Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: E(z)
Description: Enhancer of zeste
Alias: CG6502, Dmel\CG6502, EZH1/2, Su(z)301, l(3)1902, l(3)67Fa, l(3)B12, l(3)SG17, l(3)ds12, pco, pco/E(z), enhancer of zeste, CG6502-PA, CG6502-PB, CG6502-PC, E(z)-PA, E(z)-PB, E(z)-PC, enhancer of zest, enhancer-of-zeste, polycombeotic
Species: fruit fly
- Erhardt S, Lyko F, Ainscough J, Surani M, Paro R. Polycomb-group proteins are involved in silencing processes caused by a transgenic element from the murine imprinted H19/Igf2 region in Drosophila. Dev Genes Evol. 2003;213:336-44 pubmed..In addition, two members of the conserved Polycomb group, Enhancer of zeste and Posterior sex combs, were needed for repression...
- Tie F, Banerjee R, Stratton C, Prasad Sinha J, Stepanik V, Zlobin A, et al. CBP-mediated acetylation of histone H3 lysine 27 antagonizes Drosophila Polycomb silencing. Development. 2009;136:3131-41 pubmed publisher..We propose that TRX-dependent acetylation of H3K27 by CBP prevents H3K27me3 at Polycomb target genes and constitutes a key part of the molecular mechanism by which TRX antagonizes or prevents Polycomb silencing. ..
- Huang D, Chang Y, Yang C, Pan I, King B. pipsqueak encodes a factor essential for sequence-specific targeting of a polycomb group protein complex. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:6261-71 pubmed..The functional relevance of psq to the silencing mechanism is strongly supported by its synergistic interactions with a subset of Pc-G that cause misexpression of homeotic genes. ..
- Klymenko T, Papp B, Fischle W, Kocher T, Schelder M, Fritsch C, et al. A Polycomb group protein complex with sequence-specific DNA-binding and selective methyl-lysine-binding activities. Genes Dev. 2006;20:1110-22 pubmed..We propose that PRE-tethered PhoRC selectively interacts with methylated histones in the chromatin flanking PREs to maintain a Polycomb-repressed chromatin state. ..
- Mito Y, Henikoff J, Henikoff S. Histone replacement marks the boundaries of cis-regulatory domains. Science. 2007;315:1408-11 pubmed..Our results suggest the existence of a continuous process that disrupts nucleosomes and maintains accessibility of cis-regulatory elements. ..
- Fanti L, Perrini B, Piacentini L, Berloco M, Marchetti E, Palumbo G, et al. The trithorax group and Pc group proteins are differentially involved in heterochromatin formation in Drosophila. Chromosoma. 2008;117:25-39 pubmed..These results strongly suggest that trx-G proteins, along with some Pc-G proteins, play an active role in heterochromatin formation in Drosophila. ..
- Kodjabachian L, Delaage M, Maurel C, Miassod R, Jacq B, Rosset R. Mutations in ccf, a novel Drosophila gene encoding a chromosomal factor, affect progression through mitosis and interact with Pc-G mutations. EMBO J. 1998;17:1063-75 pubmed..We also find that mutations in the Pc-G genes Polycomb, polyhomeotic and Enhancer of zeste are enhanced by ccf mutations...
- Wang L, Brown J, Cao R, Zhang Y, Kassis J, Jones R. Hierarchical recruitment of polycomb group silencing complexes. Mol Cell. 2004;14:637-46 pubmed
- Brehm A, Tufteland K, Aasland R, Becker P. The many colours of chromodomains. Bioessays. 2004;26:133-40 pubmed
- Petruk S, Sedkov Y, Johnston D, Hodgson J, Black K, Kovermann S, et al. TrxG and PcG proteins but not methylated histones remain associated with DNA through replication. Cell. 2012;150:922-33 pubmed publisher..We suggest that histone modification enzymes may re-establish the histone code on newly assembled unmethylated histones and thus may act as epigenetic marks. ..
- Breiling A, O Neill L, D Eliseo D, Turner B, Orlando V. Epigenome changes in active and inactive polycomb-group-controlled regions. EMBO Rep. 2004;5:976-82 pubmed..diverse cultured cell lines, we have mapped PRC1 components, the histone methyl transferase (HMT) Enhancer of zeste (E(z)) and histone H3 modifications in active and inactive PcG-controlled regions...
- Srinivasan S, Dorighi K, Tamkun J. Drosophila Kismet regulates histone H3 lysine 27 methylation and early elongation by RNA polymerase II. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000217 pubmed publisher..Our findings suggest that KIS-L promotes early elongation and counteracts Polycomb group repression by recruiting the ASH1 and TRX histone methyltransferases to chromatin. ..
- Papp B, Muller J. Histone trimethylation and the maintenance of transcriptional ON and OFF states by trxG and PcG proteins. Genes Dev. 2006;20:2041-54 pubmed
- Srinivasan L, Atchison M. YY1 DNA binding and PcG recruitment requires CtBP. Genes Dev. 2004;18:2596-601 pubmed..These results reveal a new role for CtBP in controlling YY1 DNA binding and recruitment of PcG proteins to DNA. ..
- Joanis V, Lloyd V. Genomic imprinting in Drosophila is maintained by the products of Suppressor of variegation and trithorax group, but not Polycomb group, genes. Mol Genet Genomics. 2002;268:103-12 pubmed
- Margueron R, Reinberg D. The Polycomb complex PRC2 and its mark in life. Nature. 2011;469:343-9 pubmed publisher..Recent studies of PRC2 have expanded our perspectives on its function and regulation, and uncovered a role for non-coding RNA in the recruitment of PRC2 to target genes. ..
- Riddle N, Minoda A, Kharchenko P, Alekseyenko A, Schwartz Y, Tolstorukov M, et al. Plasticity in patterns of histone modifications and chromosomal proteins in Drosophila heterochromatin. Genome Res. 2011;21:147-63 pubmed publisher..This comprehensive analysis provides a foundation for future studies of gene activity and chromosomal functions that are influenced by or dependent upon heterochromatin...
- Tie F, Prasad Sinha J, Birve A, Rasmuson Lestander A, Harte P. A 1-megadalton ESC/E(Z) complex from Drosophila that contains polycomblike and RPD3. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:3352-62 pubmed..These results suggest that there may be multiple ESC/E(Z) complexes with distinct functions in vivo. ..
- Cao R, Zhang Y. The functions of E(Z)/EZH2-mediated methylation of lysine 27 in histone H3. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2004;14:155-64 pubmed
- Carrington E, Jones R. The Drosophila Enhancer of zeste gene encodes a chromosomal protein: examination of wild-type and mutant protein distribution. Development. 1996;122:4073-83 pubmedThe Drosophila Enhancer of zeste [E(z)] gene is a member of the Polycomb-group and, as such, is involved in maintaining the transcriptional repression of the homeotic genes of the Antennapedia (ANT-C) and bithorax (BX-C) complexes...
- Kuzin B, Tillib S, Sedkov Y, Mizrokhi L, Mazo A. The Drosophila trithorax gene encodes a chromosomal protein and directly regulates the region-specific homeotic gene fork head. Genes Dev. 1994;8:2478-90 pubmed..decreased in larvae carrying mutations in another trithorax group gene ash-1, and in the Polycomb group gene pco/E(z)...
- Simon J, Chiang A, Bender W. Ten different Polycomb group genes are required for spatial control of the abdA and AbdB homeotic products. Development. 1992;114:493-505 pubmed..Embryos containing mutations in the genes Polycomb (Pc), extra sex combs (esc), Enhancer of zeste [E(z)], polyhomeotic (ph), Sex comb on midleg (Scm), Polycomb-like (Pcl), Sex comb extra (Sce), Additional ..
- Ebert A, Schotta G, Lein S, Kubicek S, Krauss V, Jenuwein T, et al. Su(var) genes regulate the balance between euchromatin and heterochromatin in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 2004;18:2973-83 pubmed
- Grimaud C, Bantignies F, Pal Bhadra M, Ghana P, Bhadra U, Cavalli G. RNAi components are required for nuclear clustering of Polycomb group response elements. Cell. 2006;124:957-71 pubmed..This suggests a novel role for the RNAi machinery in regulating the nuclear organization of PcG chromatin targets. ..
- Schwartz Y, Kahn T, Nix D, Li X, Bourgon R, Biggin M, et al. Genome-wide analysis of Polycomb targets in Drosophila melanogaster. Nat Genet. 2006;38:700-5 pubmed..PcG targets are highly enriched in genes encoding transcription factors, but they also include genes coding for receptors, signaling proteins, morphogens and regulators representing all major developmental pathways. ..
- Horard B, Tatout C, Poux S, Pirrotta V. Structure of a polycomb response element and in vitro binding of polycomb group complexes containing GAGA factor. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:3187-97 pubmed..Other fragments lack GAGA binding sites but can still bind PcG complexes in vitro. We show that the GAGA factor is a component of at least some types of PcG complexes and may participate in the assembly of PcG complexes at PREs. ..
- Jones R, Gelbart W. Genetic analysis of the enhancer of zeste locus and its role in gene regulation in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1990;126:185-99 pubmedThe Enhancer of zeste [E(z)] locus of Drosophila melanogaster is implicated in multiple examples of gene regulation during development...
- Cao R, Wang L, Wang H, Xia L, Erdjument Bromage H, Tempst P, et al. Role of histone H3 lysine 27 methylation in Polycomb-group silencing. Science. 2002;298:1039-43 pubmed..Methylation on H3-K27 facilitates binding of Polycomb (PC), a component of the PRC1 complex, to histone H3 amino-terminal tail. Thus, these studies establish a link between histone methylation and PcG-mediated gene silencing. ..
- Tie F, Furuyama T, Prasad Sinha J, Jane E, Harte P. The Drosophila Polycomb Group proteins ESC and E(Z) are present in a complex containing the histone-binding protein p55 and the histone deacetylase RPD3. Development. 2001;128:275-86 pubmed..We propose that histone deacetylation by this complex is a prerequisite for establishment of stable long-term silencing by other continuously required PcG complexes. ..
- Rodriguez Jato S, Busturia A, Herr W. Drosophila melanogaster dHCF interacts with both PcG and TrxG epigenetic regulators. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e27479 pubmed publisher..Additionally, dHCF interacts with the previously established ETP gene skd. These pleiotropic phenotypes are consistent with broad roles for dHCF in both activation and repression of transcription during fly development. ..
- Tripoulas N, Lajeunesse D, Gildea J, Shearn A. The Drosophila ash1 gene product, which is localized at specific sites on polytene chromosomes, contains a SET domain and a PHD finger. Genetics. 1996;143:913-28 pubmed..The chromosomal localization of ASH1 implies that it functions at the transcriptional level to maintain the expression pattern of homeotic selector genes. ..
- Chan C, Rastelli L, Pirrotta V. A Polycomb response element in the Ubx gene that determines an epigenetically inherited state of repression. EMBO J. 1994;13:2553-64 pubmed..The significance of this mechanism for homeotic gene regulation is discussed. ..
- Poux S, Melfi R, Pirrotta V. Establishment of Polycomb silencing requires a transient interaction between PC and ESC. Genes Dev. 2001;15:2509-14 pubmed..In older embryos, PC is found in a complex including PH, PSC, GAGA, and RPD3, whereas ESC is in a separate complex including EZ, PHO, and RPD3. ..
- Nekrasov M, Wild B, Muller J. Nucleosome binding and histone methyltransferase activity of Drosophila PRC2. EMBO Rep. 2005;6:348-53 pubmed
- Muller J, Hart C, Francis N, Vargas M, Sengupta A, Wild B, et al. Histone methyltransferase activity of a Drosophila Polycomb group repressor complex. Cell. 2002;111:197-208 pubmed..The Extra Sex Combs (ESC) and Enhancer of Zeste [E(Z)] proteins are partners in an essential PcG complex, but its full composition and biochemical ..
- Sims R, Nishioka K, Reinberg D. Histone lysine methylation: a signature for chromatin function. Trends Genet. 2003;19:629-39 pubmed
- Lopez A, Higuet D, Rosset R, Deutsch J, Peronnet F. corto genetically interacts with Pc-G and trx-G genes and maintains the anterior boundary of Ultrabithorax expression in Drosophila larvae. Mol Genet Genomics. 2001;266:572-83 pubmed..We show here that, in addition to previously reported genetic interactions with the Pc-G genes Enhancer of zeste, Polycomb and polyhomeotic, mutations in corto enhance the extra-sex-comb phenotype of multi sex combs, ..
- Maeda R, Karch F. The ABC of the BX-C: the bithorax complex explained. Development. 2006;133:1413-22 pubmed..This primer attempts to distill and explain our current knowledge about this classic, complex locus. ..
- O Connell S, Wang L, Robert S, Jones C, Saint R, Jones R. Polycomblike PHD fingers mediate conserved interaction with enhancer of zeste protein. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:43065-73 pubmed..b>Enhancer of zeste (E(Z)) is a Drosophila PcG protein that previously has been shown to bind directly to another PcG protein, ..
- Kharchenko P, Alekseyenko A, Schwartz Y, Minoda A, Riddle N, Ernst J, et al. Comprehensive analysis of the chromatin landscape in Drosophila melanogaster. Nature. 2011;471:480-5 pubmed publisher..This systematic profiling and integrative analysis of chromatin signatures provides insights into how genomic elements are regulated, and will serve as a resource for future experimental investigations of genome structure and function. ..
- Simon J, Chiang A, Bender W, Shimell M, O Connor M. Elements of the Drosophila bithorax complex that mediate repression by Polycomb group products. Dev Biol. 1993;158:131-44 pubmed..These constructs are each regulated by the genes Polycomb (Pc), extra sex combs (esc), Enhancer of zeste (E[z]), polyhomeotic (ph), Polycomb-like (Pcl), Sex comb on midleg (Scm), Posterior sex combs (Psc), and ..
- Brown J, Fritsch C, Mueller J, Kassis J. The Drosophila pho-like gene encodes a YY1-related DNA binding protein that is redundant with pleiohomeotic in homeotic gene silencing. Development. 2003;130:285-94 pubmed..In contrast to Pho and Pho-like, removal of Trithorax-like/GAGA factor or Zeste, two other DNA-binding proteins implicated in PRE function, does not cause misexpression of homeotic genes or reporter genes in imaginal disks. ..
- Stassen M, Bailey D, Nelson S, Chinwalla V, Harte P. The Drosophila trithorax proteins contain a novel variant of the nuclear receptor type DNA binding domain and an ancient conserved motif found in other chromosomal proteins. Mech Dev. 1995;52:209-23 pubmed..This pattern is transient and evolves into a broader expression domain encompassing the entire germ band during the extended germ band stage. ..
- Margueron R, Justin N, Ohno K, Sharpe M, Son J, Drury W, et al. Role of the polycomb protein EED in the propagation of repressive histone marks. Nature. 2009;461:762-7 pubmed publisher..These findings suggest a model for the propagation of the H3K27me3 mark that accounts for the maintenance of repressive chromatin domains and for the transmission of a histone modification from mother to daughter cells. ..
- Czermin B, Melfi R, McCabe D, Seitz V, Imhof A, Pirrotta V. Drosophila enhancer of Zeste/ESC complexes have a histone H3 methyltransferase activity that marks chromosomal Polycomb sites. Cell. 2002;111:185-96 pubmedb>Enhancer of Zeste is a Polycomb Group protein essential for the establishment and maintenance of repression of homeotic and other genes...
- Kennison J. The Polycomb and trithorax group proteins of Drosophila: trans-regulators of homeotic gene function. Annu Rev Genet. 1995;29:289-303 pubmed..The ZESTE protein may help to activate transcription by bringing distant cis-regulatory elements closer to promoter-bound proteins. ..
- Randsholt N, Maschat F, Santamaria P. polyhomeotic controls engrailed expression and the hedgehog signaling pathway in imaginal discs. Mech Dev. 2000;95:89-99 pubmed..We suggest that PcG targets are not exclusively regulated by an on/off mechanism, but that the PcG also exerts negative transcriptional control on active genes. ..
- Moazed D, O Farrell P. Maintenance of the engrailed expression pattern by Polycomb group genes in Drosophila. Development. 1992;116:805-10 pubmed
- Schwartz Y, Kahn T, Stenberg P, Ohno K, Bourgon R, Pirrotta V. Alternative epigenetic chromatin states of polycomb target genes. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000805 pubmed publisher..These results have important implications for Polycomb gene regulation, the "bivalent" chromatin state of embryonic stem cells, and gene expression in development. ..
- Furuyama T, Banerjee R, Breen T, Harte P. SIR2 is required for polycomb silencing and is associated with an E(Z) histone methyltransferase complex. Curr Biol. 2004;14:1812-21 pubmed..SIR2 is involved in the epigenetic inheritance of silent chromatin states mediated by the Drosophila Polycomb group proteins and is physically associated with a complex containing the E(Z) histone methyltransferase. ..
- Bello B, Holbro N, Reichert H. Polycomb group genes are required for neural stem cell survival in postembryonic neurogenesis of Drosophila. Development. 2007;134:1091-9 pubmed..neuroblast clones is dramatically reduced in the absence of Polycomb, Sex combs extra, Sex combs on midleg, Enhancer of zeste or Suppressor of zeste 12...
- Rastelli L, Chan C, Pirrotta V. Related chromosome binding sites for zeste, suppressors of zeste and Polycomb group proteins in Drosophila and their dependence on Enhancer of zeste function. EMBO J. 1993;12:1513-22 pubmed
- Kahn T, Schwartz Y, Dellino G, Pirrotta V. Polycomb complexes and the propagation of the methylation mark at the Drosophila ubx gene. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:29064-75 pubmed..The Polycomb group protein Enhancer of Zeste has been shown in vitro to methylate specifically lysine 27 and lysine 9 of histone H3 but the role of this ..
- Beuchle D, Struhl G, Muller J. Polycomb group proteins and heritable silencing of Drosophila Hox genes. Development. 2001;128:993-1004 pubmed..Some PcG proteins may be required to define and propagate this mark; others may function to repress the transcription of Hox genes that bear the mark. ..
- Classen A, Bunker B, Harvey K, Vaccari T, Bilder D. A tumor suppressor activity of Drosophila Polycomb genes mediated by JAK-STAT signaling. Nat Genet. 2009;41:1150-5 pubmed publisher..These findings show that PcG proteins can restrict growth directly by silencing mitogenic signaling pathways, shedding light on an epigenetic mechanism underlying tumor suppression. ..