeever C. Treatment with the antiepileptic drugs phenytoin and gabapentin ameliorates seizure and paralysis of Drosophila bang-sensitive mutants. J Neurobiol. 2004;58:503-13 pubmed
    ..Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) were administered by feeding to easily shocked(2) (eas(2)), a representative bs mutant...
  8. Lee J, Wu C. Electroconvulsive seizure behavior in Drosophila: analysis of the physiological repertoire underlying a stereotyped action pattern in bang-sensitive mutants. J Neurosci. 2002;22:11065-79 pubmed
  9. Kuebler D, Zhang H, Ren X, Tanouye M. Genetic suppression of seizure susceptibility in Drosophila. J Neurophysiol. 2001;86:1211-25 pubmed
    ..The BS phenotypic class includes at least eight genes, including three examined in this study, bss, eas, and sda...

More Information


  1. Glasscock E, Tanouye M. Drosophila couch potato mutants exhibit complex neurological abnormalities including epilepsy phenotypes. Genetics. 2005;169:2137-49 pubmed
    ..These complex neurological phenotypes of cpo mutants support an important role for cpo in regulating proper nervous system function, including seizure susceptibility. ..
  2. Ganetzky B, Wu C. Indirect Suppression Involving Behavioral Mutants with Altered Nerve Excitability in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER. Genetics. 1982;100:597-614 pubmed
    ..Genetic interactions of this type help reveal functional relationships between different behavioral mutants and suggest ways of isolating new mutants with altered excitable membranes. ..
  3. Kliman M, Vijayakrishnan N, Wang L, Tapp J, Broadie K, McLean J. Structural mass spectrometry analysis of lipid changes in a Drosophila epilepsy model brain. Mol Biosyst. 2010;6:958-66 pubmed publisher
    ..easily shocked (eas(2)) mutant, used as an epilepsy model, is null for the PtdEtn biosynthetic enzyme, ethanolamine kinase. This mutant displays bang sensitive paralysis, and was previously shown to have decreased levels of PtdEtn...
  4. Burg M, Wu C. Mechanical and temperature stressor-induced seizure-and-paralysis behaviors in Drosophila bang-sensitive mutants. J Neurogenet. 2012;26:189-97 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors found that each of the bang-sensitive mutants described in this paper (bas, bss, eas, and tko) also displayed similar behavioral repertoires upon exposure to either high or low temperature...
  5. Muthukumar A, Stork T, Freeman M. Activity-dependent regulation of astrocyte GAT levels during synaptogenesis. Nat Neurosci. 2014;17:1340-50 pubmed publisher
    ..These data reveal that astrocytes actively modulate GAT expression via metabotropic GABA receptor signaling and highlight the importance of precise regulation of astrocytic GAT in modulation of seizure activity. ..
  6. Howlett I, Tanouye M. Seizure-sensitivity in Drosophila is ameliorated by dorsal vessel injection of the antiepileptic drug valproate. J Neurogenet. 2013;27:143-50 pubmed publisher
    ..seizure-sensitive phenotypes in several mutant genotypes in the bang-sensitive (BS) paralytic mutant class, sda, eas, and para(bss1)...
  7. Lindsay H, Baines R, ffrench Constant R, Lilley K, Jacobs H, O Dell K. The dominant cold-sensitive Out-cold mutants of Drosophila melanogaster have novel missense mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene paralytic. Genetics. 2008;180:873-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, in the absence of suitable vertebrate models, Ocd provides a system in which genetic, molecular, physiological, and behavioral tools can be exploited to determine mechanisms underlying sodium channel periodic paralyses...
  8. Witt S. Lipid disequilibrium in biological membranes, a possible pathway to neurodegeneration. Commun Integr Biol. 2014;7:e993266 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we highlight a Drosophila mutant called easily shocked-thought to be a model of epilepsy-that cannot use ethanolamine to synthesize PE...
  9. Nesic I, Guix F, Vennekens K, Michaki V, Van Veldhoven P, Feiguin F, et al. Alterations in phosphatidylethanolamine levels affect the generation of A?. Aging Cell. 2012;11:63-72 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that modulation of the membrane-soluble domains could be a valuable alternative to reduce excessive A? generation...
  10. Lin W, Gunay C, Marley R, Prinz A, Baines R. Activity-dependent alternative splicing increases persistent sodium current and promotes seizure. J Neurosci. 2012;32:7267-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, increased synaptic excitation favors inclusion of exon L, which, in turn, further increases neuronal excitability. Thus, at least in Drosophila, this self-reinforcing cycle may promote the incidence of seizure. ..
  11. Tan J, Lin F, Tanouye M. Potassium bromide, an anticonvulsant, is effective at alleviating seizures in the Drosophila bang-sensitive mutant bang senseless. Brain Res. 2004;1020:45-52 pubmed
    ..This methodology suggests that the Drosophila system can potentially be a powerful instrument for assaying and testing new compounds with anticonvulsant properties. ..
  12. Engel J, Wu C. Altered mechanoreceptor response in Drosophila bang-sensitive mutants. J Comp Physiol A. 1994;175:267-78 pubmed
    ..DNA sequence analysis of tko and eas has indicated that they encode apparently unrelated biochemical products...
  13. Boquet I, Hitier R, Dumas M, Chaminade M, Preat T. Central brain postembryonic development in Drosophila: implication of genes expressed at the interhemispheric junction. J Neurobiol. 2000;42:33-48 pubmed
    ..This work opens the way for further analysis of the molecular and cellular events involved in central brain reorganization during metamorphosis. ..
  14. Howlett I, Rusan Z, Parker L, Tanouye M. Drosophila as a model for intractable epilepsy: gilgamesh suppresses seizures in para(bss1) heterozygote flies. G3 (Bethesda). 2013;3:1399-407 pubmed publisher
    ..The gish gene normally encodes the Drosophila ortholog of casein kinase CK1g3, a member of the CK1 family of serine-threonine kinases. We suggest that CK1g3 is an unexpected but promising new target for seizure therapeutics. ..
  15. Lee J, Wu C. Genetic modifications of seizure susceptibility and expression by altered excitability in Drosophila Na(+) and K(+) channel mutants. J Neurophysiol. 2006;96:2465-78 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that individual seizure repertoire components reflect different neural network activities that could be differentially altered by mutations of specific ion channel subunits. ..
  16. Kroll J, Tanouye M. Rescue of easily shocked mutant seizure sensitivity in Drosophila adults. J Comp Neurol. 2013;521:3500-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The eas(+) gene encodes for the protein Ethanolamine Kinase, involved in phospholipid biosynthesis...
  17. Zars T. Short-term memories in Drosophila are governed by general and specific genetic systems. Learn Mem. 2010;17:246-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The distributed basis of learning in Drosophila implies that these systems were independently selected. ..
  18. Kristaponyte I, Hong Y, Lu H, Shieh B. Role of rhodopsin and arrestin phosphorylation in retinal degeneration of Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2012;32:10758-66 pubmed publisher
    ..To uncover the consequence underlying a lack of CaMKII activation, we characterized ala(1) flies in which CaMKII was suppressed by an inhibitory peptide, and showed that morphology of rhabdomeres was not ..
  19. Glasscock E, Singhania A, Tanouye M. The mei-P26 gene encodes a RING finger B-box coiled-coil-NHL protein that regulates seizure susceptibility in Drosophilia. Genetics. 2005;170:1677-89 pubmed
    ..The mei-P26 mutation reduces seizures in easily shocked (eas) and slamdance (sda) epileptic flies following mechanical stimulation and electroconvulsive shock...
  20. Isabel G, Pascual A, Preat T. Exclusive consolidated memory phases in Drosophila. Science. 2004;304:1024-7 pubmed
    ..We propose that ARM acts as a gating mechanism that ensures that LTM is formed only after repetitive and spaced training. ..
  21. Dobrosotskaya I, Seegmiller A, Brown M, Goldstein J, Rawson R. Regulation of SREBP processing and membrane lipid production by phospholipids in Drosophila. Science. 2002;296:879-83 pubmed
  22. Song J, Hu J, Tanouye M. Seizure suppression by top1 mutations in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2007;27:2927-37 pubmed
    ..A P-element mutagenesis screen using easily shocked seizure-sensitive mutant as a genetic background identified top1(JS), which plays a novel role in regulating ..
  23. Song J, Tanouye M. Role for para sodium channel gene 3' UTR in the modification of Drosophila seizure susceptibility. Dev Neurobiol. 2007;67:1944-56 pubmed
    ..We discussed possible mechanisms of how reduced transcription of the para gene or alterations in sodium channel subunit composition might be indicated by the para(JS1) mutation and implications for para 3' UTR function. ..
  24. Kulkarni S, Steinlauf A, Hall J. The dissonance mutant of courtship song in Drosophila melanogaster: isolation, behavior and cytogenetics. Genetics. 1988;118:267-85 pubmed
  25. Iyengar A, Wu C. Flight and seizure motor patterns in Drosophila mutants: simultaneous acoustic and electrophysiological recordings of wing beats and flight muscle activity. J Neurogenet. 2014;28:316-28 pubmed publisher
  26. Ben David G, Miller E, Steinhauer J. Drosophila spermatid individualization is sensitive to temperature and fatty acid metabolism. Spermatogenesis. 2015;5:e1006089 pubmed
    ..modulating phospholipid levels by mutation of the phosphatidylcholine lipase Swiss cheese (Sws) or the ethanolamine kinase Easily shocked (Eas) does not perturb individualization, nor does Sws overexpression...
  27. Heisenberg M. Mushroom body memoir: from maps to models. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2003;4:266-75 pubmed
  28. Lavagnino N, Arya G, Korovaichuk A, Fanara J. Genetic architecture of olfactory behavior in Drosophila melanogaster: differences and similarities across development. Behav Genet. 2013;43:348-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, our results point out that the genetic architecture of olfactory behavior in D. melanogaster presents a dynamic and changing organization across environments and ontogeny. ..
  29. Song J, Parker L, Hormozi L, Tanouye M. DNA topoisomerase I inhibitors ameliorate seizure-like behaviors and paralysis in a Drosophila model of epilepsy. Neuroscience. 2008;156:722-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the results suggest that Top1 inhibitors may have the potential to be developed into effective anti-epileptic drugs, especially for brain tumor patients presenting with epilepsy. ..
  30. Hekmat Scafe D, Mercado A, Fajilan A, Lee A, Hsu R, Mount D, et al. Seizure sensitivity is ameliorated by targeted expression of K+-Cl- cotransporter function in the mushroom body of the Drosophila brain. Genetics. 2010;184:171-83 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that kcc(DHS1) seizure sensitivity in MB neurons acts via a weakening of chemical synaptic inhibition by GABAergic transmission and suggest that this is due to disruption of intracellular Cl(-) gradients in MB neurons. ..
  31. Parfitt K, Reist N, Li J, Burgess R, Deitcher D, DiAntonio A, et al. Drosophila genetics and the functions of synaptic proteins. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1995;60:371-7 pubmed
  32. Dowse H, Ringo J, Power J, Johnson E, Kinney K, White L. A congenital heart defect in Drosophila caused by an action-potential mutation. J Neurogenet. 1995;10:153-68 pubmed
    ..However, the paramutation, which induces paralysis in adults at 29 degrees C, has no effect on larval heartbeat at temperatures between 20 degrees and 37.5 degrees C. The period gene, contra earlier reports, has no effect on heartbeat. ..
  33. Saras A, Tanouye M. Mutations of the Calcium Channel Gene cacophony Suppress Seizures in Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1005784 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that this seizure-like behavior in cacTS2 is ameliorated by 85% in double mutant combinations with parabss1. ..
  34. Nyako M, Marks C, Sherma J, Reynolds E. Tissue-specific and developmental effects of the easily shocked mutation on ethanolamine kinase activity and phospholipid composition in Drosophila melanogaster. Biochem Genet. 2001;39:339-49 pubmed
    The easily shocked (eas) gene of Drosophila melanogaster encodes ethanolamine kinase (EK), the first step in phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) synthesis via the CDP-ethanolamine pathway Flies mutant for eas display a complex neurological ..
  35. Lu H, Leung H, Wang N, Pak W, Shieh B. Role of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in Drosophila photoreceptors. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:11100-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the CaMKII activity appears tightly regulated by the co-localized PP2A. ..
  36. Fergestad T, Olson L, Patel K, Miller R, Palladino M, Ganetzky B. Neuropathology in Drosophila mutants with increased seizure susceptibility. Genetics. 2008;178:947-56 pubmed publisher
    ..These results emphasize the importance of proper cellular metabolism in maintaining both the activity and viability of neurons. ..
  37. Kroll J, Wong K, Siddiqui F, Tanouye M. Disruption of Endocytosis with the Dynamin Mutant shibirets1 Suppresses Seizures in Drosophila. Genetics. 2015;201:1087-102 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our results implicate mutant dynamin as an effective seizure suppressor, suggesting that targeting or limiting the availability of synaptic vesicles could be an effective and general method of controlling epilepsy disorders. ..
  38. Stone B, Evans L, Coleman J, Kuebler D. Genetic and pharmacological manipulations that alter metabolism suppress seizure-like activity in Drosophila. Brain Res. 2013;1496:94-103 pubmed publisher
    ..To alter metabolism, we introduced the atsugari (atu) mutation into three of the BS mutants, easily shocked (eas), bang senseless (bss), and technical knockout (tko)...
  39. Fergestad T, Bostwick B, Ganetzky B. Metabolic disruption in Drosophila bang-sensitive seizure mutants. Genetics. 2006;173:1357-64 pubmed
    ..Our data implicate cellular metabolism in regulating seizure susceptibility and suggest that differential sensitivity of neuronal subtypes to metabolic changes underlies distinct types of seizure activity. ..
  40. Burrell B, Sahley C. Learning in simple systems. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2001;11:757-64 pubmed
    ..Some pathways contribute to a single stage of memory formation, whereas others impact on multiple stages of memory development. Distinct cellular pathways may also act in series or in parallel during various stages of memory formation. ..
  41. Whelan J, Burke B, Rice A, Tong M, Kuebler D. Sensitivity to seizure-like activity in Drosophila following acute hypoxia and hypercapnia. Brain Res. 2010;1316:120-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The increased sensitivity to both hypoxia and hypercapnia in these BS mutants suggests possible physiological defects that may underlie seizure susceptibility. ..
  42. Pascual A, Chaminade M, Preat T. Ethanolamine kinase controls neuroblast divisions in Drosophila mushroom bodies. Dev Biol. 2005;280:177-86 pubmed
    ..The alpha lobe absent (ala) mutant randomly lacks either the vertical lobes or two of the median lobes...
  43. Lim H, Wang W, Wessells R, Ocorr K, Bodmer R. Phospholipid homeostasis regulates lipid metabolism and cardiac function through SREBP signaling in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 2011;25:189-200 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we report that the Drosophila easily shocked (eas) mutants that harbor a disturbance in phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) synthesis display tachycardia and ..
  44. Holth J, Bomben V, Reed J, Inoue T, Younkin L, Younkin S, et al. Tau loss attenuates neuronal network hyperexcitability in mouse and Drosophila genetic models of epilepsy. J Neurosci. 2013;33:1651-9 pubmed publisher
    ..tau reduction significantly decreased seizure sensitivity in two independent bang-sensitive mutant models, kcc and eas. Our results indicate that tau plays a general role in regulating intrinsic neuronal network hyperexcitability ..
  45. Orgad S, Llamazares S, Dudai Y, Ferrus A. The Drosophila Mutant tetanic Interacts with a Gene Complex Including the Structural Locus of K+ Channels and Shows Altered Dephosphorylation and Learning. Eur J Neurosci. 1989;1:367-373 pubmed
    ..The functional relationships between phosphorylation, K+ currents, phosphatase activity and modulation of synaptic activity during learning and memory are discussed in the light of their possible genetic links. ..
  46. Cunliffe V, Baines R, Giachello C, Lin W, Morgan A, Reuber M, et al. Epilepsy research methods update: Understanding the causes of epileptic seizures and identifying new treatments using non-mammalian model organisms. Seizure. 2015;24:44-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The short generation times of most of these model organisms also mean that they lend themselves particularly conveniently to the investigation of drug effects or epileptogenic processes across the lifecourse. ..
  47. Pascual A, Preat T. Localization of long-term memory within the Drosophila mushroom body. Science. 2001;294:1115-7 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the alpha-lobes-absent (ala) mutant lacks either the two vertical lobes of the mushroom body or two of the three median lobes which contain ..
  48. Uchida T. A novel high-molecular mass mammalian ethanolamine kinase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1997;1349:13-24 pubmed
    ..b>Ethanolamine kinase catalyzes the initial step in the CDP-ethanolamine pathway for phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis...
  49. van Swinderen B. Attention-like processes in Drosophila require short-term memory genes. Science. 2007;315:1590-3 pubmed
    ..These processes were modulated by genes involved in short-term memory formation, namely dunce and rutabaga. Attention defects in these mutants were associated with distinct optomotor effects in behavioral assays. ..