Dro

Summary

Gene Symbol: Dro
Description: Drosocin
Alias: 143609_at, BcDNA:RH31634, CG10816, DIM 11, DIM 15, DIM 9, DIM-15, DROC, Dmel\CG10816, Drc, Dro1, Dros, Drs, IM15, drc, dro, dros, drosocin, drosocin, CG10816-PA, CG10816-PB, Dro-PA, Dro-PB, drosocin precursor, drosophila immune induced molecule 11, drosophila immune induced molecule 15, drosophila immune induced molecule 9
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Tang H, Kambris Z, Lemaitre B, Hashimoto C. A serpin that regulates immune melanization in the respiratory system of Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2008;15:617-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Such signaling between local and systemic immune responses could represent an alarm mechanism that prepares the host in case a pathogen breaches epithelial defenses to invade internal tissues. ..
  2. Georgel P, Naitza S, Kappler C, Ferrandon D, Zachary D, Swimmer C, et al. Drosophila immune deficiency (IMD) is a death domain protein that activates antibacterial defense and can promote apoptosis. Dev Cell. 2001;1:503-14 pubmed
    ..We also show that imd is involved in the apoptotic response to UV irradiation. These data raise the possibility that antibacterial response and apoptosis share common control elements in Drosophila. ..
  3. Levashina E, Ohresser S, Bulet P, Reichhart J, Hetru C, Hoffmann J. Metchnikowin, a novel immune-inducible proline-rich peptide from Drosophila with antibacterial and antifungal properties. Eur J Biochem. 1995;233:694-700 pubmed
    ..The novel peptide, which we propose to name metchnikowin, is a member of a family of proline-rich peptides, and we discuss the possible evolutionary relationships within this family. ..
  4. Leulier F, Lhocine N, Lemaitre B, Meier P. The Drosophila inhibitor of apoptosis protein DIAP2 functions in innate immunity and is essential to resist gram-negative bacterial infection. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:7821-31 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our genetic data identify DIAP2 as an essential component of the Imd signaling cascade, protecting the organism from infiltrating microbes. ..
  5. Lemaitre B, Nicolas E, Michaut L, Reichhart J, Hoffmann J. The dorsoventral regulatory gene cassette spätzle/Toll/cactus controls the potent antifungal response in Drosophila adults. Cell. 1996;86:973-83 pubmed
    ..Antibacterial genes are induced either by a distinct pathway involving the immune deficiency gene (imd) or by combined activation of both imd and dorsoventral pathways. ..
  6. Tsai C, McGraw E, Ammar E, Dietzgen R, Hogenhout S. Drosophila melanogaster mounts a unique immune response to the Rhabdovirus sigma virus. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:3251-6 pubmed publisher
    ..and PGRP-SD and the antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes Diptericin-A, Attacin-A, Attacin-B, Cecropin-A1, and Drosocin. SIGMAV infection did not induce PGRP-SA and the AMP genes Drosomycin-B, Metchnikowin, and Defensin that are ..
  7. Tauszig Delamasure S, Bilak H, Capovilla M, Hoffmann J, Imler J. Drosophila MyD88 is required for the response to fungal and Gram-positive bacterial infections. Nat Immunol. 2002;3:91-7 pubmed
    ..with Toll through its TIR domain and required the death domain proteins Tube and Pelle to activate expression of Drs, which encodes Drosomycin...
  8. Becker T, Loch G, Beyer M, Zinke I, Aschenbrenner A, Carrera P, et al. FOXO-dependent regulation of innate immune homeostasis. Nature. 2010;463:369-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The sparse production of AMPs in epithelial tissues in response to FOXO may help modulating the defence reaction without harming the host tissues, in particular when animals are suffering from energy shortage or stress. ..
  9. Rutschmann S, Jung A, Zhou R, Silverman N, Hoffmann J, Ferrandon D. Role of Drosophila IKK gamma in a toll-independent antibacterial immune response. Nat Immunol. 2000;1:342-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, in contrast to the vertebrate inflammatory response, IKK gamma is required for the activation of only one immune signaling pathway in Drosophila. ..

More Information

Publications81

  1. Bulet P, Dimarcq J, Hetru C, Lagueux M, Charlet M, Hegy G, et al. A novel inducible antibacterial peptide of Drosophila carries an O-glycosylated substitution. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:14893-7 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that this substitution represents a post-translational modification essential for the full biological activity of this novel peptide. ..
  2. Abdelsadik A, Roeder T. Chronic activation of the epithelial immune system of the fruit fly's salivary glands has a negative effect on organismal growth and induces a peculiar set of target genes. BMC Genomics. 2010;11:265 pubmed publisher
  3. Tzou P, Reichhart J, Lemaitre B. Constitutive expression of a single antimicrobial peptide can restore wild-type resistance to infection in immunodeficient Drosophila mutants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:2152-7 pubmed
  4. Ligoxygakis P, Bulet P, Reichhart J. Critical evaluation of the role of the Toll-like receptor 18-Wheeler in the host defense of Drosophila. EMBO Rep. 2002;3:666-73 pubmed
    ..18-Wheeler does not qualify as a pattern recognition receptor of Gram-negative bacteria. ..
  5. Kim L, Choi U, Cho H, Lee J, Lee W, Kim J, et al. Down-regulation of NF-kappaB target genes by the AP-1 and STAT complex during the innate immune response in Drosophila. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e238 pubmed
    ..We conclude that an inhibitory effect of AP-1 and STAT on NF-kappaB is required for properly balanced immune responses and appears to be evolutionarily conserved. ..
  6. Lemaitre B, Kromer Metzger E, Michaut L, Nicolas E, Meister M, Georgel P, et al. A recessive mutation, immune deficiency (imd), defines two distinct control pathways in the Drosophila host defense. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:9465-9 pubmed
    ..These results point to the existence of two different pathways leading to the expression of two types of target genes, encoding either the antibacterial peptides or the antifungal peptide drosomycin. ..
  7. Tzou P, Ohresser S, Ferrandon D, Capovilla M, Reichhart J, Lemaitre B, et al. Tissue-specific inducible expression of antimicrobial peptide genes in Drosophila surface epithelia. Immunity. 2000;13:737-48 pubmed
  8. Hedengren M, Borge K, Hultmark D. Expression and evolution of the Drosophila attacin/diptericin gene family. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000;279:574-81 pubmed
    ..peptides evolved from a common ancestor and are probably also related to proline-rich peptides such as drosocin. AttC is similar to the nearby AttA and AttB genes. AttD is more divergent and located on a different chromosome...
  9. Lu Y, Wu L, Anderson K. The antibacterial arm of the drosophila innate immune response requires an IkappaB kinase. Genes Dev. 2001;15:104-10 pubmed
    ..The ird5 gene encodes a Drosophila homolog of mammalian IkappaB kinases (IKKs). The ird5 phenotype and sequence suggest that the gene is specifically required for the activation of Relish, a Drosophila NF-kappaB family member. ..
  10. Lee J, Edery I. Circadian regulation in the ability of Drosophila to combat pathogenic infections. Curr Biol. 2008;18:195-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that medical intervention strategies incorporating chronobiological considerations could enhance the innate immune response, boosting the efficacy of combating pathogenic infections. ..
  11. Seong K, Kim C, Lee B, Nam S, Yang K, Kim J, et al. Low-dose radiation induces Drosophila innate immunity through Toll pathway activation. J Radiat Res. 2012;53:242-9 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that innate immunity is activated after low-dose irradiation through Toll signaling pathway in Drosophila. ..
  12. Uttenweiler Joseph S, Moniatte M, Lagueux M, Van Dorsselaer A, Hoffmann J, Bulet P. Differential display of peptides induced during the immune response of Drosophila: a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry study. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:11342-7 pubmed
    ..Finally, molecular cloning and Northern blot analyses revealed that one of the DIMs is produced as a prepropeptide and is inducible on a bacterial challenge. ..
  13. Zambon R, Nandakumar M, Vakharia V, Wu L. The Toll pathway is important for an antiviral response in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:7257-62 pubmed
    ..Additionally, our results demonstrate the validity of using a genetic approach to identify genes and pathways used in viral innate immune responses in Drosophila...
  14. Flatt T, Heyland A, Rus F, Porpiglia E, Sherlock C, Yamamoto R, et al. Hormonal regulation of the humoral innate immune response in Drosophila melanogaster. J Exp Biol. 2008;211:2712-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that 20E and JH play major roles in the regulation of gene expression in response to immune challenge. ..
  15. Charlet M, Lagueux M, Reichhart J, Hoffmann D, Braun A, Meister M. Cloning of the gene encoding the antibacterial peptide drosocin involved in Drosophila immunity. Expression studies during the immune response. Eur J Biochem. 1996;241:699-706 pubmed
    ..contains a single, intronless gene, located at position 51C1-6, which encodes the precursor protein from which drosocin is processed...
  16. Rutschmann S, Jung A, Hetru C, Reichhart J, Hoffmann J, Ferrandon D. The Rel protein DIF mediates the antifungal but not the antibacterial host defense in Drosophila. Immunity. 2000;12:569-80 pubmed
    ..We discuss in this light the possibility that NF-KB1/p50 might be required more specifically in the innate immune response against gram-positive bacteria in mammals. ..
  17. Lemaitre B, Reichhart J, Hoffmann J. Drosophila host defense: differential induction of antimicrobial peptide genes after infection by various classes of microorganisms. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:14614-9 pubmed
    ..This response is mediated through the selective activation of the Toll pathway. ..
  18. Bhattacharya A, Steward R. The Drosophila homolog of NTF-2, the nuclear transport factor-2, is essential for immune response. EMBO Rep. 2002;3:378-83 pubmed
    ..after infection, and, consequently, the expression of the anti-microbial peptide genes drosomycin, attacin and drosocin is severely impaired...
  19. Oh C, Moon C, Jeong M, Kwon S, Jang J. Drosophila melanogaster model for Mycobacterium abscessus infection. Microbes Infect. 2013;15:788-95 pubmed publisher
    ..To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that mycobacteria induce the production of antimicrobial peptides in D. melanogaster. ..
  20. Hallem E, Rengarajan M, Ciche T, Sternberg P. Nematodes, bacteria, and flies: a tripartite model for nematode parasitism. Curr Biol. 2007;17:898-904 pubmed
  21. Gendrin M, Welchman D, Poidevin M, Hervé M, Lemaitre B. Long-range activation of systemic immunity through peptidoglycan diffusion in Drosophila. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000694 pubmed publisher
    ..Genital infection is thus an intriguing new model for studying the systemic immune response to local epithelial infections and a potential route of entry for naturally occurring pathogens of Drosophila...
  22. Meister M, Lemaitre B, Hoffmann J. Antimicrobial peptide defense in Drosophila. Bioessays. 1997;19:1019-26 pubmed
    ..Recent data on the molecular mechanisms underlying recognition of non-self are also discussed in this review. ..
  23. Ten Hagen K, Tran D. A UDP-GalNAc:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase is essential for viability in Drosophila melanogaster. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:22616-22 pubmed
    ..This study provides the first direct evidence for the involvement of a member of this conserved multigene family in eukaryotic development and viability. ..
  24. Stergiopoulos K, Cabrero P, Davies S, Dow J. Salty dog, an SLC5 symporter, modulates Drosophila response to salt stress. Physiol Genomics. 2009;37:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, CG2196 was renamed salty dog (salt). ..
  25. Craig C, Fink J, Yagi Y, Ip Y, Cagan R. A Drosophila p38 orthologue is required for environmental stress responses. EMBO Rep. 2004;5:1058-63 pubmed
    ..These phenotypes only partially overlap those caused by mutations in D-MEKK1 and dTAK1, suggesting that the D-p38a gene is required to mediate some, but not all, of the functions ascribed to p38 signalling. ..
  26. Bulet P, Urge L, Ohresser S, Hetru C, Otvos L. Enlarged scale chemical synthesis and range of activity of drosocin, an O-glycosylated antibacterial peptide of Drosophila. Eur J Biochem. 1996;238:64-9 pubmed
    ..One of them, drosocin, a 19-residue proline-rich antibacterial peptide, was isolated from Drosophila...
  27. Fernando M, Kounatidis I, Ligoxygakis P. Loss of Trabid, a new negative regulator of the drosophila immune-deficiency pathway at the level of TAK1, reduces life span. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004117 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate an elaborate and multi-tiered mechanism for regulating TAK1 activity and modulating its immune signal. ..
  28. Lemos B, Branco A, Hartl D. Epigenetic effects of polymorphic Y chromosomes modulate chromatin components, immune response, and sexual conflict. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:15826-31 pubmed publisher
  29. Helenius I, Krupinski T, Turnbull D, Gruenbaum Y, Silverman N, Johnson E, et al. Elevated CO2 suppresses specific Drosophila innate immune responses and resistance to bacterial infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:18710-5 pubmed publisher
  30. Radyuk S, Michalak K, Klichko V, Benes J, Orr W. Peroxiredoxin 5 modulates immune response in Drosophila. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1800:1153-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Molecular and epistatic analyses identified dPrx5 as a negative regulator in the dTak1-JNK arm of immune signaling. Our findings suggest that peroxiredoxins play an important modulatory role in the Drosophila immune response. ..
  31. Petersen A, Rimkus S, Wassarman D. ATM kinase inhibition in glial cells activates the innate immune response and causes neurodegeneration in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:E656-64 pubmed publisher
  32. Wang Z, Berkey C, Watnick P. The Drosophila protein mustard tailors the innate immune response activated by the immune deficiency pathway. J Immunol. 2012;188:3993-4000 pubmed publisher
    ..Mtd homologs have been implicated in resistance to oxidative stress. However, to our knowledge this is the first evidence that Mtd or its homologs alter the output of an innate immunity signaling cascade from within the nucleus...
  33. Anbutsu H, Fukatsu T. Evasion, suppression and tolerance of Drosophila innate immunity by a male-killing Spiroplasma endosymbiont. Insect Mol Biol. 2010;19:481-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that not only immune evasion but also immune suppression and tolerance are involved in the establishment and maintenance of the insect-microbe symbiotic association. ..
  34. Yagi Y, Lim Y, Tsuda L, Nishida Y. fat facets induces polyubiquitination of Imd and inhibits the innate immune response in Drosophila. Genes Cells. 2013;18:934-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Given that faf-dependent Imd polyubiquitination did not seem to cause protein degradation of Imd, Faf might inhibit the IMD pathway by modulating the state of Imd ubiquitination and/or stability. ..
  35. Dissel S, Angadi V, Kirszenblat L, Suzuki Y, Donlea J, Klose M, et al. Sleep restores behavioral plasticity to Drosophila mutants. Curr Biol. 2015;25:1270-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data demonstrate that sleep plays a more fundamental role in modulating behavioral plasticity than previously appreciated and suggest that increasing sleep may benefit patients with certain neurological disorders. ..
  36. Moskalev A, Zhikrivetskaya S, Krasnov G, Shaposhnikov M, Proshkina E, Borisoglebsky D, et al. A comparison of the transcriptome of Drosophila melanogaster in response to entomopathogenic fungus, ionizing radiation, starvation and cold shock. BMC Genomics. 2015;16 Suppl 13:S8 pubmed publisher
    ..Studied doses of stress treatments deleteriously affect the organism's viability and lead to different changes of both general and specific cellular stress response mechanisms. ..
  37. Ayres J, Schneider D. The role of anorexia in resistance and tolerance to infections in Drosophila. PLoS Biol. 2009;7:e1000150 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that attempts to extend lifespan through diet restriction or the manipulation of pathways mimicking this process will have complicated effects on a host's ability to fight infections. ..
  38. Sudmeier L, Samudrala S, Howard S, Ganetzky B. Persistent Activation of the Innate Immune Response in Adult Drosophila Following Radiation Exposure During Larval Development. G3 (Bethesda). 2015;5:2299-306 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies may facilitate the development of strategies to reduce the deleterious side effects of CRT. ..
  39. Domanitskaya E, Liu H, Chen S, Kubli E. The hydroxyproline motif of male sex peptide elicits the innate immune response in Drosophila females. FEBS J. 2007;274:5659-68 pubmed
    ..g. the antimicrobial peptide drosocin in epithelial tissues of the female genital tract (oviduct and calyx)...
  40. Obata F, Kuranaga E, Tomioka K, Ming M, Takeishi A, Chen C, et al. Necrosis-driven systemic immune response alters SAM metabolism through the FOXO-GNMT axis. Cell Rep. 2014;7:821-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the dFoxO-Gnmt axis is essential for the maintenance of organismal SAM metabolism and energy homeostasis. ..
  41. Verma P, Tapadia M. Epithelial immune response in Drosophila malpighian tubules: interplay between Diap2 and ion channels. J Cell Physiol. 2014;229:1078-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus Diap2 seems to be a key regulator of epithelial immune response in MTs, perhaps by modulating ion channels. ..
  42. Vonkavaara M, Pavel S, Hölzl K, Nordfelth R, Sjostedt A, Stoven S. Francisella is sensitive to insect antimicrobial peptides. J Innate Immun. 2013;5:50-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that Francisella is sensitive to specific fly AMPs, i.e. Attacin, Cecropin, Drosocin and Drosomycin...
  43. Costa A, Jan E, Sarnow P, Schneider D. The Imd pathway is involved in antiviral immune responses in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7436 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data show that antiviral innate immune responses in flies infected with CrPV depend upon hemocytes and signaling through the Imd pathway. ..
  44. Rao X, Xu X, Yu X. Manduca sexta moricin promoter elements can increase promoter activities of Drosophila melanogaster antimicrobial peptide genes. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2011;41:982-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings revealed an approach of engineering AMP genes with enhanced activities, which may lead to broad applications. ..
  45. Lazzaro B, Clark A. Molecular population genetics of inducible antibacterial peptide genes in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Biol Evol. 2003;20:914-23 pubmed publisher
    ..genes, we examine global properties of polymorphism and divergence in the Drosophila melanogaster defensin, drosocin, metchnikowin, attacin C, diptericin A, and cecropin A, B, and C genes...
  46. Cao Y, Chtarbanova S, Petersen A, Ganetzky B. Dnr1 mutations cause neurodegeneration in Drosophila by activating the innate immune response in the brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E1752-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide a mechanistic link between innate immune responses and neurodegeneration and may have important implications for the role of neuroinflammation in human neurodegenerative diseases as well...
  47. Nicolas E, Nappi A, Lemaitre B. Expression of antimicrobial peptide genes after infection by parasitoid wasps in Drosophila. Dev Comp Immunol. 1996;20:175-81 pubmed
    ..As the parasitoids elicit a cellular response, our data suggest that the antimicrobial responses are activated and/or regulated by mechanisms that are independent of those mediating cellular encapsulation. ..
  48. Kuo T, Williams J. Increased sleep promotes survival during a bacterial infection in Drosophila. Sleep. 2014;37:1077-86, 1086A-1086D pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings support the hypothesis that sleep is beneficial to the host by maintaining a robust immune system. ..
  49. Haller S, Limmer S, Ferrandon D. Assessing Pseudomonas virulence with a nonmammalian host: Drosophila melanogaster. Methods Mol Biol. 2014;1149:723-40 pubmed publisher
  50. Lindmark H, Johansson K, Stoven S, Hultmark D, Engstrom Y, Soderhall K. Enteric bacteria counteract lipopolysaccharide induction of antimicrobial peptide genes. J Immunol. 2001;167:6920-3 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, the inhibiting mechanism is, at least for E. coli, independent of the type III secretion system, indicating that the inhibitory mechanism is unrelated to the one earlier described for YopJ from Yersinia. ..
  51. Okado K, Shinzawa N, Aonuma H, Nelson B, Fukumoto S, Fujisaki K, et al. Rapid recruitment of innate immunity regulates variation of intracellular pathogen resistance in Drosophila. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;379:6-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together we provide the first experimental evidence to suggest that differences in innate immune activity at early time points during infection likely mediates infection susceptibility in Drosophila. ..
  52. Clark R, Woodcock K, Geissmann F, Trouillet C, Dionne M. Multiple TGF-? superfamily signals modulate the adult Drosophila immune response. Curr Biol. 2011;21:1672-7 pubmed publisher
  53. Broderick S, Wang X, Simms N, Page McCaw A. Drosophila Ninjurin A induces nonapoptotic cell death. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44567 pubmed publisher
    ..In cell culture, NijA also induced cell death, which appeared to be cell autonomous. These in vivo studies identify a new role for the Ninjurin family in inducing nonapoptotic cell death. ..
  54. Dissel S, Melnattur K, Shaw P. Sleep, Performance, and Memory in Flies. Curr Sleep Med Rep. 2015;1:47-54 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that as Drosophila sleep researchers expand their analysis beyond sleep time, the opportunities to discover the function of sleep will be enhanced. ..
  55. Bandarra D, Biddlestone J, Mudie S, Müller H, Rocha S. HIF-1α restricts NF-κB-dependent gene expression to control innate immunity signals. Dis Model Mech. 2015;8:169-81 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that HIF-1α is required to restrain the NF-κB response, and thus prevents excessive and damaging pro-inflammatory responses. ..
  56. Akhouayri I, Turc C, Royet J, Charroux B. Toll-8/Tollo negatively regulates antimicrobial response in the Drosophila respiratory epithelium. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002319 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data show that, in addition to Toll-1 whose function is essential during the systemic immune response, Drosophila relies on another Toll family member to control the immune response in the respiratory epithelium...
  57. Thimgan M, Gottschalk L, Toedebusch C, McLeland J, Rechtschaffen A, Gilliland Roberts M, et al. Cross-translational studies in human and Drosophila identify markers of sleep loss. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e61016 pubmed publisher
    ..These cross-translational data indicate that fly and human discovery experiments are mutually reinforcing and can be used interchangeably to identify candidate biomarkers of sleep loss. ..
  58. Chapman T. Seminal fluid-mediated fitness traits in Drosophila. Heredity (Edinb). 2001;87:511-21 pubmed
    ..In this review I address these issues by bringing together evidence for the function, evolution, diversification, and maintenance of variation in, seminal fluid-mediated traits...
  59. Pilatova M, Dionne M. Burkholderia thailandensis is virulent in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e49745 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the function of fly phagocytes is not affected by B. thailandensis infection. The high virulence of B. thailandensis in the fly suggests the possibility that this organism is a natural pathogen of one or more invertebrates. ..
  60. Tan K, Vlisidou I, Wood W. Ecdysone mediates the development of immunity in the Drosophila embryo. Curr Biol. 2014;24:1145-52 pubmed publisher
  61. An S, Dong S, Wang Q, Li S, Gilbert L, Stanley D, et al. Insect neuropeptide bursicon homodimers induce innate immune and stress genes during molting by activating the NF-?B transcription factor Relish. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34510 pubmed publisher
    ..From these data we infer that CNS-generated bursicon homodimers mediate innate prophylactic immunity to both stress and infection during the vulnerable molting cycle. ..
  62. McManus A, Otvos L, Hoffmann R, Craik D. Conformational studies by NMR of the antimicrobial peptide, drosocin, and its non-glycosylated derivative: effects of glycosylation on solution conformation. Biochemistry. 1999;38:705-14 pubmed
    b>Drosocin is a cationic 19 amino acid peptide secreted by Drosophila in response to septic injury...
  63. Hoffmann J, Kafatos F, Janeway C, Ezekowitz R. Phylogenetic perspectives in innate immunity. Science. 1999;284:1313-8 pubmed
    ..In addition to its role in the early phase of defense, innate immunity in mammals appears to play a key role in stimulating the subsequent, clonal response of adaptive immunity. ..
  64. Verma P, Tapadia M. Early gene Broad complex plays a key role in regulating the immune response triggered by ecdysone in the Malpighian tubules of Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Immunol. 2015;66:325-39 pubmed publisher
    ..to ecdysone very fast even without immune challenge, although the different AMPs Diptericin, Cecropin, Attacin, Drosocin show differential expression in response to ecdysone...
  65. Vanha aho L, Kleino A, Kaustio M, Ulvila J, Wilke B, Hultmark D, et al. Functional characterization of the infection-inducible peptide Edin in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37153 pubmed publisher
    ..faecalis infection via an uncharacterized mechanism. Further studies are still required to elucidate the exact role of Edin in the Drosophila immune response. ..
  66. Sackton T, Clark A. Comparative profiling of the transcriptional response to infection in two species of Drosophila by short-read cDNA sequencing. BMC Genomics. 2009;10:259 pubmed publisher
    ..virilis hemolymph and validate our transcriptional data. These results suggest that the acquisition of novel components of the immune system, and particularly novel effector proteins, may be a common evolutionary phenomenon. ..
  67. Deng X, Yang W, Huang Y, Cao Y, Wen S, Xia Q, et al. Gene expression divergence and evolutionary analysis of the drosomycin gene family in Drosophila melanogaster. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2009;2009:315423 pubmed publisher
    Drosomycin (Drs) encoding an inducible 44-residue antifungal peptide is clustered with six additional genes, Dro1, Dro2, Dro3, Dro4, Dro5, and Dro6, forming a multigene family on the 3L chromosome arm in Drosophila melanogaster...
  68. Landis G, Abdueva D, Skvortsov D, Yang J, Rabin B, Carrick J, et al. Similar gene expression patterns characterize aging and oxidative stress in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:7663-8 pubmed
    ..Immune reporter expression in young flies was partially predictive of remaining life span, suggesting their potential as biomonitors of aging. ..
  69. Boulanger N, Ehret Sabatier L, Brun R, Zachary D, Bulet P, Imler J. Immune response of Drosophila melanogaster to infection with the flagellate parasite Crithidia spp. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2001;31:129-37 pubmed
    ..The data presented here suggest that Drosophila-Crithidia spp. represents an interesting model to study host defense against protozoan parasites...
  70. Rera M, Clark R, Walker D. Intestinal barrier dysfunction links metabolic and inflammatory markers of aging to death in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:21528-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that intestinal barrier dysfunction may be an important factor in the pathophysiology of aging in other species as well, including humans. ..
  71. Bergeret E, Perrin J, Williams M, Grunwald D, Engel E, Thevenon D, et al. TM9SF4 is required for Drosophila cellular immunity via cell adhesion and phagocytosis. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:3325-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study highlights the contribution of phagocytes to host defence in an organism possessing a complex innate immune response and suggests an evolutionarily conserved function of TM9SF4 in eukaryotic phagocytes. ..
  72. Varma D, Bülow M, Pesch Y, Loch G, Hoch M. Forkhead, a new cross regulator of metabolism and innate immunity downstream of TOR in Drosophila. J Insect Physiol. 2014;69:80-8 pubmed publisher