Gene Symbol: drpr
Description: draper
Alias: BcDNA:GH03529, CG18172, CG2086, CT41022, CT6730, Dmel\CG2086, Drpr, draper, CG2086-PA, CG2086-PB, CG2086-PC, CG2086-PD, CG2086-PE, CG2086-PF, drpr-PA, drpr-PB, drpr-PC, drpr-PD, drpr-PE, drpr-PF
Species: fruit fly
Products:     drpr

Top Publications

  1. Etchegaray J, Timmons A, Klein A, Pritchett T, Welch E, Meehan T, et al. Draper acts through the JNK pathway to control synchronous engulfment of dying germline cells by follicular epithelial cells. Development. 2012;139:4029-39 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that the JNK pathway is activated and required in engulfing follicle cells. We find that the receptor Draper is also required in engulfing follicle cells, and activates the JNK pathway...
  2. Tasdemir Yilmaz O, Freeman M. Astrocytes engage unique molecular programs to engulf pruned neuronal debris from distinct subsets of neurons. Genes Dev. 2014;28:20-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that MB ? axons are engulfed by astrocytes using the Draper and Crk/Mbc/dCed-12 signaling pathways in a partially redundant manner...
  3. Hoopfer E, McLaughlin T, Watts R, Schuldiner O, O Leary D, Luo L. Wlds protection distinguishes axon degeneration following injury from naturally occurring developmental pruning. Neuron. 2006;50:883-95 pubmed
    ..We also show that the glial cell surface receptor Draper is required for efficient clearance of axon fragments during developmental axon degeneration, similar to its ..
  4. Ziegenfuss J, Biswas R, Avery M, Hong K, Sheehan A, Yeung Y, et al. Draper-dependent glial phagocytic activity is mediated by Src and Syk family kinase signalling. Nature. 2008;453:935-9 pubmed publisher
    ..1) and its Drosophila orthologue, Draper. The CED-1/Draper signalling pathway is also essential for the phagocytosis of other types of 'modified self' ..
  5. Cuttell L, Vaughan A, Silva E, Escaron C, Lavine M, Van Goethem E, et al. Undertaker, a Drosophila Junctophilin, links Draper-mediated phagocytosis and calcium homeostasis. Cell. 2008;135:524-34 pubmed publisher
    ..We report that Undertaker (UTA), a Drosophila Junctophilin protein, is required for Draper (CED-1 homolog)-mediated phagocytosis...
  6. Watts R, Schuldiner O, Perrino J, Larsen C, Luo L. Glia engulf degenerating axons during developmental axon pruning. Curr Biol. 2004;14:678-84 pubmed
    ..Our study reveals a key role for glia in the removal of axon fragments during developmental axon pruning. ..
  7. Han C, Song Y, Xiao H, Wang D, Franc N, Jan L, et al. Epidermal cells are the primary phagocytes in the fragmentation and clearance of degenerating dendrites in Drosophila. Neuron. 2014;81:544-560 pubmed publisher
    ..Epidermal cells act via Draper-mediated recognition to facilitate dendrite degeneration and to engulf and degrade degenerating dendrites...
  8. Fuentes Medel Y, Logan M, Ashley J, Ataman B, Budnik V, Freeman M. Glia and muscle sculpt neuromuscular arbors by engulfing destabilized synaptic boutons and shed presynaptic debris. PLoS Biol. 2009;7:e1000184 pubmed publisher
    ..Suppressing engulfment activity in glia or muscle by disrupting the Draper/Ced-6 pathway results in a dramatic accumulation of presynaptic debris, and synaptic growth in turn is severely ..
  9. Kurant E, Axelrod S, Leaman D, Gaul U. Six-microns-under acts upstream of Draper in the glial phagocytosis of apoptotic neurons. Cell. 2008;133:498-509 pubmed publisher
    ..SIMU is part of a conserved family of proteins that includes CED-1 and Draper (DRPR)...

More Information


  1. Doherty J, Logan M, Taşdemir O, Freeman M. Ensheathing glia function as phagocytes in the adult Drosophila brain. J Neurosci. 2009;29:4768-81 pubmed publisher
    ..g., the engulfment receptor Draper, and dCed-6), respond morphologically to axon injury, and autonomously require components of the Draper signaling ..
  2. Macdonald J, Doherty J, Hackett R, Freeman M. The c-Jun kinase signaling cascade promotes glial engulfment activity through activation of draper and phagocytic function. Cell Death Differ. 2013;20:1140-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, loss of dJNK also blocked injury-induced upregulation of Draper levels in glia, and glial-specific overexpression of Draper was sufficient to rescue engulfment defects associated ..
  3. Corty M, Freeman M. Cell biology in neuroscience: Architects in neural circuit design: glia control neuron numbers and connectivity. J Cell Biol. 2013;203:395-405 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent findings illustrate the importance of glial cells in shaping the nervous system by controlling the number and connectivity of neurons. ..
  4. Thomson T, Johnson J. Inducible somatic oocyte destruction in response to rapamycin requires wild-type regulation of follicle cell epithelial polarity. Cell Death Differ. 2010;17:1717-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Inducible somatic oocyte destruction is thus implicated in controlling egg survival in insects and mammals. ..
  5. Kuraishi T, Nakagawa Y, Nagaosa K, Hashimoto Y, Ishimoto T, Moki T, et al. Pretaporter, a Drosophila protein serving as a ligand for Draper in the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. EMBO J. 2009;28:3868-78 pubmed publisher
    Phagocytic removal of cells undergoing apoptosis is necessary for animal development and tissue homeostasis. Draper, a homologue of the Caenorhabditis elegans phagocytosis receptor CED-1, is responsible for the phagocytosis of apoptotic ..
  6. Manaka J, Kuraishi T, Shiratsuchi A, Nakai Y, Higashida H, Henson P, et al. Draper-mediated and phosphatidylserine-independent phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by Drosophila hemocytes/macrophages. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:48466-76 pubmed
    ..hemocytes/macrophages, increased in l(2)mbn cells after treatment with 20-hydroxyecdysone, whereas that of Draper, another candidate phagocytosis receptor, remained unchanged...
  7. Awasaki T, Tatsumi R, Takahashi K, Arai K, Nakanishi Y, Ueda R, et al. Essential role of the apoptotic cell engulfment genes draper and ced-6 in programmed axon pruning during Drosophila metamorphosis. Neuron. 2006;50:855-67 pubmed
    ..The underlying molecular mechanisms, however, remain unknown. We show that draper (drpr) and ced-6, which are essential for the clearance of apoptotic cells in C...
  8. Awasaki T, Ito K. Engulfing action of glial cells is required for programmed axon pruning during Drosophila metamorphosis. Curr Biol. 2004;14:668-77 pubmed
    ..We therefore propose that neuron-glia interaction is essential for the precisely coordinated axon-pruning process during Drosophila metamorphosis. ..
  9. McPhee C, Logan M, Freeman M, Baehrecke E. Activation of autophagy during cell death requires the engulfment receptor Draper. Nature. 2010;465:1093-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that Draper (Drpr), the Drosophila melanogaster orthologue of the Caenorhabditis elegans engulfment receptor CED-1, is ..
  10. Shiratsuchi A, Mori T, Sakurai K, Nagaosa K, Sekimizu K, Lee B, et al. Independent recognition of Staphylococcus aureus by two receptors for phagocytosis in Drosophila. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:21663-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The simultaneous loss of integrin ?? and Draper, another receptor involved in the phagocytosis of S...
  11. MacDonald J, Beach M, Porpiglia E, Sheehan A, Watts R, Freeman M. The Drosophila cell corpse engulfment receptor Draper mediates glial clearance of severed axons. Neuron. 2006;50:869-81 pubmed
    ..morphological and molecular responses from Drosophila glia: glia upregulate expression of the engulfment receptor Draper, undergo dramatic changes in morphology, and rapidly recruit cellular processes toward severed axons...
  12. Logan M, Hackett R, Doherty J, Sheehan A, Speese S, Freeman M. Negative regulation of glial engulfment activity by Draper terminates glial responses to axon injury. Nat Neurosci. 2012;15:722-30 pubmed publisher
    ..to axon injury is molecularly encoded by unique isoforms of the Drosophila melanogaster engulfment receptor Draper. Draper-I promotes engulfment of axonal debris through an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)...
  13. Stratoulias V, Heino T. MANF silencing, immunity induction or autophagy trigger an unusual cell type in metamorphosing Drosophila brain. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2015;72:1989-2004 pubmed publisher
    ..They also express the conserved engulfment receptor Draper, therefore indicating that they are potentially phagocytic...
  14. Salminen T, Vesala L, Laiho A, Merisalo M, Hoikkala A, Kankare M. Seasonal gene expression kinetics between diapause phases in Drosophila virilis group species and overwintering differences between diapausing and non-diapausing females. Sci Rep. 2015;5:11197 pubmed publisher
    ..littoralis and D. ezoana. The present study helps to achieve a better understanding of the genetic regulation of diapause and of the plasticity of seasonal responses in general. ..
  15. Shklover J, Mishnaevski K, Levy Adam F, Kurant E. JNK pathway activation is able to synchronize neuronal death and glial phagocytosis in Drosophila. Cell Death Dis. 2015;6:e1649 pubmed publisher
    ..this promotion of phagocytosis is not mediated by upregulation of the glial phagocytic receptors SIMU and DRPR, but by increasing glial capacity to degrade apoptotic particles inside phagosomes...
  16. Lu T, Doherty J, Freeman M. DRK/DOS/SOS converge with Crk/Mbc/dCed-12 to activate Rac1 during glial engulfment of axonal debris. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:12544-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Axonal injury in Drosophila results in transcriptional up-regulation of the glial engulfment receptor Draper; there is extension of glial membranes to the injury site (termed activation), and then axonal debris is ..
  17. Erdmann I, Marter K, Kobler O, Niehues S, Abele J, Müller A, et al. Cell-selective labelling of proteomes in Drosophila melanogaster. Nat Commun. 2015;6:7521 pubmed publisher
    ..Cell-type-specific FUNCAT and BONCAT, thus, constitute eligible techniques to study protein synthesis-dependent processes in complex and behaving organisms. ..
  18. Williams D, Kondo S, Krzyzanowska A, Hiromi Y, Truman J. Local caspase activity directs engulfment of dendrites during pruning. Nat Neurosci. 2006;9:1234-6 pubmed
    ..A new genetically encoded caspase probe revealed that caspase activity is confined to the degenerating dendrites of pruning neurons. ..
  19. Meehan T, Kleinsorge S, Timmons A, Taylor J, McCall K. Polarization of the epithelial layer and apical localization of integrins are required for engulfment of apoptotic cells in the Drosophila ovary. Dis Model Mech. 2015;8:1603-14 pubmed publisher
    ..This study also establishes the epithelial follicle cells of the Drosophila ovary as a powerful model for understanding the molecular changes required for engulfment by a polarized epithelium. ..
  20. Timmons A, Mondragon A, Schenkel C, Yalonetskaya A, Taylor J, Moynihan K, et al. Phagocytosis genes nonautonomously promote developmental cell death in the Drosophila ovary. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:E1246-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The phagocytic machinery of the follicle cells, including Draper, cell death abnormality (Ced)-12, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), is essential for the death and removal of ..
  21. Van Goethem E, Silva E, Xiao H, Franc N. The Drosophila TRPP cation channel, PKD2 and Dmel/Ced-12 act in genetically distinct pathways during apoptotic cell clearance. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31488 pubmed publisher
    ..We have also observed genetic interactions between pkd2, simu, drpr, rya-r44F, and retinophilin (rtp), also known as undertaker (uta), a gene encoding a MORN-repeat containing ..
  22. Li W, Baker N. The active role of corpse engulfment pathways during cell competition. Fly (Austin). 2007;1:274-8 pubmed
    ..These draper, wasp, phosphatidyl-serine receptor, MBC/DOCK180 and Rac1 genes, were each previously implicated in the engulfment ..
  23. Kuraishi T, Manaka J, Kono M, Ishii H, Yamamoto N, Koizumi K, et al. Identification of calreticulin as a marker for phagocytosis of apoptotic cells in Drosophila. Exp Cell Res. 2007;313:500-10 pubmed
    ..These results collectively indicate that calreticulin is the first molecule to be identified as a marker for phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by Drosophila phagocytes. ..
  24. Kurucz E, Márkus R, Zsámboki J, Folkl Medzihradszky K, Darula Z, Vilmos P, et al. Nimrod, a putative phagocytosis receptor with EGF repeats in Drosophila plasmatocytes. Curr Biol. 2007;17:649-54 pubmed
    ..The Nimrod proteins are related to other putative phagocytosis receptors such as Eater and Draper from D. melanogaster and CED-1 from C. elegans...
  25. Hashimoto Y, Tabuchi Y, Sakurai K, Kutsuna M, Kurokawa K, Awasaki T, et al. Identification of lipoteichoic acid as a ligand for draper in the phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus by Drosophila hemocytes. J Immunol. 2009;183:7451-60 pubmed publisher
    ..ltaS-dependent phagocytosis of S. aureus required the receptor Draper but not Eater or Nimrod C1, and Draper-lacking flies showed reduced resistance to a septic infection of S...
  26. Evans I, Rodrigues F, Armitage E, Wood W. Draper/CED-1 mediates an ancient damage response to control inflammatory blood cell migration in vivo. Curr Biol. 2015;25:1606-12 pubmed publisher
    ..to trigger a signaling cascade within the inflammatory cells involving the ITAM domain-containing protein Draper-I (a member of the CED-1 family of apoptotic cell clearance receptors) and a downstream kinase, Shark, that is ..
  27. Ziegenfuss J, Doherty J, Freeman M. Distinct molecular pathways mediate glial activation and engulfment of axonal debris after axotomy. Nat Neurosci. 2012;15:979-87 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that Crk/Mbc/dCed-12 and Rac1 functioned in a non-redundant fashion with the Draper transmembrane receptor pathway: loss of either pathway fully suppressed clearance of axonal debris...
  28. Poels J, Spasić M, Gistelinck M, Mutert J, Schellens A, Callaerts P, et al. Autophagy and phagocytosis-like cell cannibalism exert opposing effects on cellular survival during metabolic stress. Cell Death Differ. 2012;19:1590-601 pubmed publisher
    ..We provide new insights into the roles of autophagy and phagocytosis in the neuronal metabolic stress response and open new avenues into understanding of human disease and development of therapeutic strategies. ..
  29. Somogyi K, Sipos B, Penzes Z, Ando I. A conserved gene cluster as a putative functional unit in insect innate immunity. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:4375-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This cluster has been a part of the Arthropod genomes for about 300-350 million years. The available data suggest that the Nimrod cluster is a functional module of the insect innate immune response. ..
  30. McPhee C, Baehrecke E. The engulfment receptor Draper is required for autophagy during cell death. Autophagy. 2010;6:1192-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, we demonstrated that Draper (Drpr), the Drosophila homolog of C...
  31. Rhiner C, López Gay J, Soldini D, Casas Tinto S, Martín F, Lombardia L, et al. Flower forms an extracellular code that reveals the fitness of a cell to its neighbors in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2010;18:985-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Cell-cell comparison of relative fwe(Lose) and fwe(ubi) levels ultimately determines which cell undergoes apoptosis. This "extracellular code" may constitute an ancient mechanism to terminate competitive conflicts among cells. ..
  32. Martín F, Herrera S, Morata G. Cell competition, growth and size control in the Drosophila wing imaginal disc. Development. 2009;136:3747-56 pubmed publisher
    ..The values predicted by the simulation are very close to those obtained experimentally. ..
  33. Li W, Baker N. Engulfment is required for cell competition. Cell. 2007;129:1215-25 pubmed
    ..The engulfment genes draper, wasp, the phosphatidylserine receptor, mbc/dock180, and rac1 are needed in wild-type cells for the death of ..
  34. Eichenlaub T, Cohen S, Herranz H. Cell Competition Drives the Formation of Metastatic Tumors in a Drosophila Model of Epithelial Tumor Formation. Curr Biol. 2016;26:419-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Analogous mechanisms for cytokinesis failure may lead to polyploid intermediates in tumorigenesis in mammalian cancer models. ..
  35. Okada R, Nagaosa K, Kuraishi T, Nakayama H, Yamamoto N, Nakagawa Y, et al. Apoptosis-dependent externalization and involvement in apoptotic cell clearance of DmCaBP1, an endoplasmic reticulum protein of Drosophila. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:3138-46 pubmed publisher
    To elucidate the actions of Draper, a receptor responsible for the phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells in Drosophila, we isolated proteins that bind to the extracellular region of Draper using affinity chromatography...
  36. Hakim Y, Yaniv S, Schuldiner O. Astrocytes play a key role in Drosophila mushroom body axon pruning. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e86178 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we found that blocking the expression of the cell engulfment receptor Draper in astrocytes only affects axonal debris clearance...
  37. Musashe D, Purice M, Speese S, Doherty J, Logan M. Insulin-like Signaling Promotes Glial Phagocytic Clearance of Degenerating Axons through Regulation of Draper. Cell Rep. 2016;16:1838-50 pubmed publisher
    ..InR/Akt1 activity, it is also essential for injury-induced activation of STAT92E and its transcriptional target draper, which encodes a conserved receptor essential for glial engulfment of degenerating axons...
  38. Draper I, Mahoney L, Mitsuhashi S, Pacak C, Salomon R, Kang P. Silencing of drpr leads to muscle and brain degeneration in adult Drosophila. Am J Pathol. 2014;184:2653-61 pubmed publisher
    ..b>drpr is the sole Drosophila homolog of the human genes MEGF10, MEGF11, and MEGF12 (JEDI, PEAR)...
  39. Nainu F, Tanaka Y, Shiratsuchi A, Nakanishi Y. Protection of Insects against Viral Infection by Apoptosis-Dependent Phagocytosis. J Immunol. 2015;195:5696-706 pubmed publisher
    ..Phagocytosis depended, in part, on caspase activity in S2 cells, as well as the engulfment receptors Draper and integrin βν in phagocytes...
  40. Perkins L, Holderbaum L, Tao R, Hu Y, Sopko R, McCall K, et al. The Transgenic RNAi Project at Harvard Medical School: Resources and Validation. Genetics. 2015;201:843-52 pubmed publisher
    ..flyrnai.org/RSVP.html), and stocks are available from three stock centers, the Bloomington Drosophila Stock Center (United States), National Institute of Genetics (Japan), and TsingHua Fly Center (China). ..
  41. Lolo F, Casas Tinto S, Moreno E. Cell competition time line: winners kill losers, which are extruded and engulfed by hemocytes. Cell Rep. 2012;2:526-39 pubmed publisher
    ..It is believed that the genes wasp, psr, and draper are active in the cells that win the competition ("winner cells") and that they are essential in the ..
  42. Pearce M, Spartz E, Hong W, Luo L, Kopito R. Prion-like transmission of neuronal huntingtin aggregates to phagocytic glia in the Drosophila brain. Nat Commun. 2015;6:6768 pubmed publisher
    ..of Htt aggregates expressed in neurons through a clearance mechanism that requires the glial scavenger receptor Draper and downstream phagocytic engulfment machinery...
  43. Doherty J, Sheehan A, Bradshaw R, Fox A, Lu T, Freeman M. PI3K signaling and Stat92E converge to modulate glial responsiveness to axonal injury. PLoS Biol. 2014;12:e1001985 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show glial PI3K signaling in the uninjured brain regulates baseline levels of Draper, a receptor essential for Drosophila glia to sense and respond to axonal injury...
  44. Lavagnino N, Arya G, Korovaichuk A, Fanara J. Genetic architecture of olfactory behavior in Drosophila melanogaster: differences and similarities across development. Behav Genet. 2013;43:348-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, our results point out that the genetic architecture of olfactory behavior in D. melanogaster presents a dynamic and changing organization across environments and ontogeny. ..
  45. Tung T, Nagaosa K, Fujita Y, Kita A, Mori H, Okada R, et al. Phosphatidylserine recognition and induction of apoptotic cell clearance by Drosophila engulfment receptor Draper. J Biochem. 2013;153:483-91 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the extracellular region of Draper, an engulfment receptor of Drosophila, binds to phosphatidylserine in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-like ..
  46. Fujita Y, Nagaosa K, Shiratsuchi A, Nakanishi Y. Role of NPxY motif in Draper-mediated apoptotic cell clearance in Drosophila. Drug Discov Ther. 2012;6:291-7 pubmed
    b>Draper, a receptor responsible for the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells in Drosophila, possesses atypical epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like sequences in the extracellular region and the two phosphorylatable motifs NPxY and YxxL in the ..
  47. Gafuik C, Steller H. A gain-of-function germline mutation in Drosophila ras1 affects apoptosis and cell fate during development. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23535 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we used ras1(R68Q) to identify novel genes that interact with Ras and suppress cell death. ..
  48. Stramer B, Dionne M. Unraveling tissue repair immune responses in flies. Semin Immunol. 2014;26:310-4 pubmed publisher
    ..What has emerged from this system are a host of both local acting signals, and surprisingly, more systemic tissue repair immune responses. ..
  49. Etchegaray J, Elguero E, Tran J, Sinatra V, Feany M, McCall K. Defective Phagocytic Corpse Processing Results in Neurodegeneration and Can Be Rescued by TORC1 Activation. J Neurosci. 2016;36:3170-83 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we report that the absence of the phagocytic receptor Draper in glia leads to a pronounced accumulation of apoptotic neurons in the brain of Drosophila melanogaster...
  50. Ray A, Speese S, Logan M. Glial Draper Rescues A? Toxicity in a Drosophila Model of Alzheimer's Disease. J Neurosci. 2017;37:11881-11893 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that the highly conserved glial engulfment receptor Draper/MEGF10 provides neuroprotection in an AD model of Drosophila (both sexes)...
  51. Shklyar B, Sellman Y, Shklover J, Mishnaevski K, Levy Adam F, Kurant E. Developmental regulation of glial cell phagocytic function during Drosophila embryogenesis. Dev Biol. 2014;393:255-269 pubmed publisher
    ..that glial proficiency to phagocytose relies on expression of phagocytic receptors for apoptotic cells, SIMU and DRPR. Moreover, we reveal that the phagocytic ability of embryonic glia is established as part of a developmental ..
  52. Neukomm L, Burdett T, Gonzalez M, Zuchner S, Freeman M. Rapid in vivo forward genetic approach for identifying axon death genes in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:9965-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar unbiased forward genetic screens should help rapidly delineate axon death genes, thereby providing novel potential drug targets for therapeutic intervention to prevent axonal and synaptic loss. ..
  53. Lu T, MacDonald J, Neukomm L, Sheehan A, Bradshaw R, Logan M, et al. Axon degeneration induces glial responses through Draper-TRAF4-JNK signalling. Nat Commun. 2017;8:14355 pubmed publisher
    b>Draper/Ced-1/MEGF-10 is an engulfment receptor that promotes clearance of cellular debris in C. elegans, Drosophila and mammals...