Gene Symbol: drl
Description: derailed
Alias: CG10758, CG17348, DRL, Dmel\CG17348, Drl, lin, lio, lio/drl, derailed, CG17348-PA, CG17348-PB, drl-PA, drl-PB, linotte, lionette
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Wouda R, Bansraj M, de Jong A, Noordermeer J, Fradkin L. Src family kinases are required for WNT5 signaling through the Derailed/RYK receptor in the Drosophila embryonic central nervous system. Development. 2008;135:2277-87 pubmed publisher
    Members of the RYK/Derailed family have recently been shown to regulate axon guidance in both Drosophila and mammals by acting as Wnt receptors. Little is known about how the kinase activity-deficient RYKs transduce Wnt signals...
  2. Yoshikawa S, McKinnon R, Kokel M, Thomas J. Wnt-mediated axon guidance via the Drosophila Derailed receptor. Nature. 2003;422:583-8 pubmed
    ..Commissure choice is controlled by Derailed, an atypical receptor tyrosine kinase expressed on axons projecting in the anterior commissure...
  3. Sakurai M, Aoki T, Yoshikawa S, Santschi L, Saito H, Endo K, et al. Differentially expressed Drl and Drl-2 play opposing roles in Wnt5 signaling during Drosophila olfactory system development. J Neurosci. 2009;29:4972-80 pubmed publisher
    ..In the embryonic CNS, Wnt5 signaling is transduced by the Drl receptor, a member of the Ryk family. During development of the olfactory system, however, it is antagonized by Drl...
  4. Savant Bhonsale S, Friese M, McCoon P, Montell D. A Drosophila derailed homolog, doughnut, expressed in invaginating cells during embryogenesis. Gene. 1999;231:155-61 pubmed
    ..The protein product was found to be 70% identical to the Drosophila Derailed (DRL) protein and 35-40% identical to the mammalian RYK proteins...
  5. Fradkin L, Dura J, Noordermeer J. Ryks: new partners for Wnts in the developing and regenerating nervous system. Trends Neurosci. 2010;33:84-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent findings that injury-induced Wnt/Ryk pathway activation inhibits axon regeneration underscore the importance of further understanding this novel pathway. ..
  6. Callahan C, Bonkovsky J, Scully A, Thomas J. derailed is required for muscle attachment site selection in Drosophila. Development. 1996;122:2761-7 pubmed
    ..At the molecular level, very little is known about how muscles recognize these attachment sites. The derailed gene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase family member that is essential for the pathfinding ability of expressing ..
  7. Harris K, Beckendorf S. Different Wnt signals act through the Frizzled and RYK receptors during Drosophila salivary gland migration. Development. 2007;134:2017-25 pubmed
    ..Analysis of a second Wnt signal, which acts through the atypical Wnt receptor Derailed, indicates a requirement for Wnt5 signaling late in salivary gland migration...
  8. Callahan C, Muralidhar M, Lundgren S, Scully A, Thomas J. Control of neuronal pathway selection by a Drosophila receptor protein-tyrosine kinase family member. Nature. 1995;376:171-4 pubmed
    ..Here we report the isolation of the Drosophila derailed (drl) gene, which encodes a novel member of the receptor protein-tyrosine kinase family...
  9. Yoshikawa S, Bonkowsky J, Kokel M, Shyn S, Thomas J. The derailed guidance receptor does not require kinase activity in vivo. J Neurosci. 2001;21:RC119 pubmed
    The Drosophila Derailed (DRL) receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) controls key guidance events in the developing nervous system and mesoderm...

More Information


  1. Bonkowsky J, Yoshikawa S, O Keefe D, Scully A, Thomas J. Axon routing across the midline controlled by the Drosophila Derailed receptor. Nature. 1999;402:540-4 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the Derailed (Drl) receptor tyrosine kinase is expressed by neurons that project in the AC, and that in the absence of Drl ..
  2. Oates A, Bonkovsky J, Irvine D, Kelly L, Thomas J, Wilks A. Embryonic expression and activity of doughnut, a second RYK homolog in Drosophila. Mech Dev. 1998;78:165-9 pubmed
    In the Drosophila embryo, a subset of muscles require expression and function of the RYK subfamily RTK gene derailed (drl) for correct attachment. We have isolated a second RYK homolog, doughnut (dnt), from Drosophila...
  3. Grillenzoni N, Flandre A, Lasbleiz C, Dura J. Respective roles of the DRL receptor and its ligand WNT5 in Drosophila mushroom body development. Development. 2007;134:3089-97 pubmed
    ..We have previously characterized the derailed (drl; also known as linotte) receptor tyrosine kinase as an essential component of adult MB development...
  4. Dura J, Preat T, Tully T. Identification of linotte, a new gene affecting learning and memory in Drosophila melanogaster. J Neurogenet. 1993;9:1-14 pubmed
    We describe the identification of linotte, a new autosomal gene in Drosophila involved with learning and memory...
  5. Fradkin L, van Schie M, Wouda R, de Jong A, Kamphorst J, Radjkoemar Bansraj M, et al. The Drosophila Wnt5 protein mediates selective axon fasciculation in the embryonic central nervous system. Dev Biol. 2004;272:362-75 pubmed
    ..Finally, we demonstrate that transcriptional repression of wnt5 in AC neurons by the recently described Wnt5 receptor, Derailed, contributes to this largely posterior commissural localization of Wnt5 protein.
  6. Wu Y, Helt J, Wexler E, Petrova I, Noordermeer J, Fradkin L, et al. Wnt5 and drl/ryk gradients pattern the Drosophila olfactory dendritic map. J Neurosci. 2014;34:14961-72 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that Drl/Ryk, a known Wnt5 receptor, is expressed in a dorsolateral-to-ventromedial (DL > VM) gradient by the PN ..
  7. Simon A, Boquet I, Synguelakis M, Preat T. The Drosophila putative kinase linotte (derailed) prevents central brain axons from converging on a newly described interhemispheric ring. Mech Dev. 1998;76:45-55 pubmed
    ..M., Préat, T., Tully, T., 1993. Identification of linotte, a new gene affecting learning and memory in Drosophila melanogaster. J. Neurogenet. 9, 1-14)...
  8. Yoshikawa S, Thomas J. Secreted cell signaling molecules in axon guidance. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2004;14:45-50 pubmed
    ..These signaling molecules seem to act directly on the growth cone and thus are likely to activate non-canonical signaling pathways that are coupled to the cytoskeleton. ..
  9. Bonkowsky J, Thomas J. Cell-type specific modular regulation of derailed in the Drosophila nervous system. Mech Dev. 1999;82:181-4 pubmed
    The derailed (drl) gene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) that governs aspects of axon guidance and muscle-epidermal interactions in the Drosophila embryo...
  10. Reynaud E, Lahaye L, Boulanger A, Petrova I, Marquilly C, Flandre A, et al. Guidance of Drosophila Mushroom Body Axons Depends upon DRL-Wnt Receptor Cleavage in the Brain Dorsomedial Lineage Precursors. Cell Rep. 2015;11:1293-304 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that the Ryk family WNT5 receptor, DRL (derailed), which is expressed in the dorsomedial lineages, brain structure precursors adjacent to the MBs, is required for ..
  11. Pallavi S, Kannan R, Shashidhara L. Negative regulation of Egfr/Ras pathway by Ultrabithorax during haltere development in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2006;296:340-52 pubmed
    ..These results and other recent findings suggest that homeotic genes may regulate cell fate determination by directly regulating few steps at the top of the hierarchy of selected signal transduction pathways. ..
  12. Dura J, Preat T, Tully T. Identification of linotte, a new gene affecting learning and memory in Drosophila melanogaster. J Neurogenet. 2007;21:307-20 pubmed
    We describe the identification of linotte, a new autosomal gene in Drosophila involved with learning and memory...
  13. Dura J, Taillebourg E, Preat T. The Drosophila learning and memory gene linotte encodes a putative receptor tyrosine kinase homologous to the human RYK gene product. FEBS Lett. 1995;370:250-4 pubmed
    The linotte mutant was isolated on the basis of its learning and memory deficit. Interestingly, linotte individuals carrying a null mutation are viable, indicating that the linotte gene is not required for vital functions...
  14. Jordan K, Morgan T, Mackay T. Quantitative trait loci for locomotor behavior in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2006;174:271-84 pubmed
    ..These data implicate variation in the synthesis of bioamines as a factor contributing to natural variation in locomotor reactivity. ..
  15. Chen J, Condron B. Branch architecture of the fly larval abdominal serotonergic neurons. Dev Biol. 2008;320:30-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the basic branching pattern of serotonergic neurons within the neuropil remains unchanged despite alterations of initial axonal trajectories. ..
  16. Van Vactor D, O Reilly A, Neel B. Genetic analysis of protein tyrosine phosphatases. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1998;8:112-26 pubmed
    ..Finally, very recent studies of other mammalian PTPs suggest that they have critical roles in processes as diverse as hematopoiesis and liver and pituitary development. ..
  17. Dissel S, Melnattur K, Shaw P. Sleep, Performance, and Memory in Flies. Curr Sleep Med Rep. 2015;1:47-54 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that as Drosophila sleep researchers expand their analysis beyond sleep time, the opportunities to discover the function of sleep will be enhanced. ..
  18. Chien C. PY in the fly receptor-like tyrosine phosphatases in axonal pathfinding. Neuron. 1996;16:1065-8 pubmed
  19. Liebl F, Wu Y, Featherstone D, Noordermeer J, Fradkin L, Hing H. Derailed regulates development of the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. Dev Neurobiol. 2008;68:152-65 pubmed
    ..show here that Wnt5 regulates the growth of the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ) by signaling through the Derailed receptor. Mutations in both wnt5 and drl result in a significant reduction in the number of synaptic boutons...
  20. Veeman M, Axelrod J, Moon R. A second canon. Functions and mechanisms of beta-catenin-independent Wnt signaling. Dev Cell. 2003;5:367-77 pubmed
  21. Yao Y, Wu Y, Yin C, Ozawa R, Aigaki T, Wouda R, et al. Antagonistic roles of Wnt5 and the Drl receptor in patterning the Drosophila antennal lobe. Nat Neurosci. 2007;10:1423-32 pubmed
    ..Mutation of the derailed (drl) gene, encoding a receptor for Wnt5, resulted in derangement of the glomerular map, ectopic midline ..
  22. Zlatic M, Li F, Strigini M, Grueber W, Bate M. Positional cues in the Drosophila nerve cord: semaphorins pattern the dorso-ventral axis. PLoS Biol. 2009;7:e1000135 pubmed publisher
    ..Together our findings support the idea that axons are delivered to particular regions of the neuropile by their responses to systems of positional cues in each dimension. ..
  23. Hitier R, Chaminade M, Preat T. The Drosophila castor gene is involved in postembryonic brain development. Mech Dev. 2001;103:3-11 pubmed
    ..The linotte (lio) gene encodes a transmembrane protein expressed at larval/pupal stage in a glial structure, the TIFR, and ..
  24. Keller Larkin M, Deng W, Holder K, Tworoger M, Clegg N, Ruohola Baker H. Role of Notch pathway in terminal follicle cell differentiation during Drosophila oogenesis. Dev Genes Evol. 1999;209:301-11 pubmed
  25. Pallavi S, Shashidhara L. Egfr/Ras pathway mediates interactions between peripodial and disc proper cells in Drosophila wing discs. Development. 2003;130:4931-41 pubmed
    ..These results on signaling between squamous and columnar epithelia are particularly significant in the context of in vitro studies using human cell lines that suggest a role for the Egfr/Ras pathway in metastasis and tumour progression. ..
  26. Xia S, Tully T. Segregation of odor identity and intensity during odor discrimination in Drosophila mushroom body. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e264 pubmed
  27. Yasunaga K, Tezuka A, Ishikawa N, Dairyo Y, Togashi K, Koizumi H, et al. Adult Drosophila sensory neurons specify dendritic territories independently of dendritic contacts through the Wnt5-Drl signaling pathway. Genes Dev. 2015;29:1763-75 pubmed publisher
    ..that Wnt5 promotes dendrite termination on the periphery of sternites through the Ryk receptor family kinase Derailed (Drl) and the Rho GTPase guanine nucleotide exchange factor Trio in C4da neurons...
  28. Lavagnino N, Arya G, Korovaichuk A, Fanara J. Genetic architecture of olfactory behavior in Drosophila melanogaster: differences and similarities across development. Behav Genet. 2013;43:348-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, our results point out that the genetic architecture of olfactory behavior in D. melanogaster presents a dynamic and changing organization across environments and ontogeny. ..
  29. Callahan C, Thomas J. Tau-beta-galactosidase, an axon-targeted fusion protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:5972-6 pubmed
    ..Since the tau cDNA-lacZ reporter utilizes bovine tau, it may also effectively target beta-gal in vertebrate neurons and prove to be a useful reagent for the analysis of vertebrate nervous systems. ..
  30. Moreau Fauvarque C, Taillebourg E, Preat T, Dura J. Mutation of linotte causes behavioral defects independently of pigeon in Drosophila. Neuroreport. 2002;13:2309-12 pubmed
    ..a novel gene specifically involved in adult learning and memory, whereas for others, it is an allele of the derailed receptor tyrosine kinase gene (the linotte/derailed gene) involved in nervous system development...
  31. Katsuki T, Ailani D, Hiramoto M, Hiromi Y. Intra-axonal patterning: intrinsic compartmentalization of the axonal membrane in Drosophila neurons. Neuron. 2009;64:188-99 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that this intra-axonal compartmentalization is an intrinsic property of Drosophila neurons that provides a basis for the structural and functional development of the nervous system. ..
  32. Nicolaï M, Lasbleiz C, Dura J. Gain-of-function screen identifies a role of the Src64 oncogene in Drosophila mushroom body development. J Neurobiol. 2003;57:291-302 pubmed
    ..Moreover, Src64 is shown here to act in a cell-autonomous fashion and is likely to interact with the previously-identified linotte/derailed receptor tyrosine kinase in MB development.
  33. Waddell S, Quinn W. What can we teach Drosophila? What can they teach us?. Trends Genet. 2001;17:719-26 pubmed
  34. Long H, Yoshikawa S, Thomas J. Equivalent Activities of Repulsive Axon Guidance Receptors. J Neurosci. 2016;36:1140-50 pubmed publisher
    ..and intracellular domains of three different Drosophila repulsive receptors, Unc5, Roundabout (Robo), and Derailed (Drl) and expressing them in defined cells within the embryonic nervous system, we examined the responses ..
  35. Schnorrer F, Dickson B. Axon guidance: morphogens show the way. Curr Biol. 2004;14:R19-21 pubmed
    ..Surprising new studies show that members of these same protein families also act as guidance cues for growing axons in the developing nervous system. ..
  36. Sopko R, Perrimon N. Receptor tyrosine kinases in Drosophila development. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2013;5: pubmed publisher
    ..In this comprehensive review, we summarize what is known regarding each receptor tyrosine kinase during Drosophila development. Astonishingly, very little is known for approximately half of all Drosophila receptor tyrosine kinases. ..
  37. Nusse R. Wnts and Hedgehogs: lipid-modified proteins and similarities in signaling mechanisms at the cell surface. Development. 2003;130:5297-305 pubmed
    ..Several other aspects of Wnt and Hedgehog transport and signaling are discussed, as well as the possible origin of these pathways. ..
  38. Cridland J, Macdonald S, Long A, Thornton K. Abundance and distribution of transposable elements in two Drosophila QTL mapping resources. Mol Biol Evol. 2013;30:2311-27 pubmed publisher
    ..There was substantial variation in TE load across genes. For example, the paralogs derailed and derailed-2 show a significant difference in the number of TE insertions, potentially reflecting differences ..
  39. Garelli A, Heredia F, Casimiro A, Macedo A, Nunes C, Garcez M, et al. Dilp8 requires the neuronal relaxin receptor Lgr3 to couple growth to developmental timing. Nat Commun. 2015;6:8732 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work sheds new light on the function and evolution of relaxin receptors and reveals a novel neuroendocrine circuit responsive to growth aberrations. ..
  40. Davis R. Physiology and biochemistry of Drosophila learning mutants. Physiol Rev. 1996;76:299-317 pubmed
    ..An appendix describing the currently used paradigms to test Drosophila behavior is included...
  41. O Donnell M, Bashaw G. Src inhibits midline axon crossing independent of Frazzled/Deleted in Colorectal Carcinoma (DCC) receptor tyrosine phosphorylation. J Neurosci. 2013;33:305-14 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that distinct signaling outputs must exist for midline axon crossing independent of Src kinases in commissural neurons. ..
  42. Acevedo S, Froudarakis E, Tsiorva A, Skoulakis E. Distinct neuronal circuits mediate experience-dependent, non-associative osmotactic responses in Drosophila. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2007;34:378-89 pubmed
    ..Finally, these experience-dependent non-associative paradigms are excellent methods of functionally ascertaining normal activity of the mushroom bodies and inner antenoglomerular tract in putative leaning and memory mutants. ..
  43. Lahaye L, Wouda R, de Jong A, Fradkin L, Noordermeer J. WNT5 interacts with the Ryk receptors doughnut and derailed to mediate muscle attachment site selection in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32297 pubmed publisher
    ..A muscle bypass phenotype was previously reported for embryos lacking the WNT5 receptor Derailed (DRL). drl and Wnt5 mutant embryos also exhibit axon path finding errors...
  44. Li X, Wang Y, Wang H, Liu T, Guo J, Yi W, et al. Epithelia-derived wingless regulates dendrite directional growth of drosophila ddaE neuron through the Fz-Fmi-Dsh-Rac1 pathway. Mol Brain. 2016;9:46 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our findings provide strong in vivo evidence on how environmental signals serve as spatial cues for dendrite patterning. ..
  45. Keynes R, Cook G. Axon guidance molecules. Cell. 1995;83:161-9 pubmed
  46. Chakraborty M, Paul B, Nayak T, Das A, Jana N, Bhutani S. The E3 ligase ube3a is required for learning in Drosophila melanogaster. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;462:71-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we suggest that dube3a could be interacting with other learning and memory genes such as derailed. Along with firmly establishing dube3a as a gene that is required for learning, our work also opens avenues for ..
  47. Charron F, Tessier Lavigne M. Novel brain wiring functions for classical morphogens: a role as graded positional cues in axon guidance. Development. 2005;132:2251-62 pubmed
  48. Taillebourg E, Moreau Fauvarque C, Delaval K, Dura J. In vivo evidence for a regulatory role of the kinase activity of the linotte/derailed receptor tyrosine kinase, a Drosophila Ryk ortholog. Dev Genes Evol. 2005;215:158-63 pubmed
    ..The linotte/derailed gene encodes a Drosophila RYK subfamily member involved in embryonic and adult central nervous system development...
  49. Moreau Fauvarque C, Taillebourg E, Boissoneau E, Mesnard J, Dura J. The receptor tyrosine kinase gene linotte is required for neuronal pathway selection in the Drosophila mushroom bodies. Mech Dev. 1998;78:47-61 pubmed
    ..has been independently identified in a screen for embryonic nervous system axonal guidance defects and called derailed (drl)...
  50. Tear G. Neuronal guidance. A genetic perspective. Trends Genet. 1999;15:113-8 pubmed
    ..Here I highlight the part genetic screens and analyses have played in revealing some of the key players in neuronal guidance. ..
  51. Zinn K, Schmid A. Derailed axons get on track. Nature. 1999;402:475-6 pubmed
  52. Seugnet L, Suzuki Y, Stidd R, Shaw P. Aversive phototaxic suppression: evaluation of a short-term memory assay in Drosophila melanogaster. Genes Brain Behav. 2009;8:377-89 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that APS is a simple and effective assay that can be used to evaluate fly models of human conditions associated with cognitive deficits. ..
  53. Speicher S, Garcia Alonso L, Carmena A, Martin Bermudo M, De La Escalera S, Jimenez F. Neurotactin functions in concert with other identified CAMs in growth cone guidance in Drosophila. Neuron. 1998;20:221-33 pubmed
    ..mutant combinations of neurotactin and other genes encoding adhesion/signaling molecules, including neuroglian, derailed, and kekkon1, displayed phenotypic synergy...
  54. Morley K, Montgomery G. The genetics of cognitive processes: candidate genes in humans and animals. Behav Genet. 2001;31:511-31 pubmed
    ..This survey confirms that many genes are associated with cognitive variation and highlights the potential importance of animal models in the study of human cognition. ..
  55. Taillebourg E, Dura J. A novel mechanism for P element homing in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:6856-61 pubmed
    ..In this report, we describe a case of homing of P elements containing regulatory sequences of the linotte gene...
  56. Clark C, Liu Y, Cooper H. The Yin and Yang of Wnt/Ryk axon guidance in development and regeneration. Sci China Life Sci. 2014;57:366-71 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review we explore the essential and beneficial role played by the chemorepulsive Wnt receptor, Ryk/Derailed in axon navigation in the embryonic nervous system (the Yin function)...
  57. Ejsmont R, Hassan B. The Little Fly that Could: Wizardry and Artistry of Drosophila Genomics. Genes (Basel). 2014;5:385-414 pubmed publisher
    ..We present a broad overview of some of the most powerful genomics tools that keep Drosophila research at the cutting edge of modern biomedical research. ..
  58. Roman G, Davis R. Molecular biology and anatomy of Drosophila olfactory associative learning. Bioessays. 2001;23:571-81 pubmed
    ..In this review, we discuss the nature of the behavioral tasks, the molecules, and the neuronal circuits involved in olfactory learning in Drosophila. ..
  59. Yuan L, Hu S, Okray Z, Ren X, De Geest N, Claeys A, et al. The Drosophila neurogenin Tap functionally interacts with the Wnt-PCP pathway to regulate neuronal extension and guidance. Development. 2016;143:2760-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic and expression analyses suggest that Tap inhibits excessive axonal growth by fine regulation of the levels of the Wnt signaling adaptor protein Dishevelled. ..
  60. Hitier R, Simon A, Savarit F, Preat T. no-bridge and linotte act jointly at the interhemispheric junction to build up the adult central brain of Drosophila melanogaster. Mech Dev. 2000;99:93-100 pubmed
    The Drosophila transmembrane protein Linotte (Lio) is expressed in a glial transcient interhemispheric fibrous ring (TIFR), which was hypothesised to serve as scaffold for adult brain formation during metamorphosis...
  61. Petrova I, Lahaye L, Martiáñez T, de Jong A, Malessy M, Verhaagen J, et al. Homodimerization of the Wnt receptor DERAILED recruits the Src family kinase SRC64B. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:4116-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that a Drosophila Ryk family member, DERAILED (DRL), forms cell surface homodimers and can also heterodimerize with the two other fly Ryks, DERAILED-2 and ..
  62. Tamura T, Chiang A, Ito N, Liu H, Horiuchi J, Tully T, et al. Aging specifically impairs amnesiac-dependent memory in Drosophila. Neuron. 2003;40:1003-11 pubmed
    ..The absence of AMI in amn flies is restored by expression of an amn transgene predominantly in DPM cells. Thus, we propose that AMI in flies results from a specific decrease in amn-dependent MTM. ..
  63. van Swinderen B. Attention-like processes in Drosophila require short-term memory genes. Science. 2007;315:1590-3 pubmed
    ..These processes were modulated by genes involved in short-term memory formation, namely dunce and rutabaga. Attention defects in these mutants were associated with distinct optomotor effects in behavioral assays. ..
  64. Singh A, Vijayraghavan K, Rodrigues V. Dendritic refinement of an identified neuron in the Drosophila CNS is regulated by neuronal activity and Wnt signaling. Development. 2010;137:1351-60 pubmed publisher
    ..We show how the maturation of sensory function interacts with broadly distributed signaling molecules, resulting in their localized action in the refinement of dendritic arbors. ..
  65. Yatsenko A, Shcherbata H. Drosophila miR-9a targets the ECM receptor Dystroglycan to canalize myotendinous junction formation. Dev Cell. 2014;28:335-48 pubmed publisher
  66. Bolwig G, del Vecchio M, Hannon G, Tully T. Molecular cloning of linotte in Drosophila: a novel gene that functions in adults during associative learning. Neuron. 1995;15:829-42 pubmed
    The linotte (lio) gene was identified in a screen for mutations that disrupted 3 hr memory after olfactory associative learning, without affecting the perception of odors or electroshock...