Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: e
Alias: CG3331, Dmel\CG3331, ebony, CG3331-PA, N-betagr;-alanyl-dopamine synthetase, NBAD-synthase, e-PA
Species: fruit fly
- Rabinow L, Birchler J. A dosage-sensitive modifier of retrotransposon-induced alleles of the Drosophila white locus. EMBO J. 1989;8:879-89 pubmed..Rare Doa mutant homozygotes escaping lethality demonstrate extreme phenotypic suppression of wa and enhancement of wsp55. RNA from wa is substantially wild-type in structure in escapers, although reduced in quantity. ..
- Borycz J, Borycz J, Loubani M, Meinertzhagen I. tan and ebony genes regulate a novel pathway for transmitter metabolism at fly photoreceptor terminals. J Neurosci. 2002;22:10549-57 pubmedIn Drosophila melanogaster, ebony and tan, two cuticle melanizing mutants, regulate the conjugation (ebony) of beta-alanine to dopamine or hydrolysis (tan) of the beta-alanyl conjugate to liberate dopamine...
- Pérez M, Schachter J, Berni J, Quesada Allue L. The enzyme NBAD-synthase plays diverse roles during the life cycle of Drosophila melanogaster. J Insect Physiol. 2010;56:8-13 pubmed publisher..and life cycle-dependent expression of Drosophila melanogaster N-beta-alanyldopamine synthase (NBAD-synthase or Ebony protein)...
- Mehta S, Hiesinger P, Beronja S, Zhai R, Schulze K, Verstreken P, et al. Mutations in Drosophila sec15 reveal a function in neuronal targeting for a subset of exocyst components. Neuron. 2005;46:219-32 pubmed..The data also show that functions of other exocyst components persist in the absence of sec15, suggesting that different exocyst components have separable functions. ..
- Wittkopp P, Vaccaro K, Carroll S. Evolution of yellow gene regulation and pigmentation in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2002;12:1547-56 pubmed..These changes were likely necessary for the divergence of pigmentation, but evolutionary changes in other genes were also required...
- Wittkopp P, True J, Carroll S. Reciprocal functions of the Drosophila yellow and ebony proteins in the development and evolution of pigment patterns. Development. 2002;129:1849-58 pubmed..We demonstrate that the regulation and function of the yellow and ebony genes in Drosophila melanogaster play crucial roles in this process...
- Wagner S, Heseding C, Szlachta K, True J, Prinz H, Hovemann B. Drosophila photoreceptors express cysteine peptidase tan. J Comp Neurol. 2007;500:601-11 pubmedThe Drosophila mutant tan (t) shows reciprocal pigmentation defects compared with the ebony (e) mutant...
- Rebeiz M, Pool J, Kassner V, Aquadro C, Carroll S. Stepwise modification of a modular enhancer underlies adaptation in a Drosophila population. Science. 2009;326:1663-7 pubmed publisher..Here, we localized a suite of substitutions in a modular enhancer of the ebony locus responsible for adaptive melanism in a Ugandan Drosophila population...
- Suh J, Jackson F. Drosophila ebony activity is required in glia for the circadian regulation of locomotor activity. Neuron. 2007;55:435-47 pubmed..We show here that a circadian rhythm in Drosophila Ebony (N-beta-alanyl-biogenic amine synthetase) abundance can be visualized in adult glia and that glial expression of ..
- True J, Edwards K, Yamamoto D, Carroll S. Drosophila wing melanin patterns form by vein-dependent elaboration of enzymatic prepatterns. Curr Biol. 1999;9:1382-91 pubmed..melanogaster ebony mutants. Importantly, we discovered that in D...
- Gavin B, Arruda S, Dolph P. The role of carcinine in signaling at the Drosophila photoreceptor synapse. PLoS Genet. 2007;3:e206 pubmed..Loss-of-function mutations in ebony, a gene required for the synthesis of carcinine in Drosophila, suppress components of the mutant ine ERG phenotype,..
- Gibert J, Peronnet F, Schlotterer C. Phenotypic plasticity in Drosophila pigmentation caused by temperature sensitivity of a chromatin regulator network. PLoS Genet. 2007;3:e30 pubmed..Furthermore, the thermosensitivity of this network may be related to the high evolvability of several secondary sexual characters in the genus Drosophila. ..
- Cobb M. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of the Drosophila melanogaster olfactory mutation Indifferent. Genetics. 1996;144:1577-87 pubmed..mutant or wild type; both Indf characters were found to be located on the right arm of the chromosome, between ebony and claret...
- Caggese C, Caizzi R, Morea M, Scalenghe F, Ritossa F. Mutation generating a fragment of the major heat shock-inducible polypeptide in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979;76:2385-9 pubmed..Using the presence of the 40,000-Dal protein to monitor chromosome segregation, we found that embryos homozygous for deletions of the heat shock puff site at 93D exhibited a normal electrophoretic pattern of heat shock proteins. ..
- Brehme K. The Effect of Adult Body Color Mutations upon the Larva of Drosophila Melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1941;27:254-61 pubmed
- Liu T, Dartevelle L, Yuan C, Wei H, Wang Y, Ferveur J, et al. Increased dopamine level enhances male-male courtship in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2008;28:5539-46 pubmed publisher..Our results indicate that the high intensity of male-male interaction shown by these manipulated males was related to their altered sensory perception of other males. ..
- Bastide H, Betancourt A, Nolte V, Tobler R, Stöbe P, Futschik A, et al. A genome-wide, fine-scale map of natural pigmentation variation in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003534 pubmed publisher..While the Pool-GWAS approach suffers some limitations, its cost advantage facilitates replication and it can be applied to any non-model system with an available reference genome. ..
- Lagisz M, Wen S, Routtu J, Klappert K, Mazzi D, Morales Hojas R, et al. Two distinct genomic regions, harbouring the period and fruitless genes, affect male courtship song in Drosophila montana. Heredity (Edinb). 2012;108:602-8 pubmed publisher..In previous studies, the pulse train traits have been found to vary substantially between Drosophila species, and so are potential species recognition signals, while the pulse traits may be more important in intra-specific mate choice. ..
- Romanova N, Aslanian M, Kim A. [Analysis of spontaneous and ethylmethanesulfonate-induced visible mutations in the genetically unstable MS, w strain of Drosophila melanogaster]. Genetika. 1996;32:759-66 pubmed..In MS, w, exhibition of spontaneous and induced instability was shown to be similar. This could imply a common mechanism of control of mutability involving transpositions of mobile genetic elements. ..
- Duncan I, Kaufman T. Cytogenic analysis of chromosome 3 in Drosophila melanogaster: mapping of the proximal portion of the right arm. Genetics. 1975;80:733-52 pubmed
- Phillips A, Smart R, Strauss R, Brembs B, Kelly L. The Drosophila black enigma: the molecular and behavioural characterization of the black1 mutant allele. Gene. 2005;351:131-42 pubmed publisher..No ERG, or target recognition defects can be demonstrated suggesting a problem with higher order visual functions in black mutants...
- Bosch J, Tran N, Hariharan I. CoinFLP: a system for efficient mosaic screening and for visualizing clonal boundaries in Drosophila. Development. 2015;142:597-606 pubmed publisher..By combining CoinFLP-LexGAD/Gal4 with the split-GFP system GRASP, boundaries between genetically distinct cell populations can be visualized at high resolution. ..
- Yeh S, von Grotthuss M, Gandasetiawan K, Jayasekera S, Xia X, Chan C, et al. Functional divergence of the miRNA transcriptome at the onset of Drosophila metamorphosis. Mol Biol Evol. 2014;31:2557-72 pubmed publisher..Collectively, our results show contrasting patterns of functional divergence associated with miRNA expression levels during Drosophila ontogeny. ..
- Wu L, Anderson K. Regulated nuclear import of Rel proteins in the Drosophila immune response. Nature. 1998;392:93-7 pubmed..Mutations in three other genes cause constitutive nuclear localization of Dif; these mutations may block Rel protein activity by a novel mechanism. ..
- Zitserman D, Gupta S, Kruger W, Karbowniczek M, Roegiers F. The TSC1/2 complex controls Drosophila pigmentation through TORC1-dependent regulation of catecholamine biosynthesis. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e48720 pubmed publisher..The pattern and degree of melanin deposition is controlled by the expression of genes such as ebony and yellow as well as by the enzymes involved in catecholamine biosynthesis...
- Gruntenko N, Wilson T, Monastirioti M, Rauschenbach I. Stress-reactivity and juvenile hormone degradation in Drosophila melanogaster strains having stress-related mutations. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2000;30:775-83 pubmed..Thus, the impairments in any component of the Drosophila stress reaction result in changes in the reponse of JH degradation system to stress. The role of JH in the development of the insect stress reaction is discussed. ..
- Baden H, Kollias N, Anderson R, Hopkins T, Raftery L. Drosophila melanogaster larvae detect low doses of UVC radiation as manifested by a writhing response. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 1996;32:187-96 pubmed..b>ebony and silver mutants, which affect different pathways in catecholamine metabolism, showed an absent to reduced ..
- Hall J. Genetics of circadian rhythms. Annu Rev Genet. 1990;24:659-97 pubmed
- Ward C, Alexander M. Cytological Analysis of X-Ray-Induced Mutations at Eight Specific Loci in the Third Chromosome of Drosophila Melanogaster. Genetics. 1957;42:42-54 pubmed
- Zwarts L, Versteven M, Callaerts P. Genetics and neurobiology of aggression in Drosophila. Fly (Austin). 2012;6:35-48 pubmed publisher..The state of the art on aggression in Drosophila and the many opportunities provided by this model organism to unravel the genetic and neurobiological basis of aggression are reviewed. ..
- Hovemann B, Ryseck R, Walldorf U, Störtkuhl K, Dietzel I, Dessen E. The Drosophila ebony gene is closely related to microbial peptide synthetases and shows specific cuticle and nervous system expression. Gene. 1998;221:1-9 pubmedThe previously detected ebony (e) locus (Caizzi et al., 1987) consists of a complex gene structure that is divided into seven exons. An open reading frame encoding the putative Ebony protein of 98...
- Cenci G, Siriaco G, Raffa G, Kellum R, Gatti M. The Drosophila HOAP protein is required for telomere capping. Nat Cell Biol. 2003;5:82-4 pubmed..Our analyses indicate that HOAP is specifically enriched at mitotic chromosome telomeres, and strongly suggest that HP1 and HOAP form a telomere-capping complex that does not contain ORC2. ..
- de Miranda J, Hemmat M, Eggleston P. The competition diallel and the exploitation and interference components of larval competition in Drosophila melanogaster. Heredity (Edinb). 1991;66 ( Pt 3):333-42 pubmed..The isolation of a general, and therefore predictable, interference component may prove useful in agriculture when assessing the relative importance of mixture effects to the yield potential of different crops. ..
- Newby L, Jackson F. Drosophila ebony mutants have altered circadian activity rhythms but normal eclosion rhythms. J Neurogenet. 1991;7:85-101 pubmedDrosophila ebony mutants exhibit a syndrome of morphological and behavioral phenotypes that include an abnormally dark body color and defects in visual and courtship responses...
- Johnston L, Ostrow B, Jasoni C, Blochlinger K. The homeobox gene cut interacts genetically with the homeotic genes proboscipedia and Antennapedia. Genetics. 1998;149:131-42 pubmed..Our results implicate ct in the regulation of expression and/or function of two homeotic genes and document a new role of ct in the control of segmental identity. ..
- Singh N, Criscoe D, Skolfield S, Kohl K, Keebaugh E, Schlenke T. EVOLUTION. Fruit flies diversify their offspring in response to parasite infection. Science. 2015;349:747-50 pubmed publisher..Our study extends the Red Queen model to include the increased production of recombinant offspring and uncovers a remarkable ability of hosts to actively distort their recombination fraction in rapid response to environmental cues. ..
- Dembeck L, Huang W, Magwire M, Lawrence F, Lyman R, Mackay T. Genetic Architecture of Abdominal Pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005163 pubmed publisher..Several of the top variants associated with variation in pigmentation are in tan, ebony, and bric-a-brac1, genes known to affect D. melanogaster abdominal pigmentation...
- Gelbart W, Chovnick A. Spontaneous unequal exchange in the rosy region of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1979;92:849-59 pubmed
- Durusoy M, Diril N, Bozcuk A. Age-related activity of catalase in different genotypes of Drosophila melanogaster. Exp Gerontol. 1995;30:77-86 pubmed..melanogaster, three different genotypes (Oregon w.t., ebony mutant, and the F1 hybrids of the two), whose mean life spans are about 55, 40, and 63 days, respectively, were ..
- Buescher M, Chia W. Mutations in lottchen cause cell fate transformations in both neuroblast and glioblast lineages in the Drosophila embryonic central nervous system. Development. 1997;124:673-81 pubmed..We discuss the possibility that ltt may act to differentiate NB identity along the medial lateral axis. ..
- Ren X, Yang Z, Xu J, Sun J, Mao D, Hu Y, et al. Enhanced specificity and efficiency of the CRISPR/Cas9 system with optimized sgRNA parameters in Drosophila. Cell Rep. 2014;9:1151-62 pubmed publisher..Our work demonstrates a comprehensive optimization of sgRNA and promises to vastly simplify CRISPR/Cas9 experiments in Drosophila. ..
- Meyer N, Oberegelsbacher C, Dürr T, Schäfer A, Huber A. An eGFP-based genetic screen for defects in light-triggered subcelluar translocation of the Drosophila photoreceptor channel TRPL. Fly (Austin). 2008;2:36-46 pubmed..The absence of TRP or rhodopsin in the isolated mutants readily explains the defect in TRPL internalization and proves the feasibility of our genetic screen. ..
- Takahashi A, Takano Shimizu T. Divergent enhancer haplotype of ebony on inversion In(3R)Payne associated with pigmentation variation in a tropical population of Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Ecol. 2011;20:4277-87 pubmed publisher..The expression level variation of the ebony gene correlated well with this phenotype and the allelic differences in expression indicated that the variation is ..
- Lu B, Shao L, Feng S, Wang T, Zhong Y. The ?-alanyl-monoamine synthase ebony is regulated by schizophrenia susceptibility gene dysbindin in Drosophila. Sci China Life Sci. 2014;57:46-51 pubmed publisher..mechanisms underlying Ddysb-dependent regulation of dopamine signal, we investigated interaction between Ddysb and Ebony, the Drosophila ?-alanyl-monoamine synthase involved in dopamine recycling...
- Romero Calderon R, Uhlenbrock G, Borycz J, Simon A, Grygoruk A, Yee S, et al. A glial variant of the vesicular monoamine transporter is required to store histamine in the Drosophila visual system. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000245 pubmed publisher..Our results suggest a novel role for a monoamine transporter in glia that may be relevant to histamine homeostasis in other systems. ..
- Wang Z, Liu R, Wang A, Du L, Deng X. Phototoxic effect of UVR on wild type, ebony and yellow mutants of Drosophila melanogaster: life span, fertility, courtship and biochemical aspects. Sci China C Life Sci. 2008;51:885-93 pubmed publisher..In the present work, life span, fertility and courtship behavior of wild type (w), ebony (e) and yellow (y) strains of Drosophila melanogaster were studied to evaluate their sensitivity to ultraviolet (..
- Ordway A, Hancuch K, Johnson W, Wiliams T, Rebeiz M. The expansion of body coloration involves coordinated evolution in cis and trans within the pigmentation regulatory network of Drosophila prostipennis. Dev Biol. 2014;392:431-40 pubmed publisher..enzyme genes tan and yellow, and a reciprocal withdrawn pattern of the melanin-suppressing enzyme gene ebony. To examine whether these coordinated changes to the network were generated through mutations in the cis-..
- Kirchner J, Vissi E, Gross S, Szoor B, Rudenko A, Alphey L, et al. Drosophila Uri, a PP1alpha binding protein, is essential for viability, maintenance of DNA integrity and normal transcriptional activity. BMC Mol Biol. 2008;9:36 pubmed publisher..Uri is the first PP1alpha specific binding protein to be described in Drosophila. Uri protein plays a role in transcriptional regulation. Activity of uri is required to maintain DNA integrity and cell survival in normal development. ..
- Ou S, Chang E, Lee S, So K, Wu C, Morris J. Effects of chromosomal rearrangements on transvection at the yellow gene of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2009;183:483-96 pubmed publisher..These results provide a formal demonstration of the pairing-dependent nature of yellow transvection and suggest that yellow pairing, as measured by transvection, reflects the extent of contiguous homology flanking the locus. ..
- Jacobs M. Influence of beta-alanine on ultrastructure, tanning, and melanization of Drosophila melanogaster cuticles. Biochem Genet. 1980;18:65-76 pubmed..arising from the tips of the epidermal villi in adult cuticles remain irregular and loose in the mutant ebony (which fails in cuticular incorporation of beta-alanine) but closely knit and regular in normal flies...
- Vagin V, Yu Y, Jankowska A, Luo Y, Wasik K, Malone C, et al. Minotaur is critical for primary piRNA biogenesis. RNA. 2013;19:1064-77 pubmed publisher..We have named this new biogenesis factor Minotaur. ..
- Hartwig S, Dovengerds C, Herrmann C, Hovemann B. Drosophila Ebony: a novel type of nonribosomal peptide synthetase related enzyme with unusually fast peptide bond formation kinetics. FEBS J. 2014;281:5147-58 pubmed publisherDrosophila Ebony is a Î²-alanyl biogenic amine synthetase with proven function in cuticle and in glia of the nervous system...
- Lakhotia S, Chowdhuri D, Burma P. Mutations affecting beta-alanine metabolism influence inducibility of the 93D puff by heat shock in Drosophila melanogaster. Chromosoma. 1990;99:296-305 pubmedEffect of mutations at the ebony or black locus on induction of heat shock puffs in polytene nuclei of salivary glands of Drosophila melanogaster larvae were examined by [3H]uridine autoradiography...
- Brakefield P, French V. Evolutionary developmental biology: how and why to spot fly wings. Nature. 2005;433:466-7 pubmed
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- Stenesen D, Moehlman A, KrÃ¤mer H. The carcinine transporter CarT is required in Drosophila photoreceptor neurons to sustain histamine recycling. elife. 2015;4:e10972 pubmed publisher..Together, our results demonstrate that CarT transports the histamine metabolite carcinine into photoreceptor neurons, thus contributing an essential step to the histamine-carcinine cycle. ..
- Shabalina S, Yampolsky LYu -, Kondrashov A. Rapid decline of fitness in panmictic populations of Drosophila melanogaster maintained under relaxed natural selection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:13034-9 pubmed..2% and 2.0% per generation under benign and harsh, competitive conditions, respectively. Thus, the mutational pressure on fitness may be strong and depends critically on the conditions under which fitness is assayed. ..
- Jackson S, Nielsen D, Singh N. Increased exposure to acute thermal stress is associated with a non-linear increase in recombination frequency and an independent linear decrease in fitness in Drosophila. BMC Evol Biol. 2015;15:175 pubmed publisher..Our data also suggest that modulating recombination frequency is one mechanism by which organisms can rapidly respond to environmental cues and confer increased adaptive potential to their offspring. ..
- Shao L, Shuai Y, Wang J, Feng S, Lu B, Li Z, et al. Schizophrenia susceptibility gene dysbindin regulates glutamatergic and dopaminergic functions via distinctive mechanisms in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:18831-6 pubmed publisher..This effect is attributable to the altered expression of a dopamine metabolic enzyme, Ebony, in glial cells...
- Manoukian A, Krause H, Larsen E. Modifiers of bx1 alter the distribution of Ubx proteins in haltere imaginal discs of Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1992;151:611-6 pubmed..In contrast, mutations in the suppressor of sable (su(s)) gene enhance the bx1 phenotype. A correlation was observed between patterns of Ubx protein expression and the phenotypic transformations observed. ..
- Gratz S, Wildonger J, Harrison M, O Connor Giles K. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome engineering and the promise of designer flies on demand. Fly (Austin). 2013;7:249-55 pubmed publisher..Here we highlight the variety of genome modifications facilitated by the CRISPR/Cas9 system along with key considerations for starting your own CRISPR genome engineering project. ..
- Campos Ortega J. Autoradiographic localization of 3H-gamma-aminobutyric acid uptake in the lamina ganglionaris of Musca and Drosophila. Z Zellforsch Mikrosk Anat. 1974;147:415-31 pubmed
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- Mohler J, Pardue M. Mutational Analysis of the Region Surrounding the 93d Heat Shock Locus of DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER. Genetics. 1984;106:249-65 pubmed..has produced mutations that fall into 20 complementation groups, including the previously identified ebony locus...
- Miyagi R, Akiyama N, Osada N, Takahashi A. Complex patterns of cis-regulatory polymorphisms in ebony underlie standing pigmentation variation in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Ecol. 2015;24:5829-41 pubmed publisher..Among those genes, ebony was significantly associated with pigmentation intensity of the thoracic segment...
- Kato K, Forero M, Fenton J, Hidalgo A. The glial regenerative response to central nervous system injury is enabled by pros-notch and pros-NF?B feedback. PLoS Biol. 2011;9:e1001133 pubmed publisher..In the unharmed animal, it is most likely a homeostatic mechanism for structural robustness. This gene network may be of relevance to mammalian glia to promote repair upon CNS injury or disease. ..
- Arnoult L, Su K, Manoel D, Minervino C, Magriña J, Gompel N, et al. Emergence and diversification of fly pigmentation through evolution of a gene regulatory module. Science. 2013;339:1423-6 pubmed publisher..These results suggest that the genetic changes underlying the emergence and diversification of wing pigmentation patterns are partitioned within genetic networks. ..
- Perez M, Sabio G, Badaracco A, Quesada Allue L. Constitutive expression and enzymatic activity of Tan protein in brain and epidermis of Ceratitis capitata and of Drosophila melanogaster wild-type and tan mutants. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2011;41:653-9 pubmed publisher..We sequenced and characterized Drosophila mutants tan¹ and tan³. The latter appears to be a mutant with normal expression in neural tissue but weak one in epidermis. ..
- Tomita J, Ueno T, Mitsuyoshi M, Kume S, Kume K. The NMDA Receptor Promotes Sleep in the Fruit Fly, Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0128101 pubmed publisher..The application of the NMDAR antagonist, MK-801, reduced sleep in control flies, but not in fmn. These results suggest that NMDAR promotes sleep regulation in Drosophila. ..
- Xu Y, An F, Borycz J, Borycz J, Meinertzhagen I, Wang T. Histamine Recycling Is Mediated by CarT, a Carcinine Transporter in Drosophila Photoreceptors. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005764 pubmed publisher..These findings reveal that CarT is required for histamine recycling at histaminergic photoreceptors and provide evidence for a CarT-dependent neurotransmitter trafficking pathway between glial cells and photoreceptor terminals. ..
- Jacobs M. Deposition of labeled beta-alanine in ebony and non-ebony Drosophila melanogaster with notes on other amino acids. Genetics. 1966;53:777-84 pubmed
- Siriaco G, Cenci G, Haoudi A, Champion L, Zhou C, Gatti M, et al. Telomere elongation (Tel), a new mutation in Drosophila melanogaster that produces long telomeres. Genetics. 2002;160:235-45 pubmed..Associations between metaphase chromosomes are resolved during anaphase, suggesting that they are mediated by either proteinaceous links or DNA hydrogen bonding, rather than covalent DNA-DNA bonds. ..
- Cooley A, Shefner L, McLaughlin W, Stewart E, Wittkopp P. The ontogeny of color: developmental origins of divergent pigmentation in Drosophila americana and D. novamexicana. Evol Dev. 2012;14:317-25 pubmed publisher..novamexicana. Prior genetic analysis implicated two enzyme-encoding genes, tan and ebony, in pigmentation divergence between these species, but questions remain about the underlying molecular mechanisms...
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- Hamblin M, Aquadro C. High nucleotide sequence variation in a region of low recombination in Drosophila simulans is consistent with the background selection model. Mol Biol Evol. 1996;13:1133-40 pubmed..melanogaster. Alternatively, the deleterious mutation rate may be smaller in D. simulans, or balancing selection may be acting nearby, thereby reducing the effect of background selection. ..
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