Gene Symbol: dwg
Description: deformed wings
Alias: CG2711, CG2714, DWG, Dmel\CG2711, EG:95B7.6, SBP, Sbp, ZW-5, ZW5, Zw-5, Zw5, l(1)3Be, l(1)zw5, ves, zw-5, zw5, deformed wings, CG2711-PA, deformed wing, dwg-PA, scs binding protein, scs-binding protein, vestigium, zeste-white 5, zeste-white5
Species: fruit fly
Products:     dwg

Top Publications

  1. Gaszner M, Vazquez J, Schedl P. The Zw5 protein, a component of the scs chromatin domain boundary, is able to block enhancer-promoter interaction. Genes Dev. 1999;13:2098-107 pubmed
    ..Here we report the identification and characterization of SBP (scs binding protein), a component of the scs nucleoprotein complex...
  2. Blanton J, Gaszner M, Schedl P. Protein:protein interactions and the pairing of boundary elements in vivo. Genes Dev. 2003;17:664-75 pubmed
    ..We show that the Drosophila scs and scs' boundary proteins, Zw5 and BEAF, respectively, interact with each other in vitro and in vivo...
  3. Moon H, Filippova G, Loukinov D, Pugacheva E, Chen Q, Smith S, et al. CTCF is conserved from Drosophila to humans and confers enhancer blocking of the Fab-8 insulator. EMBO Rep. 2005;6:165-70 pubmed
    ..Four proteins have been identified in Drosophila mediating enhancer blocking-Su(Hw), Zw5, BEAF32 and GAGA factor...
  4. Schoborg T, Labrador M. The phylogenetic distribution of non-CTCF insulator proteins is limited to insects and reveals that BEAF-32 is Drosophila lineage specific. J Mol Evol. 2010;70:74-84 pubmed publisher
    ..To date, six insulators and their associated proteins have been characterized, including Su(Hw), Zw5, CTCF, GAF, Mod(mdg4), and BEAF-32...
  5. Kyrchanova O, Chetverina D, Maksimenko O, Kullyev A, Georgiev P. Orientation-dependent interaction between Drosophila insulators is a property of this class of regulatory elements. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:7019-28 pubmed publisher
    ..As shown previously, Zw5, Su(Hw) and dCTCF proteins are required for the functioning of different insulators that do not interact with each ..
  6. Roy S, Jiang N, Hart C. Lack of the Drosophila BEAF insulator proteins alters regulation of genes in the Antennapedia complex. Mol Genet Genomics. 2011;285:113-23 pubmed publisher
    ..A control gene, Dref, was not affected. A full understanding of the regulation of ANT-C genes during development will have to take the role of BEAF into account. ..
  7. Van Bortle K, Nichols M, Li L, Ong C, Takenaka N, Qin Z, et al. Insulator function and topological domain border strength scale with architectural protein occupancy. Genome Biol. 2014;15:R82 pubmed publisher
  8. Lin H, Wolfner M. Cloning and analysis of fs(1) Ya, a maternal effect gene required for the initiation of Drosophila embryogenesis. Mol Gen Genet. 1989;215:257-65 pubmed
    ..The transcript is not detected in later stages of embryonic development. This expression pattern correlates closely with the genetic and developmental characteristics expected of the fs(1) Ya gene product. ..
  9. Heger P, George R, Wiehe T. Successive gain of insulator proteins in arthropod evolution. Evolution. 2013;67:2945-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Expansion of insulator systems may therefore be a general strategy to increase an organism's gene regulatory repertoire and its potential for morphological plasticity. ..

More Information


  1. Cizeau J, Decoville M, Leng M, Locker D. Deletions induced in the white and vermilion genes of Drosophila melanogaster by the antitumor drug cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum(II). Mutat Res. 1994;311:31-8 pubmed
    ..These results differ largely from those obtained in prokaryotic and other eukaryotic cells...
  2. Schwartz Y, Linder Basso D, Kharchenko P, Tolstorukov M, Kim M, Li H, et al. Nature and function of insulator protein binding sites in the Drosophila genome. Genome Res. 2012;22:2188-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these observations argue against the concept of a genome partitioned by specialized boundary elements and suggest that insulators are reserved for specific regulation of selected genes. ..
  3. Udvardy A. Dividing the empire: boundary chromatin elements delimit the territory of enhancers. EMBO J. 1999;18:1-8 pubmed
  4. Pathak R, Rangaraj N, Kallappagoudar S, Mishra K, Mishra R. Boundary element-associated factor 32B connects chromatin domains to the nuclear matrix. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:4796-806 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that boundary elements may function by tethering chromatin to nuclear architectural components and thereby provide a structural basis for compartmentalization of the genome into functionally independent domains...
  5. Garcia Bellido A, Robbins L. Viability of Female Germ-Line Cells Homozygous for Zygotic Lethals in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER. Genetics. 1983;103:235-47 pubmed
    ..The abundance of genes whose products are required for oogenesis, whose products are required in the oocyte, and whose activity is required during zygotic development is discussed. ..
  6. Roy S, Tan Y, Hart C. A genetic screen supports a broad role for the Drosophila insulator proteins BEAF-32A and BEAF-32B in maintaining patterns of gene expression. Mol Genet Genomics. 2007;277:273-86 pubmed
    ..Because it is unlikely that insulator function is limited to eye development, the present results support the hypothesis that insulators play a widespread role in maintaining global transcription programs. ..
  7. Thierry Mieg D. Paralog, a control mutant in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1982;100:209-37 pubmed
    ..We interpret the data by postulating that the expression of sets of dispersed genes might be controlled by the local topology of the chromosome, itself constrained by pairing of dispersed repeated elements. We call the mutation paralog. ..
  8. Lefevre G, Green M. Genetic duplication in the white-split interval of the X chromosome in Drosophila melanogaster. Chromosoma. 1972;36:391-412 pubmed
  9. Lim J, Snyder L. Cytogenetic and complementation analyses of recessive lethal mutations induced in the X chromosome of Drosophila by three alkylating agents. Genet Res. 1974;24:1-10 pubmed
  10. Housden B, Terriente Félix A, Bray S. Context-dependent enhancer selection confers alternate modes of notch regulation on argos. Mol Cell Biol. 2014;34:664-72 pubmed publisher
    ..This is likely to be a general mechanism for enabling the wiring between these pathways to switch according to context. ..
  11. Kyrchanova O, Leman D, Parshikov A, Fedotova A, Studitsky V, Maksimenko O, et al. New properties of Drosophila scs and scs' insulators. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e62690 pubmed publisher
    ..The first insulators to be identified were scs and scs', which flank the domain including two heat shock 70 genes. Zw5 and BEAF bind to scs and scs', respectively, and are responsible for the interaction between these insulators...
  12. Petesch S, Lis J. Rapid, transcription-independent loss of nucleosomes over a large chromatin domain at Hsp70 loci. Cell. 2008;134:74-84 pubmed publisher
    ..An RNAi screen of 28 transcription and chromatin-related factors reveals that depletion of heat shock factor, GAGA Factor, or Poly(ADP)-Ribose Polymerase or its activity abolishes the loss of nucleosomes upon Hsp70 activation. ..
  13. Zolotarev N, Fedotova A, Kyrchanova O, Bonchuk A, Penin A, Lando A, et al. Architectural proteins Pita, Zw5,and ZIPIC contain homodimerization domain and support specific long-range interactions in Drosophila. Nucleic Acids Res. 2016;44:7228-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Transcription factors ZIPIC, Pita and Zw5 belong to the class of chromatin insulator proteins and preferentially bind to promoters near the TSS and ..
  14. Pastink A, Vreeken C, Vogel E, Eeken J. Mutations induced at the white and vermilion loci in Drosophila melanogaster. Mutat Res. 1990;231:63-71 pubmed
    ..This was confirmed by sequence analysis of 25 ENU-induced vermilion mutants. In all mutants the alterations are due to base-pair changes, the majority being GC to AT transitions (61%). ..
  15. Judd B, Shen M, Kaufman T. The anatomy and function of a segment of the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1972;71:139-56 pubmed
    ..The data clearly show one functional group per chromomere. It is postulated that a chromomere is one cistron within which much of the DNA is regulatory in function. ..
  16. Liu C, Lim J. Complementation analysis of methyl methane-sulfonate-induced recessive lethal mutations in the zeste-white region of the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1975;79:601-11 pubmed
  17. Lespinet O, Wolf Y, Koonin E, Aravind L. The role of lineage-specific gene family expansion in the evolution of eukaryotes. Genome Res. 2002;12:1048-59 pubmed
    ..LSEs seem to be one of the principal means of adaptation and one of the most important sources of organizational and regulatory diversity in crown-group eukaryotes. ..
  18. Paradi E, Vogel E, Szilagyi E. Effect of storage and dose on MMS-induced deletions. Complementation analysis of X-chromosomal recessive lethals in the zeste-white and maroon-like regions of Drosophila melanogaster. Mutat Res. 1983;111:145-59 pubmed
    ..An interesting aspect for further analysis is the apparent infrequency in the zeste-white region of alkylation-induced chromosomal breakage, as observed by various investigators for MMS, EMS and MNNG. ..
  19. Robbins L. Maternal-Zygotic Lethal Interactions in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER : Zeste-White Region Single-Cistron Mutations. Genetics. 1983;103:633-48 pubmed
    ..Lethal interactions were found for one or more alleles at 10 of the 13 loci. The implications of these observations with respect to gene regulation and developmental sequence are considered. ..
  20. Nomura T, Kurokawa N. Comparative study on germ cell mutation induced by urethane (ethyl carbamate) gas and X-rays in Drosophila melanogaster. Jpn J Cancer Res. 1997;88:461-7 pubmed
    ..Urethane-induced mutations were strikingly non-random with two hot spots at zw-1 and zw-2, whereas the distribution of X-ray-induced mutations was more nearly random. ..
  21. Bell A, West A, Felsenfeld G. Insulators and boundaries: versatile regulatory elements in the eukaryotic genome. Science. 2001;291:447-50 pubmed
  22. Goldberg M, Colvin R, Mellin A. The Drosophila zeste locus is nonessential. Genetics. 1989;123:145-55 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the zeste protein normally is either a very weak transcription factor, or that its function can be substituted by that of other regulatory proteins. ..
  23. Sugiyama S, Moritoh S, Furukawa Y, Mizuno T, Lim Y, Tsuda L, et al. Involvement of the mitochondrial protein translocator component tim50 in growth, cell proliferation and the modulation of respiration in Drosophila. Genetics. 2007;176:927-36 pubmed
    ..Thus a mitochondrial protein translocase component can play active roles in regulating metabolic levels, possibly for modulation of physiological function or growth in development. ..
  24. Gerasimova T, Corces V. Chromatin insulators and boundaries: effects on transcription and nuclear organization. Annu Rev Genet. 2001;35:193-208 pubmed
    ..Insulators might modulate transcription by organizing the chromatin fiber within the nucleus through the establishment of higher-order domains of chromatin structure. ..
  25. Krystel J, Ayyanathan K. Global analysis of target genes of 21 members of the ZAD transcription factor family in Drosophila melanogaster. Gene. 2013;512:373-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Putative target genes suggest a major role of the ZAD family members in the regulation of several early developmental genes including homeobox transcription factors. ..
  26. Shannon M, Kaufman T, Shen M, Judd B. Lethality patterns and morphology of selected lethal and semi-lethal mutations in the zeste-white region of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1972;72:615-38 pubmed
    ..These results provide additional evidence that only one function is associated with each chromomere.-The results of the lethality pattern analysis are also compared with previous studies of lethal mutants of Drosophila. ..
  27. Zolotarev N, Maksimenko O, Shidlovskii Y, Georgiev P, Bonchuk A. [Translation elongation factor EF1?1 interacts with ZAD domains of transcription factors from Drosophila melanogaster]. Mol Biol (Mosk). 2016;50:1014-1019 pubmed publisher
    ..Efficient binding of ZADs from the proteins Grau, ZIPIC, and Zw5 to the translation elongation factor EF1?1 in nuclear and cytoplasmic extracts has been demonstrated...
  28. Chambeyron S, Bickmore W. Does looping and clustering in the nucleus regulate gene expression?. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2004;16:256-62 pubmed
    ..Nuclear compartments may also be involved in the post-translational modification of proteins by sumoylation and ubiquitylation. ..
  29. van Bemmel J, Pagie L, Braunschweig U, Brugman W, Meuleman W, Kerkhoven R, et al. The insulator protein SU(HW) fine-tunes nuclear lamina interactions of the Drosophila genome. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15013 pubmed publisher
    ..only SU(HW) binds preferentially at LAD borders and at specific positions inside LADs, while GAF, CTCF, BEAF-32 and DWG are mostly absent from these regions...
  30. Saberi S, Farré P, Cuvier O, Emberly E. Probing long-range interactions by extracting free energies from genome-wide chromosome conformation capture data. BMC Bioinformatics. 2015;16:171 pubmed publisher
    ..PCA filtering can improve the fit, and the predicted coupling energies lead to biologically meaningful insights for how various chromatin bound factors influence the stability of DNA loops in chromatin. ..