Drs

Summary

Gene Symbol: Drs
Description: Drosomycin
Alias: BcDNA:LP03851, CG10810, Crp, DIM 19, DIM 21, DRO, DROM, DROS, DRS, Dmel\CG10810, Drm, Drom, Dros, Droso, IM21, dmy1, drm, drom, dros, drs, drsm, drosomycin, CG10810-PA, Cysteine-rich-protein, Drosomycin-B, Drs-PA, cysteine-rich peptide, drosomcycin, drosomyci, drosomycin precursor, drosomycine, drosomyocin, drosomysin, drosophila immune induced molecule 19, immune induced molecule 21
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Foley E, O Farrell P. Nitric oxide contributes to induction of innate immune responses to gram-negative bacteria in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 2003;17:115-25 pubmed
    ..We propose that NO mediates an early step of the signal transduction pathway, inducing the innate immune response upon natural infection with gram-negative bacteria. ..
  2. Ferreira Ã, Naylor H, Esteves S, Pais I, Martins N, Teixeira L. The Toll-dorsal pathway is required for resistance to viral oral infection in Drosophila. PLoS Pathog. 2014;10:e1004507 pubmed publisher
    ..These results contribute to a better understanding of viral oral infection resistance in insects, which is particularly relevant in the context of transmission of arboviruses by insect vectors. ..
  3. Pili Floury S, Leulier F, Takahashi K, Saigo K, Samain E, Ueda R, et al. In vivo RNA interference analysis reveals an unexpected role for GNBP1 in the defense against Gram-positive bacterial infection in Drosophila adults. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:12848-53 pubmed
    ..to Gram-positive bacterial infection and reduces the induction of the antifungal peptide encoding gene Drosomycin after infection by Gram-positive bacteria but not after fungal infection...
  4. Leclerc V, Pelte N, El Chamy L, Martinelli C, Ligoxygakis P, Hoffmann J, et al. Prophenoloxidase activation is not required for survival to microbial infections in Drosophila. EMBO Rep. 2006;7:231-5 pubmed
    ..This raises the question with regard to the precise function of phenoloxidase activation in defence, if any. ..
  5. Gueguen G, Kalamarz M, Ramroop J, Uribe J, Govind S. Polydnaviral ankyrin proteins aid parasitic wasp survival by coordinate and selective inhibition of hematopoietic and immune NF-kappa B signaling in insect hosts. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003580 pubmed publisher
  6. Chamilos G, Lewis R, Hu J, Xiao L, Zal T, Gilliet M, et al. Drosophila melanogaster as a model host to dissect the immunopathogenesis of zygomycosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:9367-72 pubmed publisher
    ..exhibited increased susceptibility to Zygomycetes, whereas constitutive overexpression of the antifungal peptide Drosomycin in transgenic flies partially restored resistance to zygomycosis. D...
  7. Paddibhatla I, Lee M, Kalamarz M, Ferrarese R, Govind S. Role for sumoylation in systemic inflammation and immune homeostasis in Drosophila larvae. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1001234 pubmed publisher
  8. Basset A, Khush R, Braun A, Gardan L, Boccard F, Hoffmann J, et al. The phytopathogenic bacteria Erwinia carotovora infects Drosophila and activates an immune response. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:3376-81 pubmed
  9. Kallio J, Myllymäki H, Grönholm J, Armstrong M, Vanha aho L, Mäkinen L, et al. Eye transformer is a negative regulator of Drosophila JAK/STAT signaling. FASEB J. 2010;24:4467-79 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we have identified ET as a novel negative regulator of the Drosophila JAK/STAT pathway both in vitro and in vivo, and it functions in regulating Stat92E phosphorylation. ..

More Information

Publications100

  1. Sibley C, Duan K, Fischer C, Parkins M, Storey D, Rabin H, et al. Discerning the complexity of community interactions using a Drosophila model of polymicrobial infections. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000184 pubmed publisher
    ..aeruginosa. ..
  2. Becker T, Loch G, Beyer M, Zinke I, Aschenbrenner A, Carrera P, et al. FOXO-dependent regulation of innate immune homeostasis. Nature. 2010;463:369-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Molecular experiments at the Drosomycin promoter indicate that FOXO directly binds to its regulatory region, thereby inducing its transcription...
  3. Zhang Z, Zhu S. Drosomycin, an essential component of antifungal defence in Drosophila. Insect Mol Biol. 2009;18:549-56 pubmed publisher
    b>Drosomycin is an inducible antifungal peptide of 44 residues initially isolated from bacteria-challenged Drosophila melanogaster...
  4. Gendrin M, Welchman D, Poidevin M, Hervé M, Lemaitre B. Long-range activation of systemic immunity through peptidoglycan diffusion in Drosophila. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000694 pubmed publisher
    ..Genital infection is thus an intriguing new model for studying the systemic immune response to local epithelial infections and a potential route of entry for naturally occurring pathogens of Drosophila...
  5. Kambris Z, Brun S, Jang I, Nam H, Romeo Y, Takahashi K, et al. Drosophila immunity: a large-scale in vivo RNAi screen identifies five serine proteases required for Toll activation. Curr Biol. 2006;16:808-13 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate the existence of a common cascade of SPs upstream of Spz, integrating signals sent by various secreted recognition molecules via more specialized SPs. ..
  6. Tzou P, Reichhart J, Lemaitre B. Constitutive expression of a single antimicrobial peptide can restore wild-type resistance to infection in immunodeficient Drosophila mutants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:2152-7 pubmed
  7. Abdelsadik A, Roeder T. Chronic activation of the epithelial immune system of the fruit fly's salivary glands has a negative effect on organismal growth and induces a peculiar set of target genes. BMC Genomics. 2010;11:265 pubmed publisher
  8. Glittenberg M, Silas S, MacCallum D, Gow N, Ligoxygakis P. Wild-type Drosophila melanogaster as an alternative model system for investigating the pathogenicity of Candida albicans. Dis Model Mech. 2011;4:504-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Undoubtedly, it will prove to be a valuable addition to the model systems currently used to study C. albicans infection...
  9. Chrostek E, Marialva M, Yamada R, O Neill S, Teixeira L. High anti-viral protection without immune upregulation after interspecies Wolbachia transfer. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e99025 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, we prove that stable transinfection with a highly protective Wolbachia is not necessarily associated with general immune activation. ..
  10. Tian C, Gao B, Rodriguez M, Lanz Mendoza H, Ma B, Zhu S. Gene expression, antiparasitic activity, and functional evolution of the drosomycin family. Mol Immunol. 2008;45:3909-16 pubmed publisher
    Drosophila employs various antimicrobial peptides as effective weapons to defend against diverse pathogens. Drosomycin is an inducible antifungal peptide initially isolated from the Drosophila melanogaster haemolymph...
  11. Yagi Y, Nishida Y, Ip Y. Functional analysis of Toll-related genes in Drosophila. Dev Growth Differ. 2010;52:771-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall our results suggest that some of the Toll-related proteins, such as 18W, Toll-7 and Toll-8, may have redundant functions in regulating developmental processes. ..
  12. Tsai C, McGraw E, Ammar E, Dietzgen R, Hogenhout S. Drosophila melanogaster mounts a unique immune response to the Rhabdovirus sigma virus. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:3251-6 pubmed publisher
    ..SIGMAV infection did not induce PGRP-SA and the AMP genes Drosomycin-B, Metchnikowin, and Defensin that are upregulated in DCV and/or DXV infections...
  13. Seong K, Kim C, Lee B, Nam S, Yang K, Kim J, et al. Low-dose radiation induces Drosophila innate immunity through Toll pathway activation. J Radiat Res. 2012;53:242-9 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that innate immunity is activated after low-dose irradiation through Toll signaling pathway in Drosophila. ..
  14. Hedengren Olcott M, Olcott M, Mooney D, Ekengren S, Geller B, Taylor B. Differential activation of the NF-kappaB-like factors Relish and Dif in Drosophila melanogaster by fungi and Gram-positive bacteria. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:21121-7 pubmed
  15. Lemaitre B, Kromer Metzger E, Michaut L, Nicolas E, Meister M, Georgel P, et al. A recessive mutation, immune deficiency (imd), defines two distinct control pathways in the Drosophila host defense. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:9465-9 pubmed
    ..We also report that, in contrast to the antibacterial peptides, the antifungal peptide drosomycin remains inducible in a homozygous imd mutant background...
  16. DiAngelo J, Bland M, Bambina S, Cherry S, Birnbaum M. The immune response attenuates growth and nutrient storage in Drosophila by reducing insulin signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:20853-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that communication between these two regulatory systems evolved as a means to divert energy in times of need from organismal growth to the acute requirement of combating infection...
  17. Levashina E, Ohresser S, Bulet P, Reichhart J, Hetru C, Hoffmann J. Metchnikowin, a novel immune-inducible proline-rich peptide from Drosophila with antibacterial and antifungal properties. Eur J Biochem. 1995;233:694-700 pubmed
    ..The novel peptide, which we propose to name metchnikowin, is a member of a family of proline-rich peptides, and we discuss the possible evolutionary relationships within this family. ..
  18. Alarco A, Marcil A, Chen J, Suter B, Thomas D, Whiteway M. Immune-deficient Drosophila melanogaster: a model for the innate immune response to human fungal pathogens. J Immunol. 2004;172:5622-8 pubmed
    ..The genetic systems available in both host and pathogen will enable the identification of host-specific components and C. albicans genes involved in the host-fungal interplay. ..
  19. Martinez J, Longdon B, Bauer S, Chan Y, Miller W, Bourtzis K, et al. Symbionts commonly provide broad spectrum resistance to viruses in insects: a comparative analysis of Wolbachia strains. PLoS Pathog. 2014;10:e1004369 pubmed publisher
    ..The large variation in Wolbachia's antiviral properties highlights the need to carefully select Wolbachia strains introduced into mosquito populations to prevent the transmission of arboviruses. ..
  20. Hedengren M, Borge K, Hultmark D. Expression and evolution of the Drosophila attacin/diptericin gene family. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000;279:574-81 pubmed
    ..This induction is reduced in imd mutants, and unexpectedly also in Tl(-) mutants. The 18w mutation particularly affects the induction of AttC, which may be a useful marker for 18w signaling. ..
  21. Levashina E, Ohresser S, Lemaitre B, Imler J. Two distinct pathways can control expression of the gene encoding the Drosophila antimicrobial peptide metchnikowin. J Mol Biol. 1998;278:515-27 pubmed
    ..5 kb of metchnikowin gene upstream sequences indicates that this fragment is able to confer full immune inducibility and tissue specificity of expression on the transgene. ..
  22. Wang L, Weber A, Atilano M, Filipe S, Gay N, Ligoxygakis P. Sensing of Gram-positive bacteria in Drosophila: GNBP1 is needed to process and present peptidoglycan to PGRP-SA. EMBO J. 2006;25:5005-14 pubmed
    ..We propose a model whereby GNBP1 presents a processed form of PG for sensing by PGRP-SA and that a tripartite interaction between these proteins and PG is essential for downstream signaling. ..
  23. Tanji T, Yun E, Ip Y. Heterodimers of NF-kappaB transcription factors DIF and Relish regulate antimicrobial peptide genes in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:14715-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The DIF and Relish complex is detectable in whole animal extracts, suggesting that this heterodimer may function in vivo to increase the spectrum and level of antimicrobial peptide production in response to different infections. ..
  24. Chiu H, Ring B, Sorrentino R, Kalamarz M, Garza D, Govind S. dUbc9 negatively regulates the Toll-NF-kappa B pathways in larval hematopoiesis and drosomycin activation in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2005;288:60-72 pubmed
    ..In the larval fat body, dUbc9 negatively regulates the expression of the antifungal peptide gene drosomycin, which is constitutively expressed in dUbc9 mutants in the absence of immune challenge...
  25. Avadhanula V, Weasner B, Hardy G, Kumar J, Hardy R. A novel system for the launch of alphavirus RNA synthesis reveals a role for the Imd pathway in arthropod antiviral response. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000582 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings show that the Imd pathway mediates an antiviral response to Sindbis virus replication. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of an antiviral role for the Imd pathway in insects. ..
  26. Han Z, Ip Y. Interaction and specificity of Rel-related proteins in regulating Drosophila immunity gene expression. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:21355-61 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the drosomycin and defensin expression is best induced by the Relish/Dif and the Relish/Dorsal heterodimers, respectively, ..
  27. De Gregorio E, Han S, Lee W, Baek M, Osaki T, Kawabata S, et al. An immune-responsive Serpin regulates the melanization cascade in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2002;3:581-92 pubmed
    ..Our data demonstrate that Serpin-27A is required to restrict the phenoloxidase activity to the site of injury or infection, preventing the insect from excessive melanization. ..
  28. Nakamoto M, Moy R, Xu J, Bambina S, Yasunaga A, Shelly S, et al. Virus recognition by Toll-7 activates antiviral autophagy in Drosophila. Immunity. 2012;36:658-67 pubmed publisher
  29. Goto A, Kadowaki T, Kitagawa Y. Drosophila hemolectin gene is expressed in embryonic and larval hemocytes and its knock down causes bleeding defects. Dev Biol. 2003;264:582-91 pubmed
    ..The expression of antimicrobial peptides was not significantly affected on hml RNAi adults. Altogether, our data strongly suggest that Hml is involved in hemostasis and/or coagulation in Drosophila larvae. ..
  30. Hu X, Yagi Y, Tanji T, Zhou S, Ip Y. Multimerization and interaction of Toll and Spätzle in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:9369-74 pubmed
    ..a complex with Toll in transgenic fly extracts and stimulates the expression of a Toll-dependent immunity gene, drosomycin, in adult flies...
  31. Saleh M, Tassetto M, Van Rij R, Goic B, Gausson V, Berry B, et al. Antiviral immunity in Drosophila requires systemic RNA interference spread. Nature. 2009;458:346-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, similar to protein-based immunity in vertebrates, the antiviral RNAi response in flies also relies on the systemic spread of a virus-specific immunity signal. ..
  32. Gottar M, Gobert V, Michel T, Belvin M, Duyk G, Hoffmann J, et al. The Drosophila immune response against Gram-negative bacteria is mediated by a peptidoglycan recognition protein. Nature. 2002;416:640-4 pubmed
    ..The data on PGRP-SA with respect to the response to Gram-positive infections, together with the present report, indicate that the PGRP family has a principal role in sensing microbial infections in Drosophila. ..
  33. Gordon M, Dionne M, Schneider D, Nusse R. WntD is a feedback inhibitor of Dorsal/NF-kappaB in Drosophila development and immunity. Nature. 2005;437:746-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the wntD mutant phenotype is suppressed by loss of zygotic dorsal. These results describe the first secreted feedback antagonist of Toll signalling, and demonstrate a novel Wnt activity in the fly. ..
  34. Tsichritzis T, Gaentzsch P, Kosmidis S, Brown A, SKOULAKIS E, Ligoxygakis P, et al. A Drosophila ortholog of the human cylindromatosis tumor suppressor gene regulates triglyceride content and antibacterial defense. Development. 2007;134:2605-14 pubmed
    ..All mutant phenotypes described were reversible upon conditional expression of CYLD transgenes. Our results implicate CYLD in a broad range of functions associated with fat homeostasis and host defence in Drosophila. ..
  35. Ligoxygakis P, Pelte N, Hoffmann J, Reichhart J. Activation of Drosophila Toll during fungal infection by a blood serine protease. Science. 2002;297:114-6 pubmed
    ..We show that ethylmethane sulfonate-induced mutations in the persephone gene, which encodes a previously unknown serine protease, block induction of the Toll pathway by fungi and resistance to this type of infection. ..
  36. Filipe S, Tomasz A, Ligoxygakis P. Requirements of peptidoglycan structure that allow detection by the Drosophila Toll pathway. EMBO Rep. 2005;6:327-33 pubmed
    ..We suggest a model whereby GNBP1 is involved in the hydrolysis of Gram-positive peptidoglycan producing new glycan reducing ends, which are subsequently detected by PGRP-SA. ..
  37. Hoffmann J, Kafatos F, Janeway C, Ezekowitz R. Phylogenetic perspectives in innate immunity. Science. 1999;284:1313-8 pubmed
    ..In addition to its role in the early phase of defense, innate immunity in mammals appears to play a key role in stimulating the subsequent, clonal response of adaptive immunity. ..
  38. Landon C, Sodano P, Hetru C, Hoffmann J, Ptak M. Solution structure of drosomycin, the first inducible antifungal protein from insects. Protein Sci. 1997;6:1878-84 pubmed
    b>Drosomycin is the first antifungal protein characterized recently among the broad family of inducible peptides and proteins produced by insects to respond to bacterial or septic injuries...
  39. Rutschmann S, Jung A, Hetru C, Reichhart J, Hoffmann J, Ferrandon D. The Rel protein DIF mediates the antifungal but not the antibacterial host defense in Drosophila. Immunity. 2000;12:569-80 pubmed
    ..demonstrate that Dif mediates the Toll-dependent control of the inducibility of the antifungal peptide gene Drosomycin. Strikingly, DIF alone is required for the antifungal response in adults, but is redundant in larvae with Dorsal,..
  40. Lemaitre B, Nicolas E, Michaut L, Reichhart J, Hoffmann J. The dorsoventral regulatory gene cassette spätzle/Toll/cactus controls the potent antifungal response in Drosophila adults. Cell. 1996;86:973-83 pubmed
    ..for dorsal) and the extracellular Toll ligand, spätzle, control expression of the antifungal peptide gene drosomycin in adults...
  41. Tauszig Delamasure S, Bilak H, Capovilla M, Hoffmann J, Imler J. Drosophila MyD88 is required for the response to fungal and Gram-positive bacterial infections. Nat Immunol. 2002;3:91-7 pubmed
    ..Overexpression of DmMyD88 was sufficient to induce expression of the antifungal peptide Drosomycin, and induction of Drosomycin was markedly reduced in DmMyD88-mutant flies...
  42. Marek L, Kagan J. Phosphoinositide binding by the Toll adaptor dMyD88 controls antibacterial responses in Drosophila. Immunity. 2012;36:612-22 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore propose that dMyD88 is the functional homolog of TIRAP and that both proteins function as sorting adaptors to recruit downstream signaling adaptors to activated receptors. ..
  43. Landis G, Shen J, Tower J. Gene expression changes in response to aging compared to heat stress, oxidative stress and ionizing radiation in Drosophila melanogaster. Aging (Albany NY). 2012;4:768-89 pubmed
  44. Michaut L, Fehlbaum P, Moniatte M, Van Dorsselaer A, Reichhart J, Bulet P. Determination of the disulfide array of the first inducible antifungal peptide from insects: drosomycin from Drosophila melanogaster. FEBS Lett. 1996;395:6-10 pubmed
    b>Drosomycin is a 44-residue antifungal peptide with four intramolecular disulfide bridges which have been isolated from immune-challenged Drosophila...
  45. Tang H, Kambris Z, Lemaitre B, Hashimoto C. Two proteases defining a melanization cascade in the immune system of Drosophila. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:28097-104 pubmed
    ..We have also shown that the melanization reaction activated by MP1 and MP2 plays an important role in augmenting the effectiveness of other immune reactions, thereby promoting resistance of Drosophila to microbial infection. ..
  46. Weber A, Tauszig Delamasure S, Hoffmann J, Lelievre E, Gascan H, Ray K, et al. Binding of the Drosophila cytokine Spätzle to Toll is direct and establishes signaling. Nat Immunol. 2003;4:794-800 pubmed
    ..These results show that, in contrast to the human Toll-like receptors, Drosophila Toll requires only an endogenous protein ligand for activation and signaling. ..
  47. Schmidt R, Trejo T, Plummer T, Platt J, Tang A. Infection-induced proteolysis of PGRP-LC controls the IMD activation and melanization cascades in Drosophila. FASEB J. 2008;22:918-29 pubmed publisher
  48. Libert S, Chao Y, Zwiener J, Pletcher S. Realized immune response is enhanced in long-lived puc and chico mutants but is unaffected by dietary restriction. Mol Immunol. 2008;45:810-7 pubmed
    ..Such upregulation is not observed during DR, suggesting the presence of a mechanism that suppresses immune activity in diet-restricted animals. ..
  49. Tanji T, Hu X, Weber A, Ip Y. Toll and IMD pathways synergistically activate an innate immune response in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:4578-88 pubmed
    ..ligand) together caused synergistic activation of representative target genes of the two pathways, including Drosomycin, Diptericin, and AttacinA...
  50. Leulier F, Lhocine N, Lemaitre B, Meier P. The Drosophila inhibitor of apoptosis protein DIAP2 functions in innate immunity and is essential to resist gram-negative bacterial infection. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:7821-31 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our genetic data identify DIAP2 as an essential component of the Imd signaling cascade, protecting the organism from infiltrating microbes. ..
  51. Ligoxygakis P, Bulet P, Reichhart J. Critical evaluation of the role of the Toll-like receptor 18-Wheeler in the host defense of Drosophila. EMBO Rep. 2002;3:666-73 pubmed
    ..18-Wheeler does not qualify as a pattern recognition receptor of Gram-negative bacteria. ..
  52. Tang H, Kambris Z, Lemaitre B, Hashimoto C. A serpin that regulates immune melanization in the respiratory system of Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2008;15:617-26 pubmed publisher
    ..tracheal melanization resulting from Spn77Ba disruption induces systemic expression of the antifungal peptide Drosomycin via the Toll pathway...
  53. Mukae N, Yokoyama H, Yokokura T, Sakoyama Y, Nagata S. Activation of the innate immunity in Drosophila by endogenous chromosomal DNA that escaped apoptotic degradation. Genes Dev. 2002;16:2662-71 pubmed
    ..These results indicated that CAD and DNase II work independently to degrade chromosomal DNA during apoptosis, and if the DNA is left undigested, it can activate the innate immunity in Drosophila. ..
  54. Schlenke T, Morales J, Govind S, Clark A. Contrasting infection strategies in generalist and specialist wasp parasitoids of Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS Pathog. 2007;3:1486-501 pubmed
    ..However, we uncover the mechanism for one potentially important fitness tradeoff of the generalist's highly immune suppressive infection strategy. ..
  55. Stenbak C, Ryu J, Leulier F, Pili Floury S, Parquet C, Hervé M, et al. Peptidoglycan molecular requirements allowing detection by the Drosophila immune deficiency pathway. J Immunol. 2004;173:7339-48 pubmed
    ..Altogether, these results indicate multiple requirements for efficient PG-mediated activation of the Imd pathway and demonstrate that PG is a complex immune elicitor. ..
  56. Mabery E, Schneider D. The Drosophila TNF ortholog eiger is required in the fat body for a robust immune response. J Innate Immun. 2010;2:371-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This includes reduced melanization, altered antimicrobial peptide expression and reduced feeding rates. The effect of eiger on feeding rates alone may account for the entire phenotype seen in eiger mutants infected with S. typhimurium. ..
  57. Choe K, Werner T, Stoven S, Hultmark D, Anderson K. Requirement for a peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP) in Relish activation and antibacterial immune responses in Drosophila. Science. 2002;296:359-62 pubmed
  58. Lu Y, Wu L, Anderson K. The antibacterial arm of the drosophila innate immune response requires an IkappaB kinase. Genes Dev. 2001;15:104-10 pubmed
    ..The ird5 gene encodes a Drosophila homolog of mammalian IkappaB kinases (IKKs). The ird5 phenotype and sequence suggest that the gene is specifically required for the activation of Relish, a Drosophila NF-kappaB family member. ..
  59. Nicolas E, Reichhart J, Hoffmann J, Lemaitre B. In vivo regulation of the IkappaB homologue cactus during the immune response of Drosophila. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:10463-9 pubmed
    ..This degradation is also dependent on the Toll signaling pathway. Altogether, our results underline the striking similarities between the regulation of IkappaB and cactus during the immune response. ..
  60. Kim L, Choi U, Cho H, Lee J, Lee W, Kim J, et al. Down-regulation of NF-kappaB target genes by the AP-1 and STAT complex during the innate immune response in Drosophila. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e238 pubmed
    ..We conclude that an inhibitory effect of AP-1 and STAT on NF-kappaB is required for properly balanced immune responses and appears to be evolutionarily conserved. ..
  61. Obbard D, Jiggins F, Halligan D, Little T. Natural selection drives extremely rapid evolution in antiviral RNAi genes. Curr Biol. 2006;16:580-5 pubmed
    ..This is a signature of host-pathogen arms races and implies that the ancient battle between RNA viruses and host antiviral RNAi genes is active and significant in shaping RNAi function. ..
  62. Huang H, Chen Z, Kunes S, Chang G, Maniatis T. Endocytic pathway is required for Drosophila Toll innate immune signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:8322-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Mop and Hrs, which are critical components of the ESCRT-0 endocytosis complex, colocalize with the Toll receptor in endosomes. We conclude that endocytosis is required for the activation of the Toll signaling pathway. ..
  63. Horng T, Medzhitov R. Drosophila MyD88 is an adapter in the Toll signaling pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:12654-8 pubmed
    ..Expression of dMyD88 in S2 cells strongly induced activity of a Drosomycin reporter gene, whereas a dominant-negative version of dMyD88 potently inhibited Toll-mediated signaling...
  64. Bischoff V, Vignal C, Boneca I, Michel T, Hoffmann J, Royet J. Function of the drosophila pattern-recognition receptor PGRP-SD in the detection of Gram-positive bacteria. Nat Immunol. 2004;5:1175-80 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that PGRP-SD can function as a receptor for Gram-positive bacteria and shows partial redundancy with the PGRP-SA-GNBP1 complex. ..
  65. Narbonne Reveau K, Charroux B, Royet J. Lack of an antibacterial response defect in Drosophila Toll-9 mutant. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17470 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that Toll-9 is neither required to maintain a basal anti-microbial response nor to mount an efficient immune response to bacterial infection. ..
  66. Jung A, Criqui M, Rutschmann S, Hoffmann J, Ferrandon D. Microfluorometer assay to measure the expression of beta-galactosidase and green fluorescent protein reporter genes in single Drosophila flies. Biotechniques. 2001;30:594-8, 600-1 pubmed
    ..This method may be used in any screen that requires the quantification of reporter gene activity in individual insects. ..
  67. Taylor K, Kimbrell D. Host immune response and differential survival of the sexes in Drosophila. Fly (Austin). 2007;1:197-204 pubmed
    ..We also found that antimicrobial protein gene mRNA levels for Drosomycin and Metchnikowin showed both similarities and differences between the sexes...
  68. Stramer B, Winfield M, Shaw T, Millard T, Woolner S, Martin P. Gene induction following wounding of wild-type versus macrophage-deficient Drosophila embryos. EMBO Rep. 2008;9:465-71 pubmed publisher
  69. Schneider D, Ayres J, Brandt S, Costa A, Dionne M, Gordon M, et al. Drosophila eiger mutants are sensitive to extracellular pathogens. PLoS Pathog. 2007;3:e41 pubmed
    ..We propose that eiger activates the cellular immune response of the fly to aid clearance of extracellular pathogens. Intracellular pathogens, which can already defeat professional phagocytes, are unaffected by eiger...
  70. Shin S, Kokoza V, Bian G, Cheon H, Kim Y, Raikhel A. REL1, a homologue of Drosophila dorsal, regulates toll antifungal immune pathway in the female mosquito Aedes aegypti. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:16499-507 pubmed
    ..Ectopic expression of AaREL1-A in both Drosophila mbn-2 cells and transgenic flies specifically activates Drosomycin and results in increased resistance against the fungus Beauveria bassiana...
  71. Bischoff V, Vignal C, Duvic B, Boneca I, Hoffmann J, Royet J. Downregulation of the Drosophila immune response by peptidoglycan-recognition proteins SC1 and SC2. PLoS Pathog. 2006;2:e14 pubmed
    ..We further show that a strict control of IMD-pathway activation is essential to prevent bacteria-induced developmental defects and larval death. ..
  72. Ooi J, Yagi Y, Hu X, Ip Y. The Drosophila Toll-9 activates a constitutive antimicrobial defense. EMBO Rep. 2002;3:82-7 pubmed
    ..Toll-9 activates strongly the expression of drosomycin, and utilizes similar signaling components to Toll-1 in activating the antifungal gene...
  73. Kaneko T, Yano T, Aggarwal K, Lim J, Ueda K, Oshima Y, et al. PGRP-LC and PGRP-LE have essential yet distinct functions in the drosophila immune response to monomeric DAP-type peptidoglycan. Nat Immunol. 2006;7:715-23 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that like mammals, drosophila use both extracellular and intracellular receptors, which have conserved signaling mechanisms, for innate immune recognition...
  74. Haghayeghi A, Sarac A, Czerniecki S, Grosshans J, Schock F. Pellino enhances innate immunity in Drosophila. Mech Dev. 2010;127:301-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that Pellino, a highly conserved protein interacting with activated Pelle/IRAK, acts as a positive regulator of innate immunity in Drosophila. ..
  75. Evans C, Aguilera R. DNase II: genes, enzymes and function. Gene. 2003;322:1-15 pubmed
    ..In this review, we have compiled information from studies on DNase II from various organisms to provide a consensus model for the role of DNase II enzymes in DNA degradation. ..
  76. Senger K, Armstrong G, Rowell W, Kwan J, Markstein M, Levine M. Immunity regulatory DNAs share common organizational features in Drosophila. Mol Cell. 2004;13:19-32 pubmed
    ..Aspects of this "regulatory code" are essential for the immune response. These results suggest that immunity regulatory DNAs contain constrained organizational features, which may be a general property of eukaryotic enhancers. ..
  77. Galac M, Lazzaro B. Comparative pathology of bacteria in the genus Providencia to a natural host, Drosophila melanogaster. Microbes Infect. 2011;13:673-83 pubmed publisher
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