Gene Symbol: dsh
Description: dishevelled
Alias: CG1720, CG18361, DSH, Dm Dsh, Dmel\CG18361, Dsh, Dvl, l(1)10Bd, l(1)G0267, l(1)G17, l(1)dsh, dishevelled, CG18361-PA, disheveled, disshevelled, dsh-PA
Species: fruit fly
Products:     dsh

Top Publications

  1. Zeng W, Wharton K, Mack J, Wang K, Gadbaw M, Suyama K, et al. naked cuticle encodes an inducible antagonist of Wnt signalling. Nature. 2000;403:789-95 pubmed
    ..Nkd may therefore link ion fluxes to the regulation of the potency, duration or distribution of Wnt signals. Signal-inducible feedback antagonists such as nkd may limit the effects of Wnt proteins in development and disease. ..
  2. Penton A, Wodarz A, Nusse R. A mutational analysis of dishevelled in Drosophila defines novel domains in the dishevelled protein as well as novel suppressing alleles of axin. Genetics. 2002;161:747-62 pubmed
    Drosophila dishevelled (dsh) functions in two pathways: it is necessary to transduce Wingless (Wg) signaling and it is required in planar cell polarity...
  3. Morin P. beta-catenin signaling and cancer. Bioessays. 1999;21:1021-30 pubmed
    ..c-MYC and cyclin D1 were recently identified as a key transcriptional targets of this pathway and additional targets are likely to emerge. Published 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ..
  4. Hayward P, Brennan K, Sanders P, Balayo T, DasGupta R, Perrimon N, et al. Notch modulates Wnt signalling by associating with Armadillo/beta-catenin and regulating its transcriptional activity. Development. 2005;132:1819-30 pubmed
    ..The modulatory function of Notch described here, contributes to the establishment of a robust threshold for Wnt signalling which is likely to play important roles in both normal and pathological situations. ..
  5. Ho K, Suyama K, Fish M, Scott M. Differential regulation of Hedgehog target gene transcription by Costal2 and Suppressor of Fused. Development. 2005;132:1401-12 pubmed
    ..Overexpression of wild-type or dominant-negative cos2 represses en. Our results indicate that differential Hh target gene regulation can be accomplished by differential sensitivity of Cos2 and Su(Fu) to Hh. ..
  6. Gubb D, Green C, Huen D, Coulson D, Johnson G, Tree D, et al. The balance between isoforms of the prickle LIM domain protein is critical for planar polarity in Drosophila imaginal discs. Genes Dev. 1999;13:2315-27 pubmed
    ..Lack of both pk and sple transcripts gives a phenotype affecting the whole body surface that is similar to those of dishevelled and frizzled (fz) suggesting a functional relationship between pk and fz signaling.
  7. Veeman M, Axelrod J, Moon R. A second canon. Functions and mechanisms of beta-catenin-independent Wnt signaling. Dev Cell. 2003;5:367-77 pubmed
  8. Strutt H, Searle E, Thomas Macarthur V, Brookfield R, Strutt D. A Cul-3-BTB ubiquitylation pathway regulates junctional levels and asymmetry of core planar polarity proteins. Development. 2013;140:1693-702 pubmed publisher
    ..Levels of Dishevelled at junctions are regulated by a Cullin-3-Diablo/Kelch ubiquitin ligase complex, the activity of which is most ..
  9. Couso J, Bishop S, Martinez Arias A. The wingless signalling pathway and the patterning of the wing margin in Drosophila. Development. 1994;120:621-36 pubmed
    ..that, in the wing margin, the wingless signal requires the activity of at least three genes: armadillo (arm), dishevelled (dsh) and shaggy (sgg) and that the functional relationship between these genes and wg is the same as that ..

More Information


  1. Kaltschmidt J, Lawrence N, Morel V, Balayo T, Fernández B, Pelissier A, et al. Planar polarity and actin dynamics in the epidermis of Drosophila. Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:937-44 pubmed
    ..We show that Wingless (Wg) signalling and Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) signalling have overlapping but different roles in these events. ..
  2. Fiedler M, Mendoza Topaz C, Rutherford T, Mieszczanek J, Bienz M. Dishevelled interacts with the DIX domain polymerization interface of Axin to interfere with its function in down-regulating ?-catenin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:1937-42 pubmed publisher
    ..for proteasomal degradation by the Axin destruction complex, whose activity is blocked upon Wnt stimulation by Dishevelled, which recruits Axin to the plasma membrane and assembles it into a signalosome...
  3. Strutt H, Strutt D. Differential stability of flamingo protein complexes underlies the establishment of planar polarity. Curr Biol. 2008;18:1555-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we provide evidence that Fmi is trafficked from junctions via both Dishevelled-dependent and Dishevelled-independent mechanisms...
  4. Fetting J, Spencer S, Wolff T. The cell adhesion molecules Echinoid and Friend of Echinoid coordinate cell adhesion and cell signaling to regulate the fidelity of ommatidial rotation in the Drosophila eye. Development. 2009;136:3323-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Significantly, we demonstrate that at least one PCP protein, Stbm, is required in R7 to control the degree of ommatidial rotation. ..
  5. Jenny A, Reynolds Kenneally J, Das G, Burnett M, Mlodzik M. Diego and Prickle regulate Frizzled planar cell polarity signalling by competing for Dishevelled binding. Nat Cell Biol. 2005;7:691-7 pubmed
    ..PCP establishment requires the conserved Frizzled/Dishevelled PCP pathway...
  6. Ho Y, Lien M, Lin C, Wei S, Chang L, Hsu J. Echinoid regulates Flamingo endocytosis to control ommatidial rotation in the Drosophila eye. Development. 2010;137:745-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, co-endocytosis of Ed and Fmi provides a link between apicobasal polarity and PCP. ..
  7. Cooper M, Bray S. Frizzled regulation of Notch signalling polarizes cell fate in the Drosophila eye. Nature. 1999;397:526-30 pubmed
    ..Two such genes are frizzled (fz) and dishevelled (dsh), the products of which are components of a signalling pathway required in R3, and which are thought to be ..
  8. Simons M, Gault W, Gotthardt D, Rohatgi R, Klein T, Shao Y, et al. Electrochemical cues regulate assembly of the Frizzled/Dishevelled complex at the plasma membrane during planar epithelial polarization. Nat Cell Biol. 2009;11:286-94 pubmed publisher
    b>Dishevelled (Dsh) is a cytoplasmic multidomain protein that is required for all known branches of the Wnt signalling pathway...
  9. Chen C, Struhl G. Wingless transduction by the Frizzled and Frizzled2 proteins of Drosophila. Development. 1999;126:5441-52 pubmed
    ..These results extend prior evidence of a ligand-receptor relationship between Wnt and Frizzled proteins and suggest that Fz and Fz2 are the primary receptors for Wg in Drosophila. ..
  10. Warrington S, Strutt H, Strutt D. The Frizzled-dependent planar polarity pathway locally promotes E-cadherin turnover via recruitment of RhoGEF2. Development. 2013;140:1045-54 pubmed publisher
    ..We thus reveal a general mechanism by which the core planar polarity pathway can promote polarised cell rearrangements. ..
  11. Cohen E, Mariol M, Wallace R, Weyers J, Kamberov Y, Pradel J, et al. DWnt4 regulates cell movement and focal adhesion kinase during Drosophila ovarian morphogenesis. Dev Cell. 2002;2:437-48 pubmed
    ..Dfrizzled2, Disheveled, and protein kinase C are also required...
  12. Ramain P, Khechumian K, Seugnet L, Arbogast N, Ackermann C, Heitzler P. Novel Notch alleles reveal a Deltex-dependent pathway repressing neural fate. Curr Biol. 2001;11:1729-38 pubmed
    ..truncated receptors lacking the carboxy terminus of the NICD, which is the binding site for the repressor Dishevelled (Dsh). Dsh is known to be involved in crosstalk between Wingless and Notch pathways...
  13. Wu J, Klein T, Mlodzik M. Subcellular localization of frizzled receptors, mediated by their cytoplasmic tails, regulates signaling pathway specificity. PLoS Biol. 2004;2:E158 pubmed
    ..Based on these data, we propose that subcellular Fz localization, through the association with other membrane proteins, is a critical aspect in regulating the signaling specificity within the Wnt/Fz signaling pathways. ..
  14. Perrimon N. The genetic basis of patterned baldness in Drosophila. Cell. 1994;76:781-4 pubmed
  15. Yanagawa S, Lee J, Ishimoto A. Identification and characterization of a novel line of Drosophila Schneider S2 cells that respond to wingless signaling. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:32353-9 pubmed
    ..respond to addition of extracellular Wg by elevating Arm and DE-cadherin protein levels and by hyperphosphorylating Dsh, just as clone 8 cells do...
  16. Eaton S. Planar polarization of Drosophila and vertebrate epithelia. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1997;9:860-6 pubmed
    ..Advances in our understanding of the Frizzled pathway, which coordinates planar polarization in Drosophila, are moving the field closer to understanding the links between signal transduction and polarized cytoskeletal reorganization. ..
  17. Fanto M, Weber U, Strutt D, Mlodzik M. Nuclear signaling by Rac and Rho GTPases is required in the establishment of epithelial planar polarity in the Drosophila eye. Curr Biol. 2000;10:979-88 pubmed
    ..Through genetic interaction and rescue experiments involving a polarity-specific, loss-of-function dishevelled (dsh) allele, we found that Rac1 acts downstream of Dsh in the Fz signaling pathway, but upstream of, or in ..
  18. Zheng L, Zhang J, Carthew R. frizzled regulates mirror-symmetric pattern formation in the Drosophila eye. Development. 1995;121:3045-55 pubmed
    ..We propose that frizzled mediates a bidirectional signal emanating from the equator. ..
  19. Schweisguth F. Regulation of notch signaling activity. Curr Biol. 2004;14:R129-38 pubmed
    ..Recent analyses of the cell biology of the Notch receptor have identified several fundamental mechanisms that contribute to regulate Notch signaling activity in space and time. ..
  20. Tree D, Shulman J, Rousset R, Scott M, Gubb D, Axelrod J. Prickle mediates feedback amplification to generate asymmetric planar cell polarity signaling. Cell. 2002;109:371-81 pubmed
    Planar cell polarity signaling in Drosophila requires the receptor Frizzled and the cytoplasmic proteins Dishevelled and Prickle...
  21. Greenwald I. LIN-12/Notch signaling: lessons from worms and flies. Genes Dev. 1998;12:1751-62 pubmed
  22. Ma D, Yang C, McNeill H, Simon M, Axelrod J. Fidelity in planar cell polarity signalling. Nature. 2003;421:543-7 pubmed
    ..Subsequent action of the Frizzled feedback loop is sufficient to align all the cells cooperatively. This economical system is therefore highly robust, and produces virtually error-free arrays. ..
  23. Strutt D, Warrington S. Planar polarity genes in the Drosophila wing regulate the localisation of the FH3-domain protein Multiple Wing Hairs to control the site of hair production. Development. 2008;135:3103-11 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the distally localised core polarity protein Frizzled positively promotes prehair initiation, suggesting that both proximal and distal cellular cues act together to ensure accurate prehair placement. ..
  24. Strutt H, Price M, Strutt D. Planar polarity is positively regulated by casein kinase Iepsilon in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2006;16:1329-36 pubmed
    ..of CKI in vertebrate embryos activates Wg signaling, and one target is thought to be the cytoplasmic effector Dishevelled (Dsh), which is an in vitro target of CKI phosphorylation...
  25. Singh J, Yanfeng W, Grumolato L, Aaronson S, Mlodzik M. Abelson family kinases regulate Frizzled planar cell polarity signaling via Dsh phosphorylation. Genes Dev. 2010;24:2157-68 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that dAbl positively regulates the Fz/Dishevelled (Dsh) PCP pathway without affecting canonical Wnt/Wg-Fz signaling...
  26. Cadigan K, Nusse R. wingless signaling in the Drosophila eye and embryonic epidermis. Development. 1996;122:2801-12 pubmed
    ..Clonal analysis revealed a requirement for the genes porcupine, dishevelled and armadillo in mediating the wingless effect...
  27. Amonlirdviman K, Khare N, Tree D, Chen W, Axelrod J, Tomlin C. Mathematical modeling of planar cell polarity to understand domineering nonautonomy. Science. 2005;307:423-6 pubmed
    ..The sufficiency of this model and the experimental validation of model predictions reveal how specific protein-protein interactions produce autonomy or domineering nonautonomy. ..
  28. Strutt H, Strutt D. Long-range coordination of planar polarity in Drosophila. Bioessays. 2005;27:1218-27 pubmed
    ..Subsequently, this long-range polarity signal is refined by local cell-cell interactions involving the transmembrane molecules Frizzled, Strabismus and Flamingo. The role of these factors in coordinating polarity will be discussed. ..
  29. Bellaiche Y, Beaudoin Massiani O, Stuttem I, Schweisguth F. The planar cell polarity protein Strabismus promotes Pins anterior localization during asymmetric division of sensory organ precursor cells in Drosophila. Development. 2004;131:469-78 pubmed
    ..At prophase, Stbm promotes the anterior localization of Pins. By contrast, Dishevelled (Dsh) acts antagonistically to Stbm by excluding Pins from the posterior cortex...
  30. Price M, Roberts D, McCartney B, Jezuit E, Peifer M. Cytoskeletal dynamics and cell signaling during planar polarity establishment in the Drosophila embryonic denticle. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:403-15 pubmed
    ..Finally, we define roles for the canonical Wingless and Hedgehog pathways and for core planar cell polarity proteins in denticle polarity. ..
  31. Jenny A, Darken R, Wilson P, Mlodzik M. Prickle and Strabismus form a functional complex to generate a correct axis during planar cell polarity signaling. EMBO J. 2003;22:4409-20 pubmed
    ..Pk is also known to interact with Dsh and is thought to antagonize Dsh by affecting its membrane localization...
  32. Axelrod J, Miller J, Shulman J, Moon R, Perrimon N. Differential recruitment of Dishevelled provides signaling specificity in the planar cell polarity and Wingless signaling pathways. Genes Dev. 1998;12:2610-22 pubmed
    In Drosophila, planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling is mediated by the receptor Frizzled (Fz) and transduced by Dishevelled (Dsh). Wingless (Wg) signaling also requires Dsh and may utilize DFz2 as a receptor...
  33. Micchelli C, Rulifson E, Blair S. The function and regulation of cut expression on the wing margin of Drosophila: Notch, Wingless and a dominant negative role for Delta and Serrate. Development. 1997;124:1485-95 pubmed
    ..We propose that the boundary of Notch ligand along the normal margin plays a similar role as part of a dynamic feedback loop that maintains the tripartite pattern of margin gene expression. ..
  34. He X, Semenov M, Tamai K, Zeng X. LDL receptor-related proteins 5 and 6 in Wnt/beta-catenin signaling: arrows point the way. Development. 2004;131:1663-77 pubmed
    ..We also discuss the regulation of Lrp5/Lrp6 by other extracellular ligands, and LRP5 mutations associated with familial osteoporosis and other disorders. ..
  35. Theisen H, Purcell J, Bennett M, Kansagara D, Syed A, Marsh J. dishevelled is required during wingless signaling to establish both cell polarity and cell identity. Development. 1994;120:347-60 pubmed
    The dishevelled gene of Drosophila is required to establish coherent arrays of polarized cells and is also required to establish segments in the embryo...
  36. Paricio N, Feiguin F, Boutros M, Eaton S, Mlodzik M. The Drosophila STE20-like kinase misshapen is required downstream of the Frizzled receptor in planar polarity signaling. EMBO J. 1999;18:4669-78 pubmed
    ..Genetic and biochemical analyses indicate that msn acts downstream of fz and dishevelled (dsh) in the planar polarity pathway, and thus implicates an STE20-like kinase in Fz/Dsh-mediated signaling...
  37. Djiane A, Yogev S, Mlodzik M. The apical determinants aPKC and dPatj regulate Frizzled-dependent planar cell polarity in the Drosophila eye. Cell. 2005;121:621-631 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a model whereby the dPatj/aPKC complex regulates PCP by inhibiting Fz1 in cells where it should not be active. ..
  38. Das G, Jenny A, Klein T, Eaton S, Mlodzik M. Diego interacts with Prickle and Strabismus/Van Gogh to localize planar cell polarity complexes. Development. 2004;131:4467-76 pubmed
    ..These interactions suggest a positive feedback loop initiated by Fz that results in the apical maintenance of other PCP factors through Fmi. ..
  39. Johnston C, Manning L, Lu M, Golub O, Doe C, Prehoda K. Formin-mediated actin polymerization cooperates with Mushroom body defect (Mud)-Dynein during Frizzled-Dishevelled spindle orientation. J Cell Sci. 2013;126:4436-44 pubmed publisher
    ..in Drosophila that functions with Dynein during planar cell polarity, downstream of the Frizzled (Fz) effector Dishevelled (Dsh)...
  40. Wong L, Adler P. Tissue polarity genes of Drosophila regulate the subcellular location for prehair initiation in pupal wing cells. J Cell Biol. 1993;123:209-21 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the tissue polarity genes function in or on a pathway that controls hair polarity by regulating the subcellular location for prehair formation. ..
  41. Ma D, Amonlirdviman K, Raffard R, Abate A, Tomlin C, Axelrod J. Cell packing influences planar cell polarity signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:18800-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, in the wild type, broad distribution of the global directional cue combines with a local feedback mechanism to overcome irregularities in cell packing geometry during PCP signaling. ..
  42. Martin Blanco E. Regulation of cell differentiation by the Drosophila Jun kinase cascade. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1997;7:666-71 pubmed
  43. Rulifson E, Wu C, Nusse R. Pathway specificity by the bifunctional receptor frizzled is determined by affinity for wingless. Mol Cell. 2000;6:117-26 pubmed
    ..This suggests that Fz has an intrinsic capacity for polarity signaling and that high-affinity interaction with Wg couples it to the Wnt pathway. ..
  44. Strutt H, Strutt D. Polarity determination in the Drosophila eye. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1999;9:442-6 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, important functions have been elucidated for Notch signalling in specifying the position of the axis of symmetry and then later in development in interpreting gradient information. ..
  45. Shimizu K, Sato M, Tabata T. The Wnt5/planar cell polarity pathway regulates axonal development of the Drosophila mushroom body neuron. J Neurosci. 2011;31:4944-54 pubmed publisher
    ..show that essential PCP signaling components, encoded by frizzled (fz), strabismus (stbm), flamingo (fmi), and dishevelled (dsh), are cooperatively required for axonal targeting and branching of the Drosophila mushroom body (MB) ..
  46. Lawrence P, Struhl G, Casal J. Planar cell polarity: one or two pathways?. Nat Rev Genet. 2007;8:555-63 pubmed
    ..We argue that the prevailing opinion that planar polarity depends on a single genetic pathway is wrong and conclude that there are (at least) two independently acting processes. This conclusion has major consequences for the PCP field. ..
  47. Morel V, Arias A. Armadillo/beta-catenin-dependent Wnt signalling is required for the polarisation of epidermal cells during dorsal closure in Drosophila. Development. 2004;131:3273-83 pubmed
    ..The DME cells of embryos mutant for wingless or dishevelled exhibit polarisation defects and fail to close properly...
  48. Wehrli M, Tomlinson A. Independent regulation of anterior/posterior and equatorial/polar polarity in the Drosophila eye; evidence for the involvement of Wnt signaling in the equatorial/polar axis. Development. 1998;125:1421-32 pubmed
    ..Further, we show that the polarizing information acting in this equatorial/polar axis (Eq/Pl) is established in at least two steps - the activity of one signaling molecule functions to establish the graded activity of a second signal. ..
  49. Srahna M, Leyssen M, Choi C, Fradkin L, Noordermeer J, Hassan B. A signaling network for patterning of neuronal connectivity in the Drosophila brain. PLoS Biol. 2006;4:e348 pubmed
    ..The Rac1 GTPase integrates a Wnt-Frizzled-Disheveled axon-stabilizing signal and a Branchless (FGF)-Breathless (FGF receptor) axon-retracting signal to modulate JNK ..
  50. Taylor J, Abramova N, Charlton J, Adler P. Van Gogh: a new Drosophila tissue polarity gene. Genetics. 1998;150:199-210 pubmed
    ..In both cases the domineering nonautonomy was suppressed consistent with Van Gogh being essential for frizzled signaling. ..
  51. McCartney B, Dierick H, Kirkpatrick C, Moline M, Baas A, Peifer M, et al. Drosophila APC2 is a cytoskeletally-associated protein that regulates wingless signaling in the embryonic epidermis. J Cell Biol. 1999;146:1303-18 pubmed
    ..This allele acts genetically downstream of wg, and upstream of arm, dTCF, and, surprisingly, dishevelled. We discuss the implications of our results for Wg signaling, and suggest a role for dAPC2 as a mediator of Wg ..
  52. Sokol S. A role for Wnts in morpho-genesis and tissue polarity. Nat Cell Biol. 2000;2:E124-5 pubmed
    ..The analysis of Dishevelled, a cytoplasmic mediator of Wnt signalling, reveals unexpected similarity between gastrulation in vertebrates ..
  53. Rousset R, Mack J, Wharton K, Axelrod J, Cadigan K, Fish M, et al. Naked cuticle targets dishevelled to antagonize Wnt signal transduction. Genes Dev. 2001;15:658-71 pubmed
    ..we find that Nkd affects, in a cell-autonomous manner, a transduction step between the Wnt signaling components Dishevelled (Dsh) and Zeste-white 3 kinase (Zw3)...
  54. Le Garrec J, Kerszberg M. Modeling polarity buildup and cell fate decision in the fly eye: insight into the connection between the PCP and Notch pathways. Dev Genes Evol. 2008;218:413-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The model provides insight into the crosstalk between the PCP and Notch modules in development and illustrates the ability of signaling modules to robustly maintain vital phenotypes in a noisy environment. ..
  55. Bastock R, Strutt D. The planar polarity pathway promotes coordinated cell migration during Drosophila oogenesis. Development. 2007;134:3055-64 pubmed
    ..We conclude that, during collective cell migration, the planar polarity pathway can mediate communication between motile and non-motile cells, which enhances the efficiency of migration via the modulation of actin dynamics. ..
  56. Hannus M, Feiguin F, Heisenberg C, Eaton S. Planar cell polarization requires Widerborst, a B' regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A. Development. 2002;129:3493-503 pubmed
    ..In zebrafish, two wdb homologs are required for convergent extension during gastrulation, supporting the conjecture that Drosophila planar cell polarization and vertebrate gastrulation movements are regulated by similar mechanisms. ..
  57. Shimada Y, Usui T, Yanagawa S, Takeichi M, Uemura T. Asymmetric colocalization of Flamingo, a seven-pass transmembrane cadherin, and Dishevelled in planar cell polarization. Curr Biol. 2001;11:859-63 pubmed
    ..signaling pathway: Frizzled (Fz), a receptor for a hypothetical polarity signal, and an intracellular protein, Dishevelled (Dsh) [6-8]. Here, we visualized endogenous Dsh in the developing wing...
  58. Lu B, Usui T, Uemura T, Jan L, Jan Y. Flamingo controls the planar polarity of sensory bristles and asymmetric division of sensory organ precursors in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 1999;9:1247-50 pubmed
    ..We also present evidence suggesting that Fz also functions in the Wingless pathway to pattern sensory organs. ..
  59. Wong H, Bourdelas A, Krauss A, Lee H, Shao Y, Wu D, et al. Direct binding of the PDZ domain of Dishevelled to a conserved internal sequence in the C-terminal region of Frizzled. Mol Cell. 2003;12:1251-60 pubmed
    The cytoplasmic protein Dishevelled (Dvl) and the associated membrane-bound receptor Frizzled (Fz) are essential in canonical and noncanonical Wnt signaling pathways...
  60. Segalen M, Johnston C, Martin C, Dumortier J, Prehoda K, David N, et al. The Fz-Dsh planar cell polarity pathway induces oriented cell division via Mud/NuMA in Drosophila and zebrafish. Dev Cell. 2010;19:740-52 pubmed publisher
    The Frizzled receptor and Dishevelled effector regulate mitotic spindle orientation in both vertebrates and invertebrates, but how Dishevelled orients the mitotic spindle is unknown...
  61. Riggleman B, Schedl P, Wieschaus E. Spatial expression of the Drosophila segment polarity gene armadillo is posttranscriptionally regulated by wingless. Cell. 1990;63:549-60 pubmed
    ..Two other segment polarity genes, porcupine and dishevelled, are required for this effect...
  62. Adler P, Taylor J. Asymmetric cell division: plane but not simple. Curr Biol. 2001;11:R233-6 pubmed
    ..The orientation of these divisions is under the control of the Frizzled pathway that generates planar polarity in a number of cell types. ..
  63. Usui T, Shima Y, Shimada Y, Hirano S, Burgess R, Schwarz T, et al. Flamingo, a seven-pass transmembrane cadherin, regulates planar cell polarity under the control of Frizzled. Cell. 1999;98:585-95 pubmed
    ..These results, together with phenotypes caused by ectopic expression of fz and fmi, suggest that cells acquire the P-D polarity by way of the Fz-dependent boundary localization of Fmi. ..
  64. Soldano A, Okray Z, Janovská P, Tmejová K, Reynaud E, Claeys A, et al. The Drosophila homologue of the amyloid precursor protein is a conserved modulator of Wnt PCP signaling. PLoS Biol. 2013;11:e1001562 pubmed publisher
    ..we show that APPL regulates PCP pathway activation by modulating the phosphorylation of the Wnt adaptor protein Dishevelled (Dsh) by Abelson kinase (Abl)...
  65. Perrimon N, Mahowald A. Multiple functions of segment polarity genes in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1987;119:587-600 pubmed
    l(1)dishevelled (l(1)dsh) is a late zygotic lethal mutation that exhibits a rescuable maternal effect lethal phenotype...
  66. Ponting C, Phillips C, Davies K, Blake D. PDZ domains: targeting signalling molecules to sub-membranous sites. Bioessays. 1997;19:469-79 pubmed
    ..Recently, the crystal structures of PDZ domains, with and without ligand, have been determined. These demonstrate the mode of ligand-binding and the structural bases for sequence conservation among diverse PDZ domains. ..
  67. Gumbiner B. Propagation and localization of Wnt signaling. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1998;8:430-5 pubmed
    ..Wnt signals are distributed through tissues by vesicular transport of Wnt proteins, localized in embryos by directed transport of cytoplasmic Wnt-signaling components, and propagated asymmetrically during cell division. ..
  68. Strutt D, Johnson R, Cooper K, Bray S. Asymmetric localization of frizzled and the determination of notch-dependent cell fate in the Drosophila eye. Curr Biol. 2002;12:813-24 pubmed
    ..We find that the planar polarity proteins Frizzled, Dishevelled, Flamingo, and Strabismus adopt asymmetric protein localizations in the developing photoreceptors...
  69. Zallen J, Wieschaus E. Patterned gene expression directs bipolar planar polarity in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2004;6:343-55 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that spatial patterns of gene expression coordinate planar polarity across a multicellular population through the localized distribution of proteins required for cell movement. ..
  70. Zhu H. Is anisotropic propagation of polarized molecular distribution the common mechanism of swirling patterns of planar cell polarization?. J Theor Biol. 2009;256:315-25 pubmed publisher
    ..hexagonal packing caused by mutations in frizzled, or weakened intracellular signaling caused by mutations in disheveled, inturned, and prickle all make hair patterns globally irregular yet locally aligned, and in some cases, ..
  71. Yoshikawa S, McKinnon R, Kokel M, Thomas J. Wnt-mediated axon guidance via the Drosophila Derailed receptor. Nature. 2003;422:583-8 pubmed
    ..Our results reveal an unexpected role in axon guidance for a Wnt family member, and show that the Derailed receptor is an essential component of Wnt signalling in these guidance events. ..
  72. Bilic J, Huang Y, Davidson G, Zimmermann T, Cruciat C, Bienz M, et al. Wnt induces LRP6 signalosomes and promotes dishevelled-dependent LRP6 phosphorylation. Science. 2007;316:1619-22 pubmed
    ..The scaffold protein Dishevelled (Dvl) is required for LRP6 phosphorylation and aggregation...
  73. Bartscherer K, Pelte N, Ingelfinger D, Boutros M. Secretion of Wnt ligands requires Evi, a conserved transmembrane protein. Cell. 2006;125:523-33 pubmed
    ..Our results show that Wg is retained by evi mutant cells and suggest that evi is the founding member of a gene family specifically required for Wg/Wnt secretion. ..
  74. Boutros M, Paricio N, Strutt D, Mlodzik M. Dishevelled activates JNK and discriminates between JNK pathways in planar polarity and wingless signaling. Cell. 1998;94:109-18 pubmed
    ..b>Dishevelled is required in both signaling pathways...
  75. Kaplan N, Tolwinski N. Spatially defined Dsh-Lgl interaction contributes to directional tissue morphogenesis. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:3157-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Lgl has a novel function in the planar organization of the embryonic epidermis, and this function depends on Dsh and myosin...
  76. Winter C, Wang B, Ballew A, Royou A, Karess R, Axelrod J, et al. Drosophila Rho-associated kinase (Drok) links Frizzled-mediated planar cell polarity signaling to the actin cytoskeleton. Cell. 2001;105:81-91 pubmed
    Frizzled (Fz) and Dishevelled (Dsh) are components of an evolutionarily conserved signaling pathway that regulates planar cell polarity...
  77. Cho K. Wolbachia bacteria, the cause for false vesicular staining pattern in Drosophila melanogaster. Gene Expr Patterns. 2004;5:167-70 pubmed
    ..Thus, combinatorial use of contaminated antisera and Wolbachia-infected flies can result in serious misinterpretations, which can be avoided by curing laboratory strains of Wolbachia. ..
  78. Axelrod J, Matsuno K, Artavanis Tsakonas S, Perrimon N. Interaction between Wingless and Notch signaling pathways mediated by dishevelled. Science. 1996;271:1826-32 pubmed
    ..Genetic analysis demonstrates that the dishevelled gene, which encodes a molecule previously implicated in implementation of the Winglass signal, interacts ..
  79. Yu X, Hoppler S, Eresh S, Bienz M. decapentaplegic, a target gene of the wingless signalling pathway in the Drosophila midgut. Development. 1996;122:849-58 pubmed
    b>dishevelled, shaggy/zeste-white 3 and armadillo are required for transmission of the wingless signal in the Drosophila epidermis...
  80. Tolwinski N, Wehrli M, Rives A, Erdeniz N, Dinardo S, Wieschaus E. Wg/Wnt signal can be transmitted through arrow/LRP5,6 and Axin independently of Zw3/Gsk3beta activity. Dev Cell. 2003;4:407-18 pubmed
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