Gene Symbol: dsx
Description: doublesex
Alias: CG11094, DSX, Dmdsx, Dmel\CG11094, Dsx, dsxF, dsxM, ix-62c, doublesex, CG11094-PA, CG11094-PB, CG11094-PC, CG11094-PD, CG11094-PE, CG11094-PF, double sex, dsx-PA, dsx-PB, dsx-PC, dsx-PD, dsx-PE, dsx-PF, hermaphrodite, intersex-62c
Species: fruit fly
Products:     dsx

Top Publications

  1. Erdman S, Burtis K. The Drosophila doublesex proteins share a novel zinc finger related DNA binding domain. EMBO J. 1993;12:527-35 pubmed
    The doublesex gene of Drosophila melanogaster is the final member of a well characterized hierarchy of genes that controls somatic sex determination and differentiation...
  2. Stothard P, Pilgrim D. Sex-determination gene and pathway evolution in nematodes. Bioessays. 2003;25:221-31 pubmed
    ..Experimental strategies that hold promise for illuminating pathway differences between nematodes are also discussed. ..
  3. Siwicki K, Kravitz E. Fruitless, doublesex and the genetics of social behavior in Drosophila melanogaster. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2009;19:200-6 pubmed publisher
    Two genes coding for transcription factors, fruitless and doublesex, have been suggested to play important roles in the regulation of sexually dimorphic patterns of social behavior in Drosophila melanogaster...
  4. Mellert D, Knapp J, Manoli D, Meissner G, Baker B. Midline crossing by gustatory receptor neuron axons is regulated by fruitless, doublesex and the Roundabout receptors. Development. 2010;137:323-32 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that the sex determination genes fruitless (fru) and doublesex (dsx) both contribute to establishing this sexual dimorphism...
  5. Coschigano K, Wensink P. Sex-specific transcriptional regulation by the male and female doublesex proteins of Drosophila. Genes Dev. 1993;7:42-54 pubmed
    ..Male (DSXM) and female (DSXF) proteins encoded by doublesex (dsx), a gene at the end of this pathway, bind to three sites within a 127-bp enhancer that directs sex- and ..
  6. Cachero S, Ostrovsky A, Yu J, Dickson B, Jefferis G. Sexual dimorphism in the fly brain. Curr Biol. 2010;20:1589-601 pubmed publisher
    ..Reciprocal connection differences in the lateral horn offer a plausible explanation for opposing responses to sex pheromones in male and female flies. ..
  7. Pan Y, ROBINETT C, Baker B. Turning males on: activation of male courtship behavior in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21144 pubmed publisher
    ..The potential for male sexual behavior in D. melanogaster is specified by the fruitless (fru) and doublesex (dsx) sex regulatory genes...
  8. Vincent S, Perkins L, Perrimon N. Doublesex surprises. Cell. 2001;106:399-402 pubmed
  9. Wang W, Kidd B, Carroll S, Yoder J. Sexually dimorphic regulation of the Wingless morphogen controls sex-specific segment number in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:11139-44 pubmed publisher
    ..abdominal segment by the combination of the Hox protein Abdominal-B (Abd-B) and the sex-determination regulator Doublesex (Dsx)...

More Information


  1. Hoshijima K, Inoue K, Higuchi I, Sakamoto H, Shimura Y. Control of doublesex alternative splicing by transformer and transformer-2 in Drosophila. Science. 1991;252:833-6 pubmed
    Sex-specific alternative processing of doublesex (dsx) precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) regulates somatic sexual differentiation in Drosophila melanogaster...
  2. McKeown M, Belote J, Boggs R. Ectopic expression of the female transformer gene product leads to female differentiation of chromosomally male Drosophila. Cell. 1988;53:887-95 pubmed
    ..following order of gene action: X chromosome to autosome ratio----Sex lethal----transformer----transformer-2----doublesex----intersex--- - terminal differentiation...
  3. Sanders L, Arbeitman M. Doublesex establishes sexual dimorphism in the Drosophila central nervous system in an isoform-dependent manner by directing cell number. Dev Biol. 2008;320:378-90 pubmed publisher
    b>doublesex (dsx) encodes sex-specific transcription factors (DSX(F) in females and DSX(M) in males) that act at the bottom of the Drosophila somatic sex determination hierarchy...
  4. Raymond C, Shamu C, Shen M, Seifert K, Hirsch B, Hodgkin J, et al. Evidence for evolutionary conservation of sex-determining genes. Nature. 1998;391:691-5 pubmed
    ..Caenorhabditis elegans and found that it is related to the Drosophila melanogaster sexual regulatory gene doublesex (dsx)2. Both genes encode proteins with a DNA-binding motif that we have named the 'DM domain'...
  5. Ferveur J, Savarit F, O Kane C, Sureau G, Greenspan R, Jallon J. Genetic feminization of pheromones and its behavioral consequences in Drosophila males. Science. 1997;276:1555-8 pubmed
    ..The resulting flies generally exhibited male heterosexual orientation but elicited homosexual courtship from other males. ..
  6. Kimura K, Hachiya T, Koganezawa M, Tazawa T, Yamamoto D. Fruitless and doublesex coordinate to generate male-specific neurons that can initiate courtship. Neuron. 2008;59:759-69 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified a male-specific, fruitless (fru)/doublesex (dsx)-coexpressing neuronal cluster, P1, in Drosophila...
  7. Dauwalder B, Tsujimoto S, Moss J, Mattox W. The Drosophila takeout gene is regulated by the somatic sex-determination pathway and affects male courtship behavior. Genes Dev. 2002;16:2879-92 pubmed
    ..from fat body tissue closely associated with the adult brain and are dependent on the sex determination genes doublesex (dsx) and fruitless (fru)...
  8. Li H, Baker B. hermaphrodite and doublesex function both dependently and independently to control various aspects of sexual differentiation in Drosophila. Development. 1998;125:2641-51 pubmed
    The hermaphrodite (her) gene is necessary for sexual differentiation in Drosophila...
  9. Lopez A. Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA: developmental consequences and mechanisms of regulation. Annu Rev Genet. 1998;32:279-305 pubmed
    ..Cooperative and antagonistic effects integrated at regulatory elements are likely to be important for specificity and for finely tuned differences in cell-type-specific alternative splicing patterns. ..
  10. Cline T, Meyer B. Vive la différence: males vs females in flies vs worms. Annu Rev Genet. 1996;30:637-702 pubmed
    ..Although no overlap has been found among the molecules used by flies and worms to achieve sex determination, striking similarities have been found in the genetic strategies used by these two species to differentiate their sexes. ..
  11. An W, Wensink P. Three protein binding sites form an enhancer that regulates sex- and fat body-specific transcription of Drosophila yolk protein genes. EMBO J. 1995;14:1221-30 pubmed
    ..A gene at the bottom of this pathway, doublesex, encodes the female-specific DSXF and male-specific DSXM proteins that bind to and regulate transcription from ..
  12. Hedley M, Maniatis T. Sex-specific splicing and polyadenylation of dsx pre-mRNA requires a sequence that binds specifically to tra-2 protein in vitro. Cell. 1991;65:579-86 pubmed
    ..Female-specific splicing and/or polyadenylation of doublesex (dsx) pre-mRNA, the final gene in this pathway, requires transformer (tra) and transformer-2 (tra-2) proteins...
  13. Blencowe B. Exonic splicing enhancers: mechanism of action, diversity and role in human genetic diseases. Trends Biochem Sci. 2000;25:106-10 pubmed
    ..Ominously, these latter studies predict that many human genetic diseases linked to mutations within exons might be caused by the inactivation of ESEs. ..
  14. An W, Wensink P. Integrating sex- and tissue-specific regulation within a single Drosophila enhancer. Genes Dev. 1995;9:256-66 pubmed
    ..consists of four protein-binding sites: dsxA, which binds male (DSXM) and female (DSXF) proteins encoded by the doublesex gene; aef1, which binds the AEF1 repressor; bzip1, which binds the DmC/EBP activator encoded by the slbo gene; ..
  15. Tian M, Maniatis T. A splicing enhancer exhibits both constitutive and regulated activities. Genes Dev. 1994;8:1703-12 pubmed
    ..proteins Transformer (Tra) and Transformer2 (Tra2) regulate the sex-specific alternative splicing of Drosophila doublesex (dsx) pre-mRNA by specifically binding to a splicing enhancer (dsx repeat element; dsxRE) located 300 ..
  16. Lynch K, Maniatis T. Assembly of specific SR protein complexes on distinct regulatory elements of the Drosophila doublesex splicing enhancer. Genes Dev. 1996;10:2089-101 pubmed
    The Drosophila doublesex female-specific splicing enhancer consists of two classes of regulatory elements, six 13-nucleotide repeat sequences, and a single purine-rich element (PRE)...
  17. Jursnich V, Burtis K. A positive role in differentiation for the male doublesex protein of Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1993;155:235-49 pubmed
    The doublesex (dsx) locus encodes male-specific and female-specific polypeptides that are essential for the proper differentiation of sexually dimorphic somatic features of Drosophila melanogaster...
  18. Taylor B, Truman J. Commitment of abdominal neuroblasts in Drosophila to a male or female fate is dependent on genes of the sex-determining hierarchy. Development. 1992;114:625-42 pubmed
    ..choice of the sexual pathway taken by sex-specific neuroblasts depends on the expression of one of these genes, doublesex (dsx)...
  19. Burtis K, Baker B. Drosophila doublesex gene controls somatic sexual differentiation by producing alternatively spliced mRNAs encoding related sex-specific polypeptides. Cell. 1989;56:997-1010 pubmed
    The doublesex (dsx) gene regulates somatic sexual differentiation in both sexes in D. melanogaster...
  20. Nothiger R, Steinmann Zwicky M. Genetics of sex determination: what can we learn from Drosophila?. Development. 1987;101 Suppl:17-24 pubmed
    ..The functional state, ON or OFF, of Sxl, via a few subordinate regulatory genes, controls a switch gene (dsx) that can express two mutually exclusive functions, M or F...
  21. Salz H. Sex determination in insects: a binary decision based on alternative splicing. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2011;21:395-400 pubmed publisher
    ..Studies exploring the mechanisms of sex-specific splicing have revealed the extent to which sex determination is integrated with other developmental regulatory networks. ..
  22. Luo S, Shi G, Baker B. Direct targets of the D. melanogaster DSXF protein and the evolution of sexual development. Development. 2011;138:2761-71 pubmed publisher
    Uncovering the direct regulatory targets of doublesex (dsx) and fruitless (fru) is crucial for an understanding of how they regulate sexual development, morphogenesis, differentiation and adult functions (including behavior) in ..
  23. McKeown M. Sex differentiation: the role of alternative splicing. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1992;2:299-303 pubmed
    ..The results of recent work have verified much of the earlier molecular and genetic work in this field and have provided a demonstration that both positive and negative regulatory mechanisms are involved. ..
  24. Lee G, Hall J. A newly uncovered phenotype associated with the fruitless gene of Drosophila melanogaster: aggression-like head interactions between mutant males. Behav Genet. 2000;30:263-75 pubmed
    ..dsf) males also exhibit this behavior at higher-than-normal levels, but it was barely displayed by doublesex or intersex mutants...
  25. Rezaval C, Pavlou H, Dornan A, Chan Y, Kravitz E, Goodwin S. Neural circuitry underlying Drosophila female postmating behavioral responses. Curr Biol. 2012;22:1155-65 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate an essential role played by neurons expressing the sex-determination gene doublesex (dsx) in regulating the female postmating response...
  26. Ryner L, Baker B. Regulation of doublesex pre-mRNA processing occurs by 3'-splice site activation. Genes Dev. 1991;5:2071-85 pubmed
    Sex-specific alternative processing of the doublesex (dsx) pre-mRNA controls somatic sexual differentiation in Drosophila melanogaster...
  27. Shirangi T, Dufour H, Williams T, Carroll S. Rapid evolution of sex pheromone-producing enzyme expression in Drosophila. PLoS Biol. 2009;7:e1000168 pubmed publisher
    ..involved the gain (and the inactivation) of a binding-site for the sex-determination transcription factor, DOUBLESEX. In addition, we documented a surprising example of the gain of particular cis-regulatory motifs of the desatF ..
  28. Rideout E, Dornan A, Neville M, Eadie S, Goodwin S. Control of sexual differentiation and behavior by the doublesex gene in Drosophila melanogaster. Nat Neurosci. 2010;13:458-66 pubmed publisher
    b>Doublesex proteins, which are part of the structurally and functionally conserved Dmrt gene family, are important for sex determination throughout the animal kingdom...
  29. Schupbach T. Autosomal mutations that interfere with sex determination in somatic cells of Drosophila have no direct effect on the germline. Dev Biol. 1982;89:117-27 pubmed
  30. Burtis K, Coschigano K, Baker B, Wensink P. The doublesex proteins of Drosophila melanogaster bind directly to a sex-specific yolk protein gene enhancer. EMBO J. 1991;10:2577-82 pubmed
    The doublesex (dsx) gene of Drosophila melanogaster encodes both male-specific and female-specific polypeptides, whose synthesis is regulated by alternative sex-specific splicing of the primary dsx transcript...
  31. Hertel K, Maniatis T. The function of multisite splicing enhancers. Mol Cell. 1998;1:449-55 pubmed
    ..Thus, the function of multisite enhancer elements to increase the probability of an interaction between the enhancer complex and the splicing machinery rather than to promote functional synergy. ..
  32. Bownes M. The regulation of the yolk protein genes, a family of sex differentiation genes in Drosophila melanogaster. Bioessays. 1994;16:745-52 pubmed
  33. Sanchez L, Santamaria P. Reproductive isolation and morphogenetic evolution in Drosophila analyzed by breakage of ethological barriers. Genetics. 1997;147:231-42 pubmed
    ..The effect on the terminalia of teissieri-melanogaster hybrids of a mutation in doublesex, a regulatory gene that controls the development of the terminalia, was also investigated.
  34. Villella A, Hall J. Courtship anomalies caused by doublesex mutations in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1996;143:331-44 pubmed
    The role played by the sex-determining gene doublesex (dsx) and its influence on Drosophila courtship were examined...
  35. Garrett Engele C, Siegal M, Manoli D, Williams B, Li H, Baker B. intersex, a gene required for female sexual development in Drosophila, is expressed in both sexes and functions together with doublesex to regulate terminal differentiation. Development. 2002;129:4661-75 pubmed
    ..known DNA-binding domain, leads to the inference that ix may require the female-specific protein product of the doublesex (dsx) gene in order to function...
  36. Wittkopp P, Carroll S, Kopp A. Evolution in black and white: genetic control of pigment patterns in Drosophila. Trends Genet. 2003;19:495-504 pubmed publisher
  37. Le Bras S, Van Doren M. Development of the male germline stem cell niche in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2006;294:92-103 pubmed
    ..The sex determination genes transformer and doublesex ensure that hub formation occurs only in males...
  38. Burtis K. Development. Doublesex in the middle. Science. 2002;297:1135-6 pubmed
  39. Baker B, Hoff G, Kaufman T, Wolfner M, Hazelrigg T. The doublesex locus of Drosophila melanogaster and its flanking regions: a cytogenetic analysis. Genetics. 1991;127:125-38 pubmed
    The region of the third chromosome (84D-F) of Drosophila melanogaster that contains the doublesex (dsx) locus has been cytogenetically analyzed...
  40. An W, Cho S, Ishii H, Wensink P. Sex-specific and non-sex-specific oligomerization domains in both of the doublesex transcription factors from Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:3106-11 pubmed
    The doublesex gene of Drosophila melanogaster encodes the alternatively spliced, sex-specific transcription factors DSXM and DSXF. These factors regulate male- and female-specific transcription of many genes...
  41. Taylor B, Villella A, Ryner L, Baker B, Hall J. Behavioral and neurobiological implications of sex-determining factors in Drosophila. Dev Genet. 1994;15:275-96 pubmed
    ..The doublesex gene, the final factor acting in the sex-determination hierarchy, had been previously thought to regulate all ..
  42. Chase B, Baker B. A genetic analysis of intersex, a gene regulating sexual differentiation in Drosophila melanogaster females. Genetics. 1995;139:1649-61 pubmed
    ..Taken together with previous analyses, our results indicate that the ix+ product is required to function with the female-specific product of doublesex to implement appropriate female sexual differentiation in diplo-X animals.
  43. Hall J. The mating of a fly. Science. 1994;264:1702-14 pubmed
    ..Further behavioral mutations seemed originally to be courtship-specific, turned out not to have that property, and have led to a broadened perspective on the nature and action of Drosophila's sex-determination genes. ..
  44. Hediger M, Burghardt G, Siegenthaler C, Buser N, Hilfiker Kleiner D, Dübendorfer A, et al. Sex determination in Drosophila melanogaster and Musca domestica converges at the level of the terminal regulator doublesex. Dev Genes Evol. 2004;214:29-42 pubmed
    ..Here we present evidence that they converge at the level of the terminal regulator, doublesex ( dsx), which conveys the selected sexual fate to the differentiation genes...
  45. Shirangi T, Taylor B, McKeown M. A double-switch system regulates male courtship behavior in male and female Drosophila melanogaster. Nat Genet. 2006;38:1435-9 pubmed
    ..switch' regulating sexual behavior in Drosophila melanogaster, and they postulate that female (F) and male (M) doublesex (dsx) products control body sexual morphology...
  46. Wang W, Yoder J. Hox-mediated regulation of doublesex sculpts sex-specific abdomen morphology in Drosophila. Dev Dyn. 2012;241:1076-90 pubmed publisher
    ..gene regulation mediated by the Hox protein Abdominal-B (Abd-B) and products of the sex-determination gene doublesex (dsx)...
  47. Graham P, Penn J, Schedl P. Masters change, slaves remain. Bioessays. 2003;25:1-4 pubmed
    ..splicing of a downstream gene, transformer (tra), which acts with tra2 to control alternative splicing of doublesex (dsx)...
  48. Lam B, Bakshi A, Ekinci F, Webb J, Graveley B, Hertel K. Enhancer-dependent 5'-splice site control of fruitless pre-mRNA splicing. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:22740-7 pubmed
    ..repeat elements, nearly identical to those that regulate alternative sex-specific 3'-splice site choice in the doublesex (dsx) gene...
  49. Alvarez M, Ruiz M, Sánchez L. Effect of the gene doublesex of anastrepha on the somatic sexual development of Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5141 pubmed publisher
    The gene doublesex (dsx) is at the bottom of the sex determination genetic cascade and is transcribed in both sexes, but gives rise to two different proteins, DsxF and DsxM, which impose female and male sexual development respectively ..
  50. Ruiz M, Sanchez L. Effect of the gene transformer of Anastrepha on the somatic sexual development of Drosophila. Int J Dev Biol. 2010;54:627-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The Anastrepha Tra protein induced the female-specific splicing of both dsx and fru pre-mRNAs in Drosophila XY male flies, so that these became transformed into females, though this ..
  51. Fabre C, Hedwig B, Conduit G, Lawrence P, Goodwin S, Casal J. Substrate-borne vibratory communication during courtship in Drosophila melanogaster. Curr Biol. 2012;22:2180-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We also present evidence that the neural circuits expressing the sex-determination genes fruitless and doublesex drive quivering behavior...
  52. Tanaka K, Barmina O, Sanders L, Arbeitman M, Kopp A. Evolution of sex-specific traits through changes in HOX-dependent doublesex expression. PLoS Biol. 2011;9:e1001131 pubmed publisher
    ..We examine the regulation and function of doublesex (dsx), the main transcriptional effector of the sex determination pathway, in the development and evolution of ..
  53. Bray S, Amrein H. A putative Drosophila pheromone receptor expressed in male-specific taste neurons is required for efficient courtship. Neuron. 2003;39:1019-29 pubmed
    ..Gr68a expression is dependent on the sex determination gene doublesex, which controls many aspects of sexual differentiation and is necessary for normal courtship behavior...
  54. Billeter J, Rideout E, Dornan A, Goodwin S. Control of male sexual behavior in Drosophila by the sex determination pathway. Curr Biol. 2006;16:R766-76 pubmed
  55. ROBINETT C, Vaughan A, Knapp J, Baker B. Sex and the single cell. II. There is a time and place for sex. PLoS Biol. 2010;8:e1000365 pubmed publisher
    ..controls sexual differentiation of somatic cells via the activities of the terminal genes in the hierarchy, doublesex (dsx) and fruitless (fru)...
  56. Mellert D, ROBINETT C, Baker B. doublesex functions early and late in gustatory sense organ development. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e51489 pubmed publisher
    ..outside of the nervous system in Drosophila melanogaster are largely controlled by the male- and female-specific Doublesex transcription factors (DSX(M) and DSX(F), respectively)...
  57. Beye M. The dice of fate: the csd gene and how its allelic composition regulates sexual development in the honey bee, Apis mellifera. Bioessays. 2004;26:1131-9 pubmed
    ..Comparison to hierarchies of dipteran insects suggests that SR-type protein has facilitated the differentiation of sex-determining systems and hierarchies. ..
  58. Kopp A, Duncan I, Godt D, Carroll S. Genetic control and evolution of sexually dimorphic characters in Drosophila. Nature. 2000;408:553-9 pubmed
    ..Pigmentation patterns specified by bab affect mating preferences, suggesting that sexual selection has contributed to the evolution of bab regulation. ..
  59. Sanchez L, Guerrero I. The development of the Drosophila genital disc. Bioessays. 2001;23:698-707 pubmed
    ..of the genital disc is the result of an integrated genetic input, made up by the sex-determination gene doublesex and the homeotic gene Abdominal-B...
  60. Tian M, Maniatis T. A splicing enhancer complex controls alternative splicing of doublesex pre-mRNA. Cell. 1993;74:105-14 pubmed
    Female-specific splicing of Drosophila doublesex (dsx) pre-mRNA is regulated by the products of the transformer (tra) and transformer 2 (tra2) genes...
  61. Chatterjee S, Uppendahl L, Chowdhury M, Ip P, Siegal M. The female-specific doublesex isoform regulates pleiotropic transcription factors to pattern genital development in Drosophila. Development. 2011;138:1099-109 pubmed publisher
    ..In flies, the sex-determination hierarchy terminates in the doublesex (dsx) gene, which produces sex-specific transcription factors via alternative splicing of its transcripts...
  62. DeFalco T, Verney G, Jenkins A, McCaffery J, Russell S, Van Doren M. Sex-specific apoptosis regulates sexual dimorphism in the Drosophila embryonic gonad. Dev Cell. 2003;5:205-16 pubmed
    ..females, these cells are eliminated via programmed cell death dependent on the sex determination regulatory gene doublesex. Our work furthers the hypotheses that a conserved pathway controls gonad sexual dimorphism in diverse species ..
  63. Wawersik M, Milutinovich A, Casper A, Matunis E, Williams B, Van Doren M. Somatic control of germline sexual development is mediated by the JAK/STAT pathway. Nature. 2005;436:563-7 pubmed
    ..Our findings provide direct evidence that the JAK/STAT pathway mediates a key signal from the somatic gonad that regulates male germline sexual development. ..
  64. Heinrichs V, Ryner L, Baker B. Regulation of sex-specific selection of fruitless 5' splice sites by transformer and transformer-2. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:450-8 pubmed
    ..is sufficient to promote the activation by tra and tra-2 of both a 5' splice site and the female-specific doublesex (dsx) 3' splice site, suggesting that the mechanisms of 5' splice site activation and 3' splice site activation ..
  65. Gempe T, Beye M. Function and evolution of sex determination mechanisms, genes and pathways in insects. Bioessays. 2011;33:52-60 pubmed publisher
    ..This review summarises recent findings in insects, surveys evidence of how and why sex determination mechanisms can change rapidly and suggests fruitful areas of future research. ..
  66. Wilkins A. Moving up the hierarchy: a hypothesis on the evolution of a genetic sex determination pathway. Bioessays. 1995;17:71-7 pubmed
    ..Finally, the specific molecular and population genetic questions that the model raises are described and some tests are proposed. ..
  67. Epper F. Morphological analysis and fate map of the intersexual genital disc of the mutant doublesex-dominant in Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 1981;88:104-14 pubmed
  69. Sanchez L, Gorfinkiel N, Guerrero I. Sex determination genes control the development of the Drosophila genital disc, modulating the response to Hedgehog, Wingless and Decapentaplegic signals. Development. 2001;128:1033-43 pubmed
    ..The sex determination gene doublesex controls which of these primordia will develop and which will be repressed...
  70. Nothiger R, Jonglez M, Leuthold M, Meier Gerschwiler P, Weber T. Sex determination in the germ line of Drosophila depends on genetic signals and inductive somatic factors. Development. 1989;107:505-18 pubmed
    ..by mutations at the sex-determining genes Sxl (Sex-lethal), tra (transformer), tra-2 (transformer-2), or dsx (double-sex)...
  71. Chandler D, Qi J, Mattox W. Direct repression of splicing by transformer-2. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:5174-85 pubmed
    The Drosophila melanogaster sex determination factor Tra2 positively regulates the splicing of both doublesex (dsx) and fruitless (fru) pre-mRNAs but negatively affects the splicing of the M1 intron in tra2 pre-mRNA...
  72. Pomiankowski A, Nöthiger R, Wilkins A. The evolution of the Drosophila sex-determination pathway. Genetics. 2004;166:1761-73 pubmed
    ..Our hypothesis is built on the available data from Drosophila and other insect species, and we point out where it is amenable to further experimental and comparative tests. ..
  73. Tarone A, Nasser Y, Nuzhdin S. Genetic variation for expression of the sex determination pathway genes in Drosophila melanogaster. Genet Res. 2005;86:31-40 pubmed
    ..Expression of Sex lethal, transformer, transformer2, doublesex, intersex and hermaphrodite was assayed with quantitative RT-PCR in 0- to 1-day-old adult males and females of 36 Drosophila melanogaster ..
  74. Siera S, Cline T. Sexual back talk with evolutionary implications: stimulation of the Drosophila sex-determination gene sex-lethal by its target transformer. Genetics. 2008;180:1963-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The tra-mediated Sxl feedback in Drosophila may be a vestige of regulatory redundancy that facilitated the evolutionary transition from tra to Sxl as the master sex switch. ..
  75. Oliver B, Kim Y, Baker B. Sex-lethal, master and slave: a hierarchy of germ-line sex determination in Drosophila. Development. 1993;119:897-908 pubmed
    ..This hierarchy includes the somatic sex determination genes transformer+, transformer-2+ and doublesex+ (and by inference Sex-lethal+), which control a somatic signal required for female germ-line sex determination, ..
  76. Williams T, Selegue J, Werner T, Gompel N, Kopp A, Carroll S. The regulation and evolution of a genetic switch controlling sexually dimorphic traits in Drosophila. Cell. 2008;134:610-23 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that the HOX protein Abdominal-B (ABD-B) and the sex-specific isoforms of Doublesex (DSX) directly regulate a bab cis-regulatory element (CRE)...
  77. Ahmad S, Baker B. Sex-specific deployment of FGF signaling in Drosophila recruits mesodermal cells into the male genital imaginal disc. Cell. 2002;109:651-61 pubmed
    ..Male-specific deployment of FGF signaling is controlled by the sex determination regulatory gene doublesex. The recruited mesodermal cells become epithelial and differentiate into parts of the internal genitalia...
  78. Graveley B, Hertel K, Maniatis T. A systematic analysis of the factors that determine the strength of pre-mRNA splicing enhancers. EMBO J. 1998;17:6747-56 pubmed
    ..These data are consistent with a model in which splicing enhancers function by increasing the local concentration of SR proteins in the vicinity of the nearby intron through RNA looping. ..
  79. Christiansen A, Keisman E, Ahmad S, Baker B. Sex comes in from the cold: the integration of sex and pattern. Trends Genet. 2002;18:510-6 pubmed
  80. Baker B, Belote J. Sex determination and dosage compensation in Drosophila melanogaster. Annu Rev Genet. 1983;17:345-93 pubmed
  81. Hempel L, Oliver B. Sex-specific DoublesexM expression in subsets of Drosophila somatic gonad cells. BMC Dev Biol. 2007;7:113 pubmed
    ..melanogaster, a pre-mRNA splicing hierarchy controls sexual identity and ultimately leads to sex-specific Doublesex (DSX) transcription factor isoforms...
  82. Waterbury J, Jackson L, Schedl P. Analysis of the doublesex female protein in Drosophila melanogaster: role on sexual differentiation and behavior and dependence on intersex. Genetics. 1999;152:1653-67 pubmed
    b>doublesex (dsx) is unusual among the known sex-determination genes of Drosophila melanogaster in that functional homologs are found in distantly related species...
  83. Dauwalder B. The roles of fruitless and doublesex in the control of male courtship. Int Rev Neurobiol. 2011;99:87-105 pubmed publisher
    ..It is regulated by the general sex-determination pathway through the sex-specific forms of fruitless and doublesex. Recent findings have shown that both fruitless and doublesex are required for courtship...
  84. Lee G, Hall J, Park J. Doublesex gene expression in the central nervous system of Drosophila melanogaster. J Neurogenet. 2002;16:229-48 pubmed
    Despite several behavior-genetic studies that have suggested roles played by doublesex (dsx) in neural tissues, it has not been demonstrated that the products of this gene are actually present in the central nervous system (CNS)...
  85. Baker B, Taylor B, Hall J. Are complex behaviors specified by dedicated regulatory genes? Reasoning from Drosophila. Cell. 2001;105:13-24 pubmed
  86. Tian M, Maniatis T. Positive control of pre-mRNA splicing in vitro. Science. 1992;256:237-40 pubmed
    Positive control of the sex-specific alternative splicing of doublesex (dsx) precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) in Drosophila melanogaster involves the activation of a female-specific 3' splice site by the products of the transformer (..