Gene Symbol: ds
Description: dachsous
Alias: CG17941, CT39575, Dmel\CG17941, EP-822, cad2, dachs, l(2)01855, l(2)05142, dachsous, CG17941-PA, CG17941-PB, cadherin-2, daschous, ds-PA, ds-PB, lethal (2) 01855
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Matakatsu H, Blair S. Separating the adhesive and signaling functions of the Fat and Dachsous protocadherins. Development. 2006;133:2315-24 pubmed
    The protocadherins Fat (Ft) and Dachsous (Ds) are required for several processes in the development of Drosophila, including controlling growth of imaginal discs, planar cell polarity (PCP) and the proximodistal patterning of appendages...
  2. Casal J, Struhl G, Lawrence P. Developmental compartments and planar polarity in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2002;12:1189-98 pubmed
    ..We report here that the three genes, four-jointed, dachsous, and fat, cause opposite effects in anterior and posterior compartments...
  3. Rogulja D, Rauskolb C, Irvine K. Morphogen control of wing growth through the Fat signaling pathway. Dev Cell. 2008;15:309-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Juxtaposition of cells that express different levels of the Fat pathway regulators four-jointed and dachsous stimulates expression of Fat/Hippo pathway target genes and cell proliferation, consistent with the hypothesis ..
  4. Strutt H, Strutt D. Long-range coordination of planar polarity in Drosophila. Bioessays. 2005;27:1218-27 pubmed
    ..cells however is less well understood, but is thought to involve gradients of activity of the atypical cadherins Dachsous and Fat...
  5. Cho E, Irvine K. Action of fat, four-jointed, dachsous and dachs in distal-to-proximal wing signaling. Development. 2004;131:4489-500 pubmed
    ..we show that three genes that act together during the establishment of tissue polarity, fat, four-jointed and dachsous, also influence the expression of Wingless in the proximal wing...
  6. Mao Y, Kucuk B, Irvine K. Drosophila lowfat, a novel modulator of Fat signaling. Development. 2009;136:3223-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Drosophila Lft, and its human homologs LIX1 and LIX1-like, bind to the cytoplasmic domains of the Fat ligand Dachsous, the receptor protein Fat, and its human homolog FAT4...
  7. Lee H, Adler P. The function of the frizzled pathway in the Drosophila wing is dependent on inturned and fuzzy. Genetics. 2002;160:1535-47 pubmed
    ..g., abdomen) the inturned-like genes were epistatic to the frizzled-like genes, but in other body regions (e.g., eye) that was not the case. Thus, the genetic control of tissue polarity is body region specific. ..
  8. Donoughe S, Dinardo S. dachsous and frizzled contribute separately to planar polarity in the Drosophila ventral epidermis. Development. 2011;138:2751-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Two groups of genes--the Dachsous (Ds) and Frizzled (Fz) systems--play key roles in the establishment and maintenance of such polarity...
  9. Matakatsu H, Blair S. The DHHC palmitoyltransferase approximated regulates Fat signaling and Dachs localization and activity. Curr Biol. 2008;18:1390-5 pubmed publisher
    Signaling via the large protocadherin Fat (Ft), regulated in part by its binding partner Dachsous (Ds) and the Golgi-resident kinase Four-jointed (Fj), is required for a variety of developmental functions in Drosophila...

More Information


  1. Bosveld F, Bonnet I, Guirao B, Tlili S, Wang Z, Petitalot A, et al. Mechanical control of morphogenesis by Fat/Dachsous/Four-jointed planar cell polarity pathway. Science. 2012;336:724-7 pubmed publisher
    ..by means of multiscale imaging epithelium morphogenesis in the Drosophila dorsal thorax and show how the Fat/Dachsous/Four-jointed PCP pathway controls morphogenesis...
  2. Strutt H, Mundy J, Hofstra K, Strutt D. Cleavage and secretion is not required for Four-jointed function in Drosophila patterning. Development. 2004;131:881-90 pubmed
    ..fj has similar phenotypes to those caused by mutations in the cadherin-encoding genes fat (ft) and dachsous (ds). We show that fj interacts genetically with ft and ds in planar polarity and proximodistal patterning...
  3. Yang C, Axelrod J, Simon M. Regulation of Frizzled by fat-like cadherins during planar polarity signaling in the Drosophila compound eye. Cell. 2002;108:675-88 pubmed
    ..We show that two cadherin superfamily members, Fat and Dachsous, and the transmembrane/secreted protein Four-jointed play important roles in this process...
  4. Adler P, Charlton J, Liu J. Mutations in the cadherin superfamily member gene dachsous cause a tissue polarity phenotype by altering frizzled signaling. Development. 1998;125:959-68 pubmed
    ..We report here that mutations in dachsous disrupt this regular pattern, and do so by affecting frizzled signaling...
  5. Lawrence P, Struhl G, Casal J. Planar cell polarity: one or two pathways?. Nat Rev Genet. 2007;8:555-63 pubmed
    ..We argue that the prevailing opinion that planar polarity depends on a single genetic pathway is wrong and conclude that there are (at least) two independently acting processes. This conclusion has major consequences for the PCP field. ..
  6. Matakatsu H, Blair S. Interactions between Fat and Dachsous and the regulation of planar cell polarity in the Drosophila wing. Development. 2004;131:3785-94 pubmed
    It was recently suggested that a proximal to distal gradient of the protocadherin Dachsous (Ds) acts as a cue for planar cell polarity (PCP) in the Drosophila wing, orienting cell-cell interactions by inhibiting the activity of the ..
  7. Sagner A, Merkel M, Aigouy B, Gaebel J, Brankatschk M, Jülicher F, et al. Establishment of global patterns of planar polarity during growth of the Drosophila wing epithelium. Curr Biol. 2012;22:1296-301 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, PCP may be guided by morphogenesis rather than morphogen gradients. ..
  8. Simon M. Planar cell polarity in the Drosophila eye is directed by graded Four-jointed and Dachsous expression. Development. 2004;131:6175-84 pubmed
    ..eye, we proposed that a crucial step in this process is the establishment of graded expression of the cadherin Dachsous (Ds) and the Golgi-associated protein Four-jointed (Fj)...
  9. Ayukawa T, Akiyama M, Mummery Widmer J, Stoeger T, Sasaki J, Knoblich J, et al. Dachsous-dependent asymmetric localization of spiny-legs determines planar cell polarity orientation in Drosophila. Cell Rep. 2014;8:610-21 pubmed publisher
    In Drosophila, planar cell polarity (PCP) molecules such as Dachsous (Ds) may function as global directional cues directing the asymmetrical localization of PCP core proteins such as Frizzled (Fz)...
  10. Casal J, Lawrence P, Struhl G. Two separate molecular systems, Dachsous/Fat and Starry night/Frizzled, act independently to confer planar cell polarity. Development. 2006;133:4561-72 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila it depends on at least two sets of genes: one set, the Ds system, encodes the cadherins Dachsous (Ds) and Fat (Ft), as well as the Golgi protein Four-jointed...
  11. Strutt D. Organ shape: controlling oriented cell division. Curr Biol. 2005;15:R758-9 pubmed
    ..One mechanism by which organisms control the shape of growing organs is by regulating the orientation of cell divisions. This occurs in the Drosophila wing under the control of genes previously implicated in regulating cell polarity. ..
  12. Matakatsu H, Blair S. Separating planar cell polarity and Hippo pathway activities of the protocadherins Fat and Dachsous. Development. 2012;139:1498-508 pubmed publisher
    ..We also found that the extracellular domain of Ft can act independently of the Ft ICD in PCP and can trigger dominant-negative and boundary effects on Hippo activity, probably via binding to the protocadherin Dachsous.
  13. Ambegaonkar A, Pan G, Mani M, Feng Y, Irvine K. Propagation of Dachsous-Fat planar cell polarity. Curr Biol. 2012;22:1302-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Fat signaling is regulated by the graded expression of the Fat ligand Dachsous (Ds) and the cadherin-domain kinase Four-jointed (Fj)...
  14. Clark H, Brentrup D, Schneitz K, Bieber A, Goodman C, Noll M. Dachsous encodes a member of the cadherin superfamily that controls imaginal disc morphogenesis in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 1995;9:1530-42 pubmed
    Mutations in the dachsous gene of Drosophila lead to striking defects in the morphogenesis of the thorax, legs, and wings...
  15. Rauskolb C, Pan G, Reddy B, Oh H, Irvine K. Zyxin links fat signaling to the hippo pathway. PLoS Biol. 2011;9:e1000624 pubmed publisher
    ..This partially overlaps the membrane localization of the myosin Dachs, which has similar effects on Fat-Hippo signaling...
  16. Amonlirdviman K, Khare N, Tree D, Chen W, Axelrod J, Tomlin C. Mathematical modeling of planar cell polarity to understand domineering nonautonomy. Science. 2005;307:423-6 pubmed
    ..The sufficiency of this model and the experimental validation of model predictions reveal how specific protein-protein interactions produce autonomy or domineering nonautonomy. ..
  17. Mao Y, Rauskolb C, Cho E, Hu W, Hayter H, Minihan G, et al. Dachs: an unconventional myosin that functions downstream of Fat to regulate growth, affinity and gene expression in Drosophila. Development. 2006;133:2539-51 pubmed
    ..Dachs protein localization is influenced by Fat, Four-jointed and Dachsous, consistent with its genetic placement downstream of fat...
  18. Adler P, Zhu C, Stone D. Inturned localizes to the proximal side of wing cells under the instruction of upstream planar polarity proteins. Curr Biol. 2004;14:2046-51 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that accumulation of proteins at the proximal side of wing cells is a key event for the distal activation of the cytoskeleton to form a hair. ..
  19. Fung S, Wang F, Chase M, Godt D, Hartenstein V. Expression profile of the cadherin family in the developing Drosophila brain. J Comp Neurol. 2008;506:469-88 pubmed
    ..The Fat-like cadherins, Fat and Dachsous, as well as Cad96Ca and Cad74A, are expressed in the epithelial optic lobe anlagen, which matches the widespread ..
  20. Ma D, Yang C, McNeill H, Simon M, Axelrod J. Fidelity in planar cell polarity signalling. Nature. 2003;421:543-7 pubmed
    ..Subsequent action of the Frizzled feedback loop is sufficient to align all the cells cooperatively. This economical system is therefore highly robust, and produces virtually error-free arrays. ..
  21. Hogan J, Valentine M, Cox C, Doyle K, Collier S. Two frizzled planar cell polarity signals in the Drosophila wing are differentially organized by the Fat/Dachsous pathway. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1001305 pubmed publisher
    ..Normal wing PCP requires both the Frizzled (Fz) PCP pathway and the Fat/Dachsous (Ft/Ds) pathway, although the functional relationship between these pathways remains under debate...
  22. Marcinkevicius E, Zallen J. Regulation of cytoskeletal organization and junctional remodeling by the atypical cadherin Fat. Development. 2013;140:433-43 pubmed publisher
  23. Baena Lopez L, Rodriguez I, Baonza A. The tumor suppressor genes dachsous and fat modulate different signalling pathways by regulating dally and dally-like. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:9645-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The Drosophila tumor suppressor genes dachsous (ds) and fat (ft) modulate organ size and pattern formation during imaginal disc development...
  24. Fanto M, Clayton L, Meredith J, Hardiman K, Charroux B, Kerridge S, et al. The tumor-suppressor and cell adhesion molecule Fat controls planar polarity via physical interactions with Atrophin, a transcriptional co-repressor. Development. 2003;130:763-74 pubmed
  25. Feng Y, Irvine K. Processing and phosphorylation of the Fat receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:11989-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The cytoplasmic domain of Fat is phosphorylated, and this phosphorylation is promoted by the Fat ligand Dachsous. dco encodes a kinase that influences Fat signaling, and Dco is able to promote the phosphorylation of the Fat ..
  26. Aigouy B, Farhadifar R, Staple D, Sagner A, Röper J, Jülicher F, et al. Cell flow reorients the axis of planar polarity in the wing epithelium of Drosophila. Cell. 2010;142:773-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutation of the atypical Cadherin Dachsous perturbs the global polarity pattern by altering epithelial dynamics...
  27. Strutt H, Strutt D. Planar polarity: photoreceptors on a high fat diet. Curr Biol. 2002;12:R384-5 pubmed
    Differential activity of Frizzled in the R3/R4 photo-receptors of Drosophila regulates the orientation of ommatidia. New evidence suggests that the cadherins Dachsous and Fat act upstream of Frizzled in this process.
  28. Baena Lopez L, Baonza A, García Bellido A. The orientation of cell divisions determines the shape of Drosophila organs. Curr Biol. 2005;15:1640-4 pubmed
    ..In addition, we find that a subset of planar cell polarity genes is required for the proper orientation of cell division during organ development. ..
  29. Repiso A, Saavedra P, Casal J, Lawrence P. Planar cell polarity: the orientation of larval denticles in Drosophila appears to depend on gradients of Dachsous and Fat. Development. 2010;137:3411-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We present evidence that denticle orientation is determined almost entirely by Dachsous and Fat, one of two planar cell polarity systems...
  30. Sopko R, Silva E, Clayton L, Gardano L, Barrios Rodiles M, Wrana J, et al. Phosphorylation of the tumor suppressor fat is regulated by its ligand Dachsous and the kinase discs overgrown. Curr Biol. 2009;19:1112-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic studies suggest that Fat activity is regulated by binding to another large cadherin, Dachsous (Ds)...
  31. Strutt H, Strutt D. Nonautonomous planar polarity patterning in Drosophila: dishevelled-independent functions of frizzled. Dev Cell. 2002;3:851-63 pubmed
    ..dsh) independent, and its loss results in polarity phenotypes that resemble those seen for mutations in dachsous (ds)...
  32. Zecca M, Struhl G. A feed-forward circuit linking wingless, fat-dachsous signaling, and the warts-hippo pathway to Drosophila wing growth. PLoS Biol. 2010;8:e1000386 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we identify the protocadherins Fat (Ft) and Dachsous (Ds), the Warts-Hippo tumor suppressor pathway, and the transcriptional co-activator Yorkie (Yki, a YES ..
  33. Garoia F, Guerra D, Pezzoli M, López Varea A, Cavicchi S, Garcia Bellido A. Cell behaviour of Drosophila fat cadherin mutations in wing development. Mech Dev. 2000;94:95-109 pubmed
    ..Mutant ft cells show, in addition, smaller cell sizes during proliferation and abnormal cuticular differentiation, which reflect cell membrane and cytoskeleton anomalies, which are not modulated by the DER pathway. ..
  34. Zhu H. Is anisotropic propagation of polarized molecular distribution the common mechanism of swirling patterns of planar cell polarization?. J Theor Biol. 2009;256:315-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Damaged global directional cue caused by mutations in four-jointed, fat, and dachsous, impaired cellular hexagonal packing caused by mutations in frizzled, or weakened intracellular signaling caused ..
  35. Hazelwood L, Hancock J. Functional modelling of planar cell polarity: an approach for identifying molecular function. BMC Dev Biol. 2013;13:20 pubmed publisher
    ..The predictions from the model allow direct assignment of functional roles of genes from genetic mosaic analysis of Drosophila wings. ..
  36. Simon M, Xu A, Ishikawa H, Irvine K. Modulation of fat:dachsous binding by the cadherin domain kinase four-jointed. Curr Biol. 2010;20:811-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Fat is regulated by the cadherin Dachsous (Ds) and the protein kinase Four-jointed (Fj), which are expressed in gradients in many tissues...
  37. Harumoto T, Ito M, Shimada Y, Kobayashi T, Ueda H, Lu B, et al. Atypical cadherins Dachsous and Fat control dynamics of noncentrosomal microtubules in planar cell polarity. Dev Cell. 2010;19:389-401 pubmed publisher
    ..This characteristic alignment and asymmetry of MT growth was controlled by atypical cadherins Dachsous (Ds) and Fat (Ft). Furthermore, the action of Ft was mediated in part by PAR-1...
  38. Lawrence P, Casal J. The mechanisms of planar cell polarity, growth and the Hippo pathway: some known unknowns. Dev Biol. 2013;377:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We offer some new ways of making sense of published results, particularly those relating to the Frizzled/Starry night and Dachsous/Fat systems of PCP.
  39. Oda H, Takeichi M. Evolution: structural and functional diversity of cadherin at the adherens junction. J Cell Biol. 2011;193:1137-46 pubmed publisher
    ..An evolutionary reconstruction of cadherin structure and function provides a comprehensive framework with which to appreciate the diversity of morphogenetic mechanisms in animals. ..
  40. Willecke M, Hamaratoglu F, Kango Singh M, Udan R, Chen C, Tao C, et al. The fat cadherin acts through the hippo tumor-suppressor pathway to regulate tissue size. Curr Biol. 2006;16:2090-100 pubmed
    ..In contrast, Fat is not required for Merlin localization, and Fat and Merlin act in parallel in growth regulation. Taken together, our data identify a cell-surface molecule that may act as a receptor of the Hippo signaling pathway. ..
  41. Kawamori H, Tai M, Sato M, Yasugi T, Tabata T. Fat/Hippo pathway regulates the progress of neural differentiation signaling in the Drosophila optic lobe. Dev Growth Differ. 2011;53:653-67 pubmed publisher
    ..A candidate for the Fat ligand, Dachsous is expressed in the posterior optic lobe, and its mutation was observed to cause a similar phenotype as fat ..
  42. Ishikawa H, Takeuchi H, Haltiwanger R, Irvine K. Four-jointed is a Golgi kinase that phosphorylates a subset of cadherin domains. Science. 2008;321:401-4 pubmed publisher
    ..serine or threonine residues within extracellular cadherin domains of Fat and its transmembrane ligand, Dachsous. Four-jointed functions in the Golgi and is the first molecularly defined kinase that phosphorylates protein ..
  43. Mao Y, Tournier A, Bates P, Gale J, Tapon N, Thompson B. Planar polarization of the atypical myosin Dachs orients cell divisions in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 2011;25:131-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that orientation of cell divisions in the wing requires planar polarization of an atypical myosin, Dachs. Our evidence suggests that Dachs constricts cell-cell junctions to alter the geometry of cell shapes at the ..
  44. Brittle A, Repiso A, Casal J, Lawrence P, Strutt D. Four-jointed modulates growth and planar polarity by reducing the affinity of dachsous for fat. Curr Biol. 2010;20:803-10 pubmed publisher
    The Drosophila genes fat (ft) and dachsous (ds) encode large atypical cadherins that collaborate to coordinately polarize cells in the plane of the epithelium (planar cell polarity) and to affect growth via the Warts/Hippo pathway...
  45. Brittle A, Thomas C, Strutt D. Planar polarity specification through asymmetric subcellular localization of Fat and Dachsous. Curr Biol. 2012;22:907-14 pubmed publisher
    Two pathways regulate planar polarity: the core proteins and the Fat-Dachsous-Four-jointed (Ft-Ds-Fj) system. Morphogens specify complementary expression patterns of Ds and Fj that potentially act as polarizing cues...
  46. Cho E, Feng Y, Rauskolb C, Maitra S, Fehon R, Irvine K. Delineation of a Fat tumor suppressor pathway. Nat Genet. 2006;38:1142-50 pubmed
    Recent studies in Drosophila melanogaster of the protocadherins Dachsous and Fat suggest that they act as ligand and receptor, respectively, for an intercellular signaling pathway that influences tissue polarity, growth and gene ..
  47. Lim J, Norga K, Chen Z, Choi K. Control of planar cell polarity by interaction of DWnt4 and four-jointed. Genesis. 2005;42:150-61 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that DWnt4 is involved in ommatidial polarity signaling in the ventral region of the eye and its function is mediated by interacting with Fj. ..
  48. Rodriguez I. The dachsous gene, a member of the cadherin family, is required for Wg-dependent pattern formation in the Drosophila wing disc. Development. 2004;131:3195-206 pubmed
    The dachsous (ds) gene encodes a member of the cadherin family involved in the non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway that controls the establishment of planar cell polarity (PCP) in Drosophila...
  49. Rawls A, Guinto J, Wolff T. The cadherins fat and dachsous regulate dorsal/ventral signaling in the Drosophila eye. Curr Biol. 2002;12:1021-6 pubmed
    ..We report the role of two cadherins, Fat (Ft) and Dachsous (Ds), in conveying the polarizing signal from the D/V midline in the Drosophila eye...
  50. Willecke M, Hamaratoglu F, Sansores Garcia L, Tao C, Halder G. Boundaries of Dachsous Cadherin activity modulate the Hippo signaling pathway to induce cell proliferation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:14897-902 pubmed publisher
    ..Fat not only regulates growth but also planar cell polarity, for which it interacts with the Dachsous (Ds) Cadherin, and Four-jointed (Fj), a transmembrane kinase that modulates the interaction between Ds and Fat...
  51. Ziosi M, Baena Lopez L, Grifoni D, Froldi F, Pession A, Garoia F, et al. dMyc functions downstream of Yorkie to promote the supercompetitive behavior of hippo pathway mutant cells. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1001140 pubmed publisher
  52. Panousopoulou E, Green J. Spindle orientation processes in epithelial growth and organisation. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2014;34:124-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Coupling between growth perpendicular to and within epithelial planes is recognised, but so are exceptions, as is the often passive role of spindle orientation sometimes hitherto considered to be an active driver of directional growth. ..
  53. Carvajal Gonzalez J, Mlodzik M. Mechanisms of planar cell polarity establishment in Drosophila. F1000Prime Rep. 2014;6:98 pubmed publisher
    ..In Drosophila, all adult structures display PCP features, and two conserved molecular systems (the Fat [Ft]/Dachsous [Ds] system and the Frizzled [Fz]/PCP pathway) that regulate this process have been identified...
  54. Dearborn R, Kunes S. An axon scaffold induced by retinal axons directs glia to destinations in the Drosophila optic lobe. Development. 2004;131:2291-303 pubmed
    ..Moreover, glia follow the aberrant pathways of scaffold axons that project aberrantly, as occurs in the mutant dachsous. The local absence of glia is accompanied by extensive apoptosis of optic lobe cortical neurons...
  55. Zhu H, Luo L. Diverse functions of N-cadherin in dendritic and axonal terminal arborization of olfactory projection neurons. Neuron. 2004;42:63-75 pubmed
    ..Although the N-cadherin locus potentially encodes eight alternatively spliced isoforms, transgenic expression of one isoform is sufficient to rescue all phenotypes. ..
  56. Matis M, Russler Germain D, Hu Q, Tomlin C, Axelrod J. Microtubules provide directional information for core PCP function. elife. 2014;3:e02893 pubmed publisher
    ..Two molecular modules composed of Fat(Ft)/Dachsous(Ds)/Four-jointed(Fj) and a 'PCP-core' including Frizzled(Fz) and Dishevelled(Dsh) contribute to polarization of ..