Gene Symbol: drosha
Description: drosha
Alias: CG8730, DROSHA, Dmel\CG8730, Drosha, drosha, CG8730-PA, drosha-PA
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Filippov V, Solovyev V, Filippova M, Gill S. A novel type of RNase III family proteins in eukaryotes. Gene. 2000;245:213-21 pubmed
    ..We isolated the drosha gene, a new member of this family in Drosophila melanogaster...
  2. Okamura K, Hagen J, Duan H, Tyler D, Lai E. The mirtron pathway generates microRNA-class regulatory RNAs in Drosophila. Cell. 2007;130:89-100 pubmed
    ..transcripts into approximately 22 nucleotide regulatory RNAs via consecutive cleavages by two RNase III enzymes, Drosha and Dicer...
  3. Leuschner P, Obernosterer G, Martinez J. MicroRNAs: Loquacious speaks out. Curr Biol. 2005;15:R603-5 pubmed
    ..New data show that Dicer-1 also requires a double-stranded RNA binding protein called Loquacious for efficient microRNA-mediated gene silencing. ..
  4. Forstemann K, Tomari Y, Du T, Vagin V, Denli A, Bratu D, et al. Normal microRNA maturation and germ-line stem cell maintenance requires Loquacious, a double-stranded RNA-binding domain protein. PLoS Biol. 2005;3:e236 pubmed
    ..b>Drosha converts pri-miRNA transcripts to precursor miRNA (pre-miRNA); Dicer, in turn, converts pre-miRNA to mature miRNA...
  5. Okamura K, Liu N, Lai E. Distinct mechanisms for microRNA strand selection by Drosophila Argonautes. Mol Cell. 2009;36:431-44 pubmed publisher
  6. Eulalio A, Rehwinkel J, Stricker M, Huntzinger E, Yang S, Doerks T, et al. Target-specific requirements for enhancers of decapping in miRNA-mediated gene silencing. Genes Dev. 2007;21:2558-70 pubmed
    ..In addition to proteins known to be required for miRNA biogenesis and function (i.e., Drosha, Pasha, Dicer-1, AGO1, and GW182), the screen identified the decapping activator Ge-1 as being required for ..
  7. Kawamura Y, Saito K, Kin T, Ono Y, Asai K, Sunohara T, et al. Drosophila endogenous small RNAs bind to Argonaute 2 in somatic cells. Nature. 2008;453:793-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in Dicer-2 caused an increase in retrotransposon transcripts. Together, our findings indicate that different types of small RNAs and Argonautes are used to repress retrotransposons in germline and somatic cells in Drosophila. ..
  8. Hartig J, Esslinger S, Böttcher R, Saito K, Forstemann K. Endo-siRNAs depend on a new isoform of loquacious and target artificially introduced, high-copy sequences. EMBO J. 2009;28:2932-44 pubmed publisher
    ..One strand of the dsRNA precursor can come from spliced mRNA, whereas the opposite strand derives from independent transcripts in antisense orientation. ..
  9. Murchison E, Hannon G. miRNAs on the move: miRNA biogenesis and the RNAi machinery. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2004;16:223-9 pubmed
    ..Primary microRNA transcripts are processed by the RNaseIII nuclease, Drosha, and are exported from the nucleus by Exportin-5...

More Information


  1. Ni J, Zhou R, Czech B, Liu L, Holderbaum L, Yang Zhou D, et al. A genome-scale shRNA resource for transgenic RNAi in Drosophila. Nat Methods. 2011;8:405-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that shRNAs, modeled on an endogenous microRNA, are extremely effective at silencing gene expression during oogenesis. We also describe our progress toward building a genome-wide shRNA resource. ..
  2. Smibert P, Bejarano F, Wang D, Garaulet D, Yang J, Martin R, et al. A Drosophila genetic screen yields allelic series of core microRNA biogenesis factors and reveals post-developmental roles for microRNAs. RNA. 2011;17:1997-2010 pubmed publisher
    ..microRNAs (miRNAs) are ?22-nt regulatory RNAs generated by stepwise cleavage of primary hairpin transcripts by the Drosha and Dicer RNase III enzymes...
  3. Zhou R, Czech B, Brennecke J, Sachidanandam R, Wohlschlegel J, Perrimon N, et al. Processing of Drosophila endo-siRNAs depends on a specific Loquacious isoform. RNA. 2009;15:1886-95 pubmed publisher
    ..nt), ubiquitously expressed small RNAs that are sequentially processed from hairpin-like precursors by Drosha/Pasha and Dcr-1/Loquacious complexes...
  4. Sabin L, Zhou R, Gruber J, Lukinova N, Bambina S, Berman A, et al. Ars2 regulates both miRNA- and siRNA- dependent silencing and suppresses RNA virus infection in Drosophila. Cell. 2009;138:340-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The identification of Ars2 as a player in these small RNA pathways provides new insight into the biogenesis of small RNAs that may be extended to other systems. ..
  5. Du T, Zamore P. microPrimer: the biogenesis and function of microRNA. Development. 2005;132:4645-52 pubmed
    ..miRNAs function very much like siRNAs, but these two types of small RNAs can be distinguished by their distinct pathways for maturation and by the logic by which they regulate gene expression. ..
  6. Kadener S, Rodriguez J, Abruzzi K, Khodor Y, Sugino K, Marr M, et al. Genome-wide identification of targets of the drosha-pasha/DGCR8 complex. RNA. 2009;15:537-45 pubmed publisher
    b>Drosha is a type III RNase, which plays a critical role in miRNA biogenesis. Drosha and its double-stranded RNA-binding partner protein Pasha/DGCR8 likely recognize and cleave miRNA precursor RNAs or pri-miRNA hairpins cotranscriptionally...
  7. Ruby J, Jan C, Bartel D. Intronic microRNA precursors that bypass Drosha processing. Nature. 2007;448:83-6 pubmed
    ..derive from characteristic hairpins in primary transcripts through two sequential RNase III-mediated cleavages; Drosha cleaves near the base of the stem to liberate a approximately 60-nucleotide pre-miRNA hairpin, then Dicer cleaves ..
  8. Czech B, Zhou R, Erlich Y, Brennecke J, Binari R, Villalta C, et al. Hierarchical rules for Argonaute loading in Drosophila. Mol Cell. 2009;36:445-56 pubmed publisher
  9. Luhur A, Chawla G, Wu Y, Li J, Sokol N. Drosha-independent DGCR8/Pasha pathway regulates neuronal morphogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:1421-6 pubmed publisher
    Cleavage of microRNAs and mRNAs by Drosha and its cofactor Pasha/DGCR8 is required for animal development, but whether these proteins also have independent roles in development has been unclear...
  10. Carré C, Jacquier C, Bouge A, de Chaumont F, Besnard Guerin C, Thomassin H, et al. AutomiG, a biosensor to detect alterations in miRNA biogenesis and in small RNA silencing guided by perfect target complementarity. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e74296 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that self-silencing of the resulting automiG gene requires Drosha, Pasha, Dicer-1, Dicer-2 and Argonaute-2 loaded with the anti-GFP miRNAs...
  11. Chung W, Okamura K, Martin R, Lai E. Endogenous RNA interference provides a somatic defense against Drosophila transposons. Curr Biol. 2008;18:795-802 pubmed publisher
    ..Drosophila utilizes two small-RNA systems to restrict transposon activity in the germline (mostly via piRNAs) and in the soma (mostly via siRNAs). ..
  12. Denli A, Tops B, Plasterk R, Ketting R, Hannon G. Processing of primary microRNAs by the Microprocessor complex. Nature. 2004;432:231-5 pubmed
    ..Initial cleavage is catalysed by Drosha, a nuclease of the RNase III family, which acts on primary miRNA transcripts (pri-miRNAs) in the nucleus...
  13. Landthaler M, Yalcin A, Tuschl T. The human DiGeorge syndrome critical region gene 8 and Its D. melanogaster homolog are required for miRNA biogenesis. Curr Biol. 2004;14:2162-7 pubmed
    ..b>Drosha RNase III catalyzes the first excision event, the release in the nucleus of a hairpin RNA (pre-miRNA), which is ..
  14. Forstemann K, Horwich M, Wee L, Tomari Y, Zamore P. Drosophila microRNAs are sorted into functionally distinct argonaute complexes after production by dicer-1. Cell. 2007;130:287-97 pubmed
    ..Thus, the two members of the Drosophila Ago subclade of Argonaute proteins are functionally specialized, but specific small RNA classes are not restricted to associate with Ago1 or Ago2. ..
  15. Okamura K, Chung W, Ruby J, Guo H, Bartel D, Lai E. The Drosophila hairpin RNA pathway generates endogenous short interfering RNAs. Nature. 2008;453:803-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These novel regulatory RNAs reveal unexpected complexity in the sorting of small RNAs, and open a window onto the biological usage of endogenous RNA interference in Drosophila. ..
  16. Aravin A, Tuschl T. Identification and characterization of small RNAs involved in RNA silencing. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:5830-40 pubmed
    ..The identification and characterization of small RNAs and their expression patterns is important for elucidating gene regulatory networks. ..
  17. Caudy A, Ketting R, Hammond S, Denli A, Bathoorn A, Tops B, et al. A micrococcal nuclease homologue in RNAi effector complexes. Nature. 2003;425:411-4 pubmed
    ..Tudor-SN is the first RISC subunit to be identified that contains a recognizable nuclease domain, and could therefore contribute to the RNA degradation observed in RNAi. ..
  18. Dueck A, Meister G. Assembly and function of small RNA - argonaute protein complexes. Biol Chem. 2014;395:611-29 pubmed publisher
    ..This review will focus on the mechanisms of Argonaute loading in different organisms. Furthermore, we highlight the versatile functions of small RNA-Argonaute protein complexes in organisms from all three kingdoms of life. ..
  19. Kolaczkowski B, Hupalo D, Kern A. Recurrent adaptation in RNA interference genes across the Drosophila phylogeny. Mol Biol Evol. 2011;28:1033-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations suggest a predictive model of how selective pressures generated by evolutionary arms race scenarios may affect multiple genes across protein interaction networks and other biochemical pathways. ..
  20. Mugat B, Akkouche A, Serrano V, Armenise C, Li B, Brun C, et al. MicroRNA-Dependent Transcriptional Silencing of Transposable Elements in Drosophila Follicle Cells. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005194 pubmed publisher
    ..Global miRNA depletion, caused by tissue- and stage-specific knock down of drosha (involved in miRNA biogenesis), AGO1 or gawky (both responsible for miRNA activity), resulted in loss of TE-..
  21. Chak L, Mohammed J, Lai E, Tucker Kellogg G, Okamura K. A deeply conserved, noncanonical miRNA hosted by ribosomal DNA. RNA. 2015;21:375-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Processing of this miRNA requires Dicer-1, whereas the Drosha-Pasha complex is dispensable...
  22. Qian J, Zhang Z, Liang J, Ge Q, Duan X, Ma F, et al. The full-length transcripts and promoter analysis of intergenic microRNAs in Drosophila melanogaster. Genomics. 2011;97:294-303 pubmed publisher
    ..To increase the miRNA abundance, we stimulated miRNA transcription with CuSO(4) and knocked down Drosha enzyme using dsRNA in Drosophila S2 cells...
  23. Michalik K, Böttcher R, Forstemann K. A small RNA response at DNA ends in Drosophila. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:9596-603 pubmed publisher
    ..ends in Drosophila that is analogous to the recently reported double-strand break (DSB)-induced RNAs or Dicer- and Drosha-dependent small RNAs in Arabidopsis and vertebrates...
  24. Obbard D, Gordon K, Buck A, Jiggins F. The evolution of RNAi as a defence against viruses and transposable elements. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2009;364:99-115 pubmed publisher
    ..Over longer time scales, key RNAi genes are repeatedly duplicated or lost across the metazoan phylogeny, with important implications for RNAi as an immune defence. ..
  25. Westholm J, Ladewig E, Okamura K, Robine N, Lai E. Common and distinct patterns of terminal modifications to mirtrons and canonical microRNAs. RNA. 2012;18:177-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we found that 3' resection occurs broadly across AGO1-loaded canonical miRNA and star species. Altogether, these findings substantially broaden the complexity of terminal modification pathways acting upon small regulatory RNAs. ..
  26. Soares Z, Gonçalves A, de Oliveira K, Marques J. Viral RNA recognition by the Drosophila small interfering RNA pathway. Microbes Infect. 2014;16:1013-21 pubmed publisher
    ..This antiviral response in fruit flies can help understand general principles of nucleic acid recognition. ..
  27. Okamura K, Balla S, Martin R, Liu N, Lai E. Two distinct mechanisms generate endogenous siRNAs from bidirectional transcription in Drosophila melanogaster. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2008;15:581-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These newly recognized siRNA pathways broaden the scope of regulatory networks mediated by small RNAs. ..
  28. Chawla G, Sokol N. ADAR mediates differential expression of polycistronic microRNAs. Nucleic Acids Res. 2014;42:5245-55 pubmed publisher
    ..of pri-miR-100, the first miRNA in this let-7-C polycistronic transcript, leads to enhanced miRNA processing by Drosha and consequently enhanced functional miR-100 both in vitro as well as in vivo...
  29. Azzam G, Smibert P, Lai E, Liu J. Drosophila Argonaute 1 and its miRNA biogenesis partners are required for oocyte formation and germline cell division. Dev Biol. 2012;365:384-94 pubmed publisher
    ..many mutant egg chambers contain only 8 nurse cells without an oocyte which is phenocopied in dicer-1, pasha and drosha mutants...
  30. Xiong X, Vogler G, Kurthkoti K, Samsonova A, Zhou R. SmD1 Modulates the miRNA Pathway Independently of Its Pre-mRNA Splicing Function. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005475 pubmed publisher
    ..Upon transcription, primary miRNA transcripts are sequentially processed by Drosha and Dicer ribonucleases into ~22-24 nt miRNAs...
  31. Hammond S. Dicing and slicing: the core machinery of the RNA interference pathway. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:5822-9 pubmed
    ..Silencing is effected by the RNA-induced silencing complex and its RNaseH core enzyme Argonaute. This review describes the discovery of these machines and discusses future lines of work on this amazing biochemical pathway. ..
  32. Hwang H, Wentzel E, Mendell J. Cell-cell contact globally activates microRNA biogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:7016-21 pubmed publisher
    ..This broad increase in miRNA abundance is associated with enhanced processing of miRNAs by Drosha and more efficient formation of RNA-induced silencing complexes...
  33. Tomari Y, Zamore P. Perspective: machines for RNAi. Genes Dev. 2005;19:517-29 pubmed
    ..Here, we review our current understanding of how small RNAs are produced, how they are loaded into protein complexes, and how they repress gene expression. ..
  34. Yu Z, Jian Z, Shen S, Purisima E, Wang E. Global analysis of microRNA target gene expression reveals that miRNA targets are lower expressed in mature mouse and Drosophila tissues than in the embryos. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:152-64 pubmed
    ..These results support the current suggestion that miRNAs are likely to be largely involved in embryo development and maintaining of tissue identity. ..
  35. Sabin L, Zheng Q, Thekkat P, Yang J, Hannon G, Gregory B, et al. Dicer-2 processes diverse viral RNA species. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e55458 pubmed publisher
    ..This study uncovered several novel, heavily targeted features within viral genomes, offering insight into viral replication, viral immune evasion strategies, and the mechanism of antiviral RNAi...
  36. Bernstein E, Caudy A, Hammond S, Hannon G. Role for a bidentate ribonuclease in the initiation step of RNA interference. Nature. 2001;409:363-6 pubmed
    ..The enzyme has a distinctive structure, which includes a helicase domain and dual RNase III motifs. Dicer also contains a region of homology to the RDE1/QDE2/ARGONAUTE family that has been genetically linked to RNAi. ..
  37. Yang H, Li M, Hu X, Xin T, Zhang S, Zhao G, et al. MicroRNA-dependent roles of Drosha and Pasha in the Drosophila larval ovary morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2016;416:312-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that the core microRNA (miRNA) pathway components Drosha and Pasha are required for coordinated development of somatic and germ cell precursors in the larval ovary...
  38. Pushpavalli S, Ramaiah M, Lavanya A, Ganesh A, Kumbhare R, Bhadra K, et al. Imidazo-benzothiazoles a potent microRNA modulator involved in cell proliferation. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2012;22:6418-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, these conjugates downregulate the genes involved in microRNA biogenesis such as Drosha, Pasha and Dicer-1. Our findings have elucidated the microRNA inhibitory role of imidazo-benzothiazole conjugates.
  39. Flynt A, Greimann J, Chung W, Lima C, Lai E. MicroRNA biogenesis via splicing and exosome-mediated trimming in Drosophila. Mol Cell. 2010;38:900-7 pubmed publisher
    microRNAs (miRNAs) are approximately 22 nucleotide regulatory RNAs derived from hairpins generated either by Drosha cleavage (canonical substrates) or by splicing and debranching of short introns (mirtrons)...
  40. Smibert P, Yang J, Azzam G, Liu J, Lai E. Homeostatic control of Argonaute stability by microRNA availability. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2013;20:789-95 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that Argonaute levels are finely tuned by cellular availability of mature miRNAs and the ubiquitin-proteasome system. ..
  41. Okamura K, Ladewig E, Zhou L, Lai E. Functional small RNAs are generated from select miRNA hairpin loops in flies and mammals. Genes Dev. 2013;27:778-92 pubmed publisher
    In the canonical animal microRNA (miRNA) pathway, Drosha generates ?60- to 70-nucleotide pre-miRNA hairpins that are cleaved by Dicer into small RNA duplexes that load into Argonaute proteins, which retain a single mature strand in the ..
  42. Pressman S, Reinke C, Wang X, Carthew R. A Systematic Genetic Screen to Dissect the MicroRNA Pathway in Drosophila. G3 (Bethesda). 2012;2:437-48 pubmed publisher
    ..These include 4 previously known genes that encode core components of the miRNA pathway, including Drosha, Pasha, Dicer-1, and Ago1...
  43. Kadener S, Menet J, Sugino K, Horwich M, Weissbein U, Nawathean P, et al. A role for microRNAs in the Drosophila circadian clock. Genes Dev. 2009;23:2179-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, clk transgenes harboring mutated bantam sites in their 3' UTRs rescue rhythms of clk mutant flies much less well than wild-type CLK transgenes. ..
  44. Tomari Y, Zamore P. MicroRNA biogenesis: drosha can't cut it without a partner. Curr Biol. 2005;15:R61-4 pubmed
    The ribonuclease Drosha requires a dedicated double-stranded RNA binding protein to convert long, nuclear primary microRNA transcripts into shorter pre-microRNA stem-loops, the cytoplasmic precursors from which mature microRNAs are ..
  45. Hu X, Ma C, Zhou Y. A novel two-layer SVM model in miRNA Drosha processing site detection. BMC Syst Biol. 2013;7 Suppl 4:S4 pubmed publisher
    ..Studies showed that an RNase III family member called Drosha recognizes most miRNAs, initiates their processing and determines the mature miRNAs...
  46. Hu H, Yan Z, Xu Y, Hu H, Menzel C, Zhou Y, et al. Sequence features associated with microRNA strand selection in humans and flies. BMC Genomics. 2009;10:413 pubmed publisher
    During microRNA (miRNA) maturation in humans and flies, Drosha and Dicer cut the precursor transcript, thereby producing a short RNA duplex...
  47. Han J, Lee Y, Yeom K, Nam J, Heo I, Rhee J, et al. Molecular basis for the recognition of primary microRNAs by the Drosha-DGCR8 complex. Cell. 2006;125:887-901 pubmed
    The Drosha-DGCR8 complex initiates microRNA maturation by precise cleavage of the stem loops that are embedded in primary transcripts (pri-miRNAs)...
  48. Xiong X, Kurthkoti K, Chang K, Lichinchi G, De N, Schneemann A, et al. Core small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle splicing factor SmD1 modulates RNA interference in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:16520-5 pubmed publisher
  49. Shapiro J, Schmid S, Aguado L, Sabin L, Yasunaga A, Shim J, et al. Drosha as an interferon-independent antiviral factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:7108-13 pubmed publisher
    ..response to virus infection in mammals, we evaluated antiviral activity in the presence and absence of Dicer or Drosha, the RNase III nucleases responsible for generating small RNAs...
  50. Nelson C, Ambros V, Baehrecke E. miR-14 regulates autophagy during developmental cell death by targeting ip3-kinase 2. Mol Cell. 2014;56:376-88 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides in vivo evidence of microRNA regulation of autophagy through modulation of IP3 signaling. ..
  51. Besnard Guérin C, Jacquier C, Pidoux J, Deddouche S, Antoniewski C, Antoniewsk C. The cricket paralysis virus suppressor inhibits microRNA silencing mediated by the Drosophila Argonaute-2 protein. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0120205 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results provide the first evidence that insect VSR have the potential to directly interfere with the miRNA silencing pathway. ..
  52. Schmittgen T, Jiang J, Liu Q, Yang L. A high-throughput method to monitor the expression of microRNA precursors. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:e43 pubmed
    ..primary precursors) that are processed to the approximately 75 nt precursors (pre-miRNAs) by the nuclear enzyme Drosha. The approximately 22 nt mature miRNA is processed from the pre-miRNA by the RNase III Dicer...