Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Drs
Alias: BcDNA:LP03851, CG10810, Crp, DIM 19, DRO, DROM, DROS, DRS, Dmel\CG10810, Drm, Drom, Dros, Droso, dmy1, drm, drom, drs, drsm, CG10810-PA, Cysteine-rich-protein, Drosomycin-B, Drs-PA, cysteine-rich peptide, drosomcycin, drosomyci, drosomycin, drosomycin precursor, drosomyocin, drosophila immune induced molecule 19
Species: fruit fly
- Binding of the Drosophila cytokine Spätzle to Toll is direct and establishes signalingAlexander N R Weber
Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, 80 Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1GA, United Kingdom
Nat Immunol 4:794-800. 2003..These results show that, in contrast to the human Toll-like receptors, Drosophila Toll requires only an endogenous protein ligand for activation and signaling...
- Drosophila host defense: differential induction of antimicrobial peptide genes after infection by various classes of microorganismsB Lemaitre
Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Unité Propre de Recherche 9022 du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 15 rue Rene Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:14614-9. 1997..This response is mediated through the selective activation of the Toll pathway...
- Circadian regulation in the ability of Drosophila to combat pathogenic infectionsJung Eun Lee
Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Rutgers University, 679 Hoes Lane, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA
Curr Biol 18:195-9. 2008..Our findings suggest that medical intervention strategies incorporating chronobiological considerations could enhance the innate immune response, boosting the efficacy of combating pathogenic infections...
- Uptake of the necrotic serpin in Drosophila melanogaster via the lipophorin receptor-1Sandra Fausia Soukup
Functional Genomics Unit, CIC bioGUNE, Derio, Spain
PLoS Genet 5:e1000532. 2009..The scavenging of serpin/proteinase complexes may be a critical step in the regulation of proteolytic cascades...
- The Drosophila caspase Dredd is required to resist gram-negative bacterial infectionF Leulier
Centre de Genetique Moleculaire, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France
EMBO Rep 1:353-8. 2000....
- The immune response of DrosophilaJules A Hoffmann
Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire du CNRS, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France
Nature 426:33-8. 2003..Recent progress in research on Drosophila immune defence provides evidence for similarities and differences between Drosophila immune responses and mammalian innate immunity...
- A serpin regulates dorsal-ventral axis formation in the Drosophila embryoPetros Ligoxygakis
Genetics Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QU, UK
Curr Biol 13:2097-102. 2003..Since this serpin has been recently shown to restrain an immune reaction in the blood of Drosophila, it demonstrates that proteolysis can be regulated by the same serpin in different biological contexts...
- The antibacterial arm of the drosophila innate immune response requires an IkappaB kinaseY Lu
Molecular Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, New York, New York 10021, USA
Genes Dev 15:104-10. 2001..The ird5 gene encodes a Drosophila homolog of mammalian IkappaB kinases (IKKs). The ird5 phenotype and sequence suggest that the gene is specifically required for the activation of Relish, a Drosophila NF-kappaB family member...
- Nitric oxide contributes to induction of innate immune responses to gram-negative bacteria in DrosophilaEdan Foley
Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
Genes Dev 17:115-25. 2003..We propose that NO mediates an early step of the signal transduction pathway, inducing the innate immune response upon natural infection with gram-negative bacteria...
- In vivo RNA interference analysis reveals an unexpected role for GNBP1 in the defense against Gram-positive bacterial infection in Drosophila adultsSebastien Pili-Floury
Centre de Genetique Moleculaire, CNRS, F 91198 Gif sur Yvette Cedex, France
J Biol Chem 279:12848-53. 2004..to Gram-positive bacterial infection and reduces the induction of the antifungal peptide encoding gene Drosomycin after infection by Gram-positive bacteria but not after fungal infection...
- Role of Drosophila IKK gamma in a toll-independent antibacterial immune responseS Rutschmann
Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, UPR 9022 du CNRS, 15, rue R Descartes, F67084 Strasbourg, France
Nat Immunol 1:342-7. 2000..Thus, in contrast to the vertebrate inflammatory response, IKK gamma is required for the activation of only one immune signaling pathway in Drosophila...
- Immunity regulatory DNAs share common organizational features in DrosophilaKate Senger
Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Division of Genetics and Development, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
Mol Cell 13:19-32. 2004..Aspects of this "regulatory code" are essential for the immune response. These results suggest that immunity regulatory DNAs contain constrained organizational features, which may be a general property of eukaryotic enhancers...
- Drosophila immune deficiency (IMD) is a death domain protein that activates antibacterial defense and can promote apoptosisP Georgel
Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, UPR 9022 du CNRS, Strasbourg, France
Dev Cell 1:503-14. 2001..We also show that imd is involved in the apoptotic response to UV irradiation. These data raise the possibility that antibacterial response and apoptosis share common control elements in Drosophila...
- Silencing of Toll pathway components by direct injection of double-stranded RNA into Drosophila adult fliesAkira Goto
UPR 9022 du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, 15 rue Rene Descartes, F 67084 Strasbourg CEDEX, France
Nucleic Acids Res 31:6619-23. 2003....
- Drosophila Toll is activated by Gram-positive bacteria through a circulating peptidoglycan recognition proteinT Michel
Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, UPR 9022 du CNRS, 15 rue Rene Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France
Nature 414:756-9. 2001..Interestingly, seml does not affect Toll activation by fungal infection, indicating the existence of a distinct recognition system for fungi to activate the Toll pathway...
- Drosophila MyD88 is required for the response to fungal and Gram-positive bacterial infectionsServane Tauszig-Delamasure
UPR9022 du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, 15, rue René Descartes, 67000 Strasbourg, France
Nat Immunol 3:91-7. 2002..Overexpression of DmMyD88 was sufficient to induce expression of the antifungal peptide Drosomycin, and induction of Drosomycin was markedly reduced in DmMyD88-mutant flies...
- Directed expression of the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu in Drosophila fat-body cells inhibits Toll-dependent immune responsesFrançois Leulier
Centre de Génétique Moléculaire Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Batiment 26, Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif sur Yvette, France
EMBO Rep 4:976-81. 2003....
- The Drosophila immune system detects bacteria through specific peptidoglycan recognitionFrançois Leulier
Centre de Génétique Moléculaire du CNRS, F 91198 Gif sur Yvette, France
Nat Immunol 4:478-84. 2003..Thus, the ability of Drosophila to discriminate between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria relies on the recognition of specific forms of peptidoglycan...
- The Drosophila immune response against Gram-negative bacteria is mediated by a peptidoglycan recognition proteinMarie Gottar
UPR 9022 du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, 15 rue Rene Descartes, F67084 Strasbourg, Cedex, France
Nature 416:640-4. 2002..The data on PGRP-SA with respect to the response to Gram-positive infections, together with the present report, indicate that the PGRP family has a principal role in sensing microbial infections in Drosophila...
- Activation of Drosophila Toll during fungal infection by a blood serine proteasePetros Ligoxygakis
Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, UPR 9022 du CNRS, 15 rue R Descartes, F67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France
Science 297:114-6. 2002..We show that ethylmethane sulfonate-induced mutations in the persephone gene, which encodes a previously unknown serine protease, block induction of the Toll pathway by fungi and resistance to this type of infection...
- Overexpression of a pattern-recognition receptor, peptidoglycan-recognition protein-LE, activates imd/relish-mediated antibacterial defense and the prophenoloxidase cascade in Drosophila larvaeAya Takehana
Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980 8578, Japan
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:13705-10. 2002..Therefore, PGRP-LE acts as a pattern-recognition receptor to the diaminopimelic acid-type peptidoglycan and activates both the proteolytic cascade and intracellular signaling in Drosophila immunity...
- Interactions between the cellular and humoral immune responses in DrosophilaM Elrod-Erickson
Whitehead Institute, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA
Curr Biol 10:781-4. 2000....
- Differential activation of the NF-kappaB-like factors Relish and Dif in Drosophila melanogaster by fungi and Gram-positive bacteriaMarika Hedengren-Olcott
Department of Zoology, Oregon State University, 220 Nash Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
J Biol Chem 279:21121-7. 2004....
- Gram-negative bacteria-binding protein, a pattern recognition receptor for lipopolysaccharide and beta-1,3-glucan that mediates the signaling for the induction of innate immune genes in Drosophila melanogaster cellsY S Kim
Laboratory of Immunology, BK21 Center for Medical Science and Medical Research Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 134 Shinchon dong, CPO Box 8044, Seoul, South Korea
J Biol Chem 275:32721-7. 2000....
- Antiviral immunity in Drosophila requires systemic RNA interference spreadMaria Carla Saleh
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco 94122 2280, USA
Nature 458:346-50. 2009..Thus, similar to protein-based immunity in vertebrates, the antiviral RNAi response in flies also relies on the systemic spread of a virus-specific immunity signal...
- The DExD/H-box helicase Dicer-2 mediates the induction of antiviral activity in drosophilaSafia Deddouche
Unité Propre de Recherche 9022, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, 67084 Strasbourg, France
Nat Immunol 9:1425-32. 2008..We propose that this family represents an evolutionary conserved set of sensors that detect viral nucleic acids and direct antiviral responses...
- PGRP-LC and PGRP-LE have essential yet distinct functions in the drosophila immune response to monomeric DAP-type peptidoglycanTakashi Kaneko
Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, USA
Nat Immunol 7:715-23. 2006..These data demonstrate that like mammals, drosophila use both extracellular and intracellular receptors, which have conserved signaling mechanisms, for innate immune recognition...
- A drosomycin-GFP reporter transgene reveals a local immune response in Drosophila that is not dependent on the Toll pathwayD Ferrandon
Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, UPR 9022 du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 15, rue René Descartes, F67084 Strasbourg, France
EMBO J 17:1217-27. 1998..One of these peptides, drosomycin, is active primarily against fungi...
- Drosophila Serpin-28D regulates hemolymph phenoloxidase activity and adult pigmentationChristoph Scherfer
Centre de Genetique Moleculaire, CNRS, 91198 Gif sur Yvette, France
Dev Biol 323:189-96. 2008..This study further highlights the complexity of the proPO cascade that can be differentially regulated in different tissues during development...
- Differential display of peptides induced during the immune response of Drosophila: a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry studyS Uttenweiler-Joseph
Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Unité Propre de Recherche 9022 du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 15, rue René Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:11342-7. 1998..Finally, molecular cloning and Northern blot analyses revealed that one of the DIMs is produced as a prepropeptide and is inducible on a bacterial challenge...
- Analysis of the Drosophila host defense in domino mutant larvae, which are devoid of hemocytesA Braun
Unité Propre de Recherche 9022, Réponse Immunitaire et Développement chez les Insectes, Institut de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire 15, rue René Descartes, F 67084 Strasbourg CEDEX, France
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:14337-42. 1998..By working in synergy, they provide Drosophila a highly effective defense against injury and/or infection...
- Toll receptor-mediated Drosophila immune response requires Dif, an NF-kappaB factorX Meng
Program in Molecular Medicine, Department of Cell Biology, and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605 USA
Genes Dev 13:792-7. 1999..The results show that the presence of Dif without Dorsal is sufficient to mediate the induction of drosomycin and defensin...
- Natural selection drives extremely rapid evolution in antiviral RNAi genesDarren J Obbard
Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, United Kingdom
Curr Biol 16:580-5. 2006..This is a signature of host-pathogen arms races and implies that the ancient battle between RNA viruses and host antiviral RNAi genes is active and significant in shaping RNAi function...
- The phytopathogenic bacteria Erwinia carotovora infects Drosophila and activates an immune responseA Basset
Centre de Genetique Moleculaire, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, F 91198 Gif sur Yvette Cedex, France
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:3376-81. 2000....
- The Toll pathway is important for an antiviral response in DrosophilaRobert A Zambon
Center for Biosystems Research, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, College Park, MD 20742, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:7257-62. 2005..Additionally, our results demonstrate the validity of using a genetic approach to identify genes and pathways used in viral innate immune responses in Drosophila...
- Relish, a central factor in the control of humoral but not cellular immunity in DrosophilaM Hedengren
Umeå Center for Molecular Pathogenesis, Umea University, Sweden
Mol Cell 4:827-37. 1999..Our results illustrate the importance of the humoral response in Drosophila immunity and demonstrate that Relish plays a key role in this response...
- Constitutive activation of toll-mediated antifungal defense in serpin-deficient DrosophilaE A Levashina
UPR 9022 CNRS, Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, 15 rue Rene Descartes, Strasbourg 67084, France
Science 285:1917-9. 1999..blood serine protease inhibitor, Spn43Ac, was shown to lead to constitutive expression of the antifungal peptide drosomycin, and this effect was mediated by the spaetzle and Toll gene products...
- Down-regulation of NF-kappaB target genes by the AP-1 and STAT complex during the innate immune response in DrosophilaLark Kyun Kim
Department of Biochemistry, National Creative Research Initiative Center for Genome Regulation, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea
PLoS Biol 5:e238. 2007..We conclude that an inhibitory effect of AP-1 and STAT on NF-kappaB is required for properly balanced immune responses and appears to be evolutionarily conserved...
- A mosaic analysis in Drosophila fat body cells of the control of antimicrobial peptide genes by the Rel proteins Dorsal and DIFP Manfruelli
Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, UPR 9022 du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 15, rue René Descartes, F 67084 Strasbourg CEDEX, France
EMBO J 18:3380-91. 1999Expression of the gene encoding the antifungal peptide Drosomycin in Drosophila adults is controlled by the Toll signaling pathway...
- A recessive mutation, immune deficiency (imd), defines two distinct control pathways in the Drosophila host defenseB Lemaitre
Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Unité Propre de Recherche 9022 du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Strasbourg, France
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92:9465-9. 1995..We also report that, in contrast to the antibacterial peptides, the antifungal peptide drosomycin remains inducible in a homozygous imd mutant background...
- Dual activation of the Drosophila toll pathway by two pattern recognition receptorsVanessa Gobert
Unité Propre de Recherche 9022 du CNRS, Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, 15 rue Rene Descartes, F67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France
Science 302:2126-30. 2003..The potential for a combination of distinct proteins to mediate detection of infectious nonself in the fly will refine the concept of pattern recognition in insects...
- A serpin that regulates immune melanization in the respiratory system of DrosophilaHuaping Tang
Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
Dev Cell 15:617-26. 2008..tracheal melanization resulting from Spn77Ba disruption induces systemic expression of the antifungal peptide Drosomycin via the Toll pathway...
- Signaling role of hemocytes in Drosophila JAK/STAT-dependent response to septic injuryHerve Agaisse
Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, 200 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Dev Cell 5:441-50. 2003....
- Short-term starvation of immune deficient Drosophila improves survival to gram-negative bacterial infectionsAnthony E Brown
Genetics Unit Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
PLoS ONE 4:e4490. 2009..Since the TIR-NF-kappaB circuit is a conserved component of the host defence in higher animals, genetically tractable models may contribute ideas for clinical interventions...
- Requirement for a peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP) in Relish activation and antibacterial immune responses in DrosophilaKwang Min Choe
Molecular Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
Science 296:359-62. 2002....
- The Rel protein DIF mediates the antifungal but not the antibacterial host defense in DrosophilaS Rutschmann
Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, UPR 9022 du CNRS, Strasbourg, France
Immunity 12:569-80. 2000..demonstrate that Dif mediates the Toll-dependent control of the inducibility of the antifungal peptide gene Drosomycin. Strikingly, DIF alone is required for the antifungal response in adults, but is redundant in larvae with Dorsal,..
- Insect immunity. Septic injury of Drosophila induces the synthesis of a potent antifungal peptide with sequence homology to plant antifungal peptidesP Fehlbaum
Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, UPR 9022 Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Réponse Immunitaire et Développement chez les Insectes, Strasbourg, France
J Biol Chem 269:33159-63. 1994..This novel inducible peptide, which we propose to name drosomycin, shows a significant homology with a family of 5-kDa cysteine-rich plant antifungal peptides recently isolated ..
- Biological functions of the ISWI chromatin remodeling complex NURFPaul Badenhorst
Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda Maryland 20892 4255, USA
Genes Dev 16:3186-98. 2002..Finally, mutants in NURF subunits exhibit neoplastic transformation of larval blood cells that causes melanotic tumors to form...
- A Drosophila ortholog of the human cylindromatosis tumor suppressor gene regulates triglyceride content and antibacterial defenseTheodore Tsichritzis
Institute of Immunology, Biomedical Sciences Research Center Al Fleming, 34 Al Fleming Street, 16672 Vari, Greece
Development 134:2605-14. 2007..All mutant phenotypes described were reversible upon conditional expression of CYLD transgenes. Our results implicate CYLD in a broad range of functions associated with fat homeostasis and host defence in Drosophila...
- Function of the drosophila pattern-recognition receptor PGRP-SD in the detection of Gram-positive bacteriaVincent Bischoff
Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, CNRS UPR 9022, 15 rue Rene Descartes, Universite Louis Pasteur, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France
Nat Immunol 5:1175-80. 2004..These data indicate that PGRP-SD can function as a receptor for Gram-positive bacteria and shows partial redundancy with the PGRP-SA-GNBP1 complex...
- Clustering of peptidoglycan recognition protein-SA is required for sensing lysine-type peptidoglycan in insectsJi Won Park
National Research Laboratory of Defense Proteins, College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, Busan 609 735, Korea
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:6602-7. 2007....
- Sex-specific variation in the emphasis, inducibility and timing of the post-mating immune response in Drosophila melanogasterWade E Winterhalter
Department of Biology, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Boulevard, Orlando, FL 32816, USA
Proc Biol Sci 276:1109-17. 2009..Our results suggest that variation in the effectiveness of the immune response between the sexes may be driven by differences in emphasis rather than overall investment...
- Transcriptional profiling of the sperm storage organs of Drosophila melanogasterA M Prokupek
School of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA
Insect Mol Biol 18:465-75. 2009..Differences in functional gene categories indicate that these organs play unique roles in sperm storage...
- Upregulation of genes belonging to the drosomycin family in diapausing adults of Drosophila triaurariaS Daibo
Graduate School of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060 0810, Japan
Gene 278:177-84. 2001..hybridization have similarity to genes encoding antifungal peptides of Drosophila melanogaster, members of the drosomycin family (drosomycin, CG10812, CG10813, CG10815 and CG11520)...
- Discrete functions of TRAF1 and TRAF2 in Drosophila melanogaster mediated by c-Jun N-terminal kinase and NF-kappaB-dependent signaling pathwaysGuang Ho Cha
National Creative Research Initiatives Center for Cell Growth Regulation, and Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373 1 Kusong Dong, Yusong, Taejon 305 701, Republic of Korea
Mol Cell Biol 23:7982-91. 2003..activating the transcription of the antimicrobial peptide genes diptericin, diptericin-like protein, and drosomycin. Consistently, the null mutant of DTRAF2 showed immune deficiencies in which NF-kappaB nuclear translocation and ..
- Expression and regulation of Spätzle-processing enzyme in DrosophilaShai Mulinari
Department of Experimental Medical Science and Lund Strategic Research Center for Stem Cell Biology and Cell Therapy, Lund University, BMC B13, Klinikgatan 26, 22184 Lund, Sweden
FEBS Lett 580:5406-10. 2006....
- Interaction and specificity of Rel-related proteins in regulating Drosophila immunity gene expressionZ S Han
Program in Molecular Medicine, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, USA
J Biol Chem 274:21355-61. 1999..Furthermore, the drosomycin and defensin expression is best induced by the Relish/Dif and the Relish/Dorsal heterodimers, respectively, ..
- Activation of the innate immunity in Drosophila by endogenous chromosomal DNA that escaped apoptotic degradationNaomi Mukae
Department of Genetics, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
Genes Dev 16:2662-71. 2002..These results indicated that CAD and DNase II work independently to degrade chromosomal DNA during apoptosis, and if the DNA is left undigested, it can activate the innate immunity in Drosophila...
- Cooperative regulation of the induction of the novel antibacterial Listericin by peptidoglycan recognition protein LE and the JAK-STAT pathwayAkira Goto
Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980 8578, Japan
J Biol Chem 285:15731-8. 2010..Based on these findings, we propose that the Listericin gene encodes a novel antibacterial peptide-like protein whose induction is cooperatively regulated by PGRP-LE and the JAK-STAT pathway...
- Splice-activated UAS hairpin vector gives complete RNAi knockout of single or double target transcripts in Drosophila melanogasterJean-Marc Reichhart
UPR 9022 C. N. R. S, , Strasbourg, France
Genesis 34:160-4. 2002
- Critical evaluation of the role of the Toll-like receptor 18-Wheeler in the host defense of DrosophilaPetros Ligoxygakis
Institut de Biologie Moléculaire and Cellulaire, Strasbourg Cedex, France
EMBO Rep 3:666-73. 2002..18-Wheeler does not qualify as a pattern recognition receptor of Gram-negative bacteria...
- Constitutive expression of a single antimicrobial peptide can restore wild-type resistance to infection in immunodeficient Drosophila mutantsPhoebe Tzou
Centre de Genetique Moleculaire, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 91198 Gif sur Yvette, France
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:2152-7. 2002....
- Sensing of Gram-positive bacteria in Drosophila: GNBP1 is needed to process and present peptidoglycan to PGRP-SALihui Wang
Genetics Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
EMBO J 25:5005-14. 2006..We propose a model whereby GNBP1 presents a processed form of PG for sensing by PGRP-SA and that a tripartite interaction between these proteins and PG is essential for downstream signaling...
- Two proteases defining a melanization cascade in the immune system of DrosophilaHuaping Tang
Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
J Biol Chem 281:28097-104. 2006..We have also shown that the melanization reaction activated by MP1 and MP2 plays an important role in augmenting the effectiveness of other immune reactions, thereby promoting resistance of Drosophila to microbial infection...
- Weckle is a zinc finger adaptor of the toll pathway in dorsoventral patterning of the Drosophila embryoLi ying Chen
Department of Life Science, Institute of Molecular Medicine, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30034, Republic of China
Curr Biol 16:1183-93. 2006..weckle (wek) was previously identified as a new dorsal group gene that encodes a putative zinc finger transcription factor. However, its role in the Toll pathway was unknown...
- Caspar, a suppressor of antibacterial immunity in DrosophilaMyungjin Kim
National Creative Research Initiatives Center for Cell Growth Regulation and Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373 1 Kusong Dong, Yusong, Taejon 305 701, Korea
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:16358-63. 2006..Collectively, our elucidation of an inhibitory mechanism of the Imd pathway by Caspar will provide a valuable insight into understanding complex regulatory mechanisms of the innate immune systems in both Drosophila and mammals...
- Related signaling networks in Drosophila that control dorsoventral patterning in the embryo and the immune responseL P Wu
Molecular Biology Program, Sloan-Kettering Institute, New York, New York 10021, USA
Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 62:97-103. 1997
- The peptidoglycan recognition protein PGRP-SC1a is essential for Toll signaling and phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus in DrosophilaLindsey S Garver
Center for Biosystems Research, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, 5115 Plant Sciences Building, College Park, MD 20742, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:660-5. 2006....
- Toll-dependent antimicrobial responses in Drosophila larval fat body require Spätzle secreted by haemocytesAlice K H Shia
Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
J Cell Sci 122:4505-15. 2009..Expression of the AMP gene drosomycin (a Toll target) was blocked when expression of the Toll ligand Spätzle was knocked down in haemocytes...
- Drosomycin, an innate immunity peptide of Drosophila melanogaster, interacts with the fly voltage-gated sodium channelLior Cohen
Department of Plant Sciences, George S Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
J Biol Chem 284:23558-63. 2009..The high structural similarity between two peptides containing this scaffold, drosomycin and a truncated scorpion beta-toxin, has prompted us to examine and compare their biological effects...
- Metchnikowin, a novel immune-inducible proline-rich peptide from Drosophila with antibacterial and antifungal propertiesE A Levashina
Department of Genetics and Breeding, St Petersburg State University, Russia
Eur J Biochem 233:694-700. 1995..The novel peptide, which we propose to name metchnikowin, is a member of a family of proline-rich peptides, and we discuss the possible evolutionary relationships within this family...
- The dorsoventral regulatory gene cassette spätzle/Toll/cactus controls the potent antifungal response in Drosophila adultsB Lemaitre
Institut de Biologie Moléculaire at Cellulaire, UPR 9022 du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Strasbourg, France
Cell 86:973-83. 1996..for dorsal) and the extracellular Toll ligand, spätzle, control expression of the antifungal peptide gene drosomycin in adults...
- Determination of the disulfide array of the first inducible antifungal peptide from insects: drosomycin from Drosophila melanogasterL Michaut
Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Réponse Immunitaire et Développement chezles Insectes, Strasbourg, France
FEBS Lett 395:6-10. 1996b>Drosomycin is a 44-residue antifungal peptide with four intramolecular disulfide bridges which have been isolated from immune-challenged Drosophila...
- Antimicrobial peptide defense in DrosophilaM Meister
UPR 9022, Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Strasbourg, France
Bioessays 19:1019-26. 1997..Recent data on the molecular mechanisms underlying recognition of non-self are also discussed in this review...
- In vivo regulation of the IkappaB homologue cactus during the immune response of DrosophilaE Nicolas
Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, UPR 9022 du CNRS, 15 rue Rene Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France
J Biol Chem 273:10463-9. 1998..This degradation is also dependent on the Toll signaling pathway. Altogether, our results underline the striking similarities between the regulation of IkappaB and cactus during the immune response...
- Two distinct pathways can control expression of the gene encoding the Drosophila antimicrobial peptide metchnikowinE A Levashina
Réponse Immunitaire et Développement chez les Insectes, UPR 9022 du CNRS, Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, 15 rue Rene Descartes, Strasbourg, 67000, France
J Mol Biol 278:515-27. 1998..5 kb of metchnikowin gene upstream sequences indicates that this fragment is able to confer full immune inducibility and tissue specificity of expression on the transgene...
- Drosophila immunity: a large-scale in vivo RNAi screen identifies five serine proteases required for Toll activationZakaria Kambris
Centre de Genetique Moleculaire, CNRS, Gif sur Yvette, France
Curr Biol 16:808-13. 2006..These results demonstrate the existence of a common cascade of SPs upstream of Spz, integrating signals sent by various secreted recognition molecules via more specialized SPs...
- The homeobox gene Caudal regulates constitutive local expression of antimicrobial peptide genes in Drosophila epitheliaJi Hwan Ryu
Division of Molecular Life Science and Center for Cell Signaling Research, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, South Korea
Mol Cell Biol 24:172-85. 2004..modulator that is responsible for the constitutive local expression of antimicrobial peptides cecropin and drosomycin in a tissue-specific manner...
- Immune response of Drosophila melanogaster to infection with the flagellate parasite Crithidia sppN Boulanger
Réponse Immunitaire et Développement chez les Insectes, UPR 9022 du CNRS, Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, 15 rue Rene Descartes, 67000, Strasbourg, France
Insect Biochem Mol Biol 31:129-37. 2001..The data presented here suggest that Drosophila-Crithidia spp. represents an interesting model to study host defense against protozoan parasites...
- Drosophila hemolectin gene is expressed in embryonic and larval hemocytes and its knock down causes bleeding defectsAkira Goto
Graduate Program for Regulation of Biological Signals, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464 8601, Japan
Dev Biol 264:582-91. 2003..The expression of antimicrobial peptides was not significantly affected on hml RNAi adults. Altogether, our data strongly suggest that Hml is involved in hemostasis and/or coagulation in Drosophila larvae...
- DNase II: genes, enzymes and functionCory J Evans
Department of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
Gene 322:1-15. 2003..In this review, we have compiled information from studies on DNase II from various organisms to provide a consensus model for the role of DNase II enzymes in DNA degradation...
- Microfluorometer assay to measure the expression of beta-galactosidase and green fluorescent protein reporter genes in single Drosophila fliesA C Jung
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Strasbourg, France
Biotechniques 30:594-8, 600-1. 2001..This method may be used in any screen that requires the quantification of reporter gene activity in individual insects...
- Role of Toll-like receptors in pathogen recognitionS Janssens
Unit for Molecular Signal Transduction in Inflammation, Department of Molecular Biomedical Research, Ghent University VIB, B 9052 Ghent, Belgium
Clin Microbiol Rev 16:637-46. 2003..The fact that TLR expression is regulated in both a cell type- and stimulus-dependent fashion further contributes to the complexity...
- Chromatin loosening by poly(ADP)-ribose polymerase (PARP) at Drosophila puff lociAlexei Tulin
Howard Hughes Medical Research Laboratories, Embryology Department, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 115 West University Parkway, Baltimore, MD 21210, USA
Science 299:560-2. 2003..Such local loosening may facilitate transcription and may transiently make protein complexes more accessible to modification, promoting chromatin remodeling during development...
- Flies kNOw how to signalNeal Silverman
Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 364 Plantation Road, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
Dev Cell 4:5-6. 2003..NO-mediated signaling was implicated in the communication between the site of a localized infection and the major immune organ of the fly, the fat body...
- Tissue-specific inducible expression of antimicrobial peptide genes in Drosophila surface epitheliaP Tzou
Centre de Génétique Moléculaire du CNRS, 91198 Gif sur Yvette, France
Immunity 13:737-48. 2000..The imd gene plays a critical role in the activation of this local response to infection. In particular, drosomycin expression, which is regulated by the Toll pathway during the systemic response, is regulated by imd in the ..
- members only encodes a Drosophila nucleoporin required for rel protein import and immune response activationA E Uv
Umeâ Center for Molecular Pathogenesis UCMP, Umea University, S 90187 Umea, Sweden
Genes Dev 14:1945-57. 2000..Our results demonstrate that distinct nuclear import events require different nucleoporins in vivo and suggest a regulatory role for mbo in signal transduction...
- Similar gene expression patterns characterize aging and oxidative stress in Drosophila melanogasterGary N Landis
Molecular and Computational Biology Program, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089 1340, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:7663-8. 2004..Immune reporter expression in young flies was partially predictive of remaining life span, suggesting their potential as biomonitors of aging...
- Phylogenetic perspectives in innate immunityJ A Hoffmann
Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, CNRS, Strasbourg, 67084, France
Science 284:1313-8. 1999..In addition to its role in the early phase of defense, innate immunity in mammals appears to play a key role in stimulating the subsequent, clonal response of adaptive immunity...
- dUbc9 negatively regulates the Toll-NF-kappa B pathways in larval hematopoiesis and drosomycin activation in DrosophilaHsiling Chiu
Department of Functional Genomics, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, 100 Technology Square Bldg 601 Rm 6404, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
Dev Biol 288:60-72. 2005..In the larval fat body, dUbc9 negatively regulates the expression of the antifungal peptide gene drosomycin, which is constitutively expressed in dUbc9 mutants in the absence of immune challenge...
- Drosophila sex-peptide stimulates female innate immune system after mating via the Toll and Imd pathwaysJing Peng
Zoological Institute, University of Zurich Irchel, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
Curr Biol 15:1690-4. 2005..Both pathways are needed for Mtk induction by SP. Furthermore, SP induces additional AMP genes via the Toll (Drosomycin) and the Imd (Diptericin) pathways...
- The evolution of antifungal peptides in DrosophilaFrancis M Jiggins
Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Ashworth Lab, King s Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, Scotland
Genetics 171:1847-59. 2005..the selection pressures acting on Drosophila antifungal peptides (drosomycins) from both the divergence of drosomycin genes within and between five species of Drosophila and polymorphism data from Drosophila simulans and D...
- Lipopolysaccharide-activated kinase, an essential component for the induction of the antimicrobial peptide genes in Drosophila melanogaster cellsY S Kim
Laboratory of Immunology, Medical Research Center, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Shinchon Dong 134, Seoul, South Korea
J Biol Chem 275:2071-9. 2000..These results establish that DLAK is a novel LPS-activated kinase, which is an essential signaling component for the induction of antimicrobial peptide genes following LPS treatment in Drosophila cells...
- A Drosophila p38 orthologue is required for environmental stress responsesCaroline R Craig
Department of Molecular Biology and Pharmacology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S Euclid Avenue, Campus Box 8103, Saint Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
EMBO Rep 5:1058-63. 2004..These phenotypes only partially overlap those caused by mutations in D-MEKK1 and dTAK1, suggesting that the D-p38a gene is required to mediate some, but not all, of the functions ascribed to p38 signalling...
- A Drosophila pattern recognition receptor contains a peptidoglycan docking groove and unusual L,D-carboxypeptidase activityChung I Chang
Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA
PLoS Biol 2:E277. 2004....
- The Drosophila atypical protein kinase C-ref(2)p complex constitutes a conserved module for signaling in the toll pathwayAntonia Avila
Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Universidad Autonoma, Canto Blanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain
Mol Cell Biol 22:8787-95. 2002..downstream of the nuclear translocation of Dorsal or Dif, controlling the transcriptional activity of the Drosomycin promoter...
- The Drosophila inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) DIAP2 is dispensable for cell survival, required for the innate immune response to gram-negative bacterial infection, and can be negatively regulated by the reaper/hid/grim family of IAP-binding apoptosis induceJun R Huh
Division of Biology, MC 156 29, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA
J Biol Chem 282:2056-68. 2007..Therefore, diap2 may identify a point of convergence between apoptosis and immune signaling pathways...
- Expression and evolution of the Drosophila attacin/diptericin gene familyM Hedengren
Umea Centre for Molecular Pathogenesis, Umea University, Umea, S 901 87, Sweden
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 279:574-81. 2000..This induction is reduced in imd mutants, and unexpectedly also in Tl(-) mutants. The 18w mutation particularly affects the induction of AttC, which may be a useful marker for 18w signaling...
- REGULATION OF IMMUNE RESPONSE AND CELL GROWTHDEBORAH KIMBRELL; Fiscal Year: 2001..abstract_text> ..