Dredd

Summary

Gene Symbol: Dredd
Description: Death related ced-3/Nedd2-like caspase
Alias: CASP8_DROME, CG7486, DCP-2, DCP-2/DREDD, DCP2, DREDD, Dcp-2, Dcp-2/Dredd, Dcp2, Dedd, Dmel\CG7486, Dredd/DCP-2, EG:115C2.9, Redd, anon-1BCa, dDredd, dcp-2/dredd, dredd, death related ced-3/Nedd2-like caspase, CG7486-PD, CG7486-PE, CG7486-PF, CG7486-PG, Ced-3-like/Nedd2-like protein, Dredd-PD, Dredd-PE, Dredd-PF, Dredd-PG, caspase, death caspase-2, death related ced-3/Nedd2-like protein, death-related ced-3/neural precursor cell expressed developmentally downregulated 2 (NEDD2)-like protein, drosophila caspase
Species: fruit fly
Products:     Dredd

Top Publications

  1. Chen P, Rodriguez A, Erskine R, Thach T, Abrams J. Dredd, a novel effector of the apoptosis activators reaper, grim, and hid in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1998;201:202-16 pubmed
    ..We identified a novel Drosophila gene, dredd, which shares extensive homology to all members of the caspase gene family...
  2. González I, Busturia A. High levels of dRYBP induce apoptosis in Drosophila imaginal cells through the activation of reaper and the requirement of trithorax, dredd and dFADD. Cell Res. 2009;19:747-57 pubmed publisher
    ..of Apoptosis Protein 1), and requires the function of the pro-apoptotic REAPER, HID and GRIM proteins, the apical caspase DREDD, the adaptor dFADD protein as well as TRITHORAX (TRX), an epigenetic transcriptional regulator...
  3. Stoven S, Silverman N, Junell A, Hedengren Olcott M, Erturk D, Engstrom Y, et al. Caspase-mediated processing of the Drosophila NF-kappaB factor Relish. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:5991-6 pubmed
    ..endoproteolysis requires the activity of several gene products, including the IkappaB kinase complex and the caspase Dredd...
  4. Georgel P, Naitza S, Kappler C, Ferrandon D, Zachary D, Swimmer C, et al. Drosophila immune deficiency (IMD) is a death domain protein that activates antibacterial defense and can promote apoptosis. Dev Cell. 2001;1:503-14 pubmed
    ..We show that imd functions upstream of the DmIKK signalosome and the caspase DREDD in the control of antibacterial peptide genes...
  5. Zhou R, Silverman N, Hong M, Liao D, Chung Y, Chen Z, et al. The role of ubiquitination in Drosophila innate immunity. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:34048-55 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly, we find that the Drosophila caspase DREDD and its partner dFADD are required for the activation of DmIKK and JNK, in addition to their role in ..
  6. Maillet F, Bischoff V, Vignal C, Hoffmann J, Royet J. The Drosophila peptidoglycan recognition protein PGRP-LF blocks PGRP-LC and IMD/JNK pathway activation. Cell Host Microbe. 2008;3:293-303 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, PGRP-LF prevents constitutive activation of both the JNK and the IMD pathways. We propose a model in which PGRP-LF keeps the Drosophila IMD pathway silent by sequestering circulating peptidoglycan. ..
  7. Kornbluth S, White K. Apoptosis in Drosophila: neither fish nor fowl (nor man, nor worm). J Cell Sci. 2005;118:1779-87 pubmed
    ..model for the induction of apoptosis in which multiple signaling pathways lead ultimately to activation of the caspase family of proteases...
  8. Erturk Hasdemir D, Broemer M, Leulier F, Lane W, Paquette N, Hwang D, et al. Two roles for the Drosophila IKK complex in the activation of Relish and the induction of antimicrobial peptide genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:9779-84 pubmed publisher
    ..requires both the Drosophila IkappaB kinase (IKK) and death-related ced-3/Nedd2-like protein (DREDD), the Drosophila caspase-8 like protease...
  9. Berkey C, Blow N, Watnick P. Genetic analysis of Drosophila melanogaster susceptibility to intestinal Vibrio cholerae infection. Cell Microbiol. 2009;11:461-74 pubmed publisher

More Information

Publications70

  1. Hoffmann J. The immune response of Drosophila. Nature. 2003;426:33-8 pubmed
    ..Recent progress in research on Drosophila immune defence provides evidence for similarities and differences between Drosophila immune responses and mammalian innate immunity. ..
  2. Paredes J, Welchman D, Poidevin M, Lemaitre B. Negative regulation by amidase PGRPs shapes the Drosophila antibacterial response and protects the fly from innocuous infection. Immunity. 2011;35:770-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of the immune phenotype of flies lacking all catalytic PGRPs and the Imd regulator Pirk reveals that the Imd-mediated immune response is highly constrained by the existence of multiple negative feedbacks. ..
  3. Tsichritzis T, Gaentzsch P, Kosmidis S, Brown A, SKOULAKIS E, Ligoxygakis P, et al. A Drosophila ortholog of the human cylindromatosis tumor suppressor gene regulates triglyceride content and antibacterial defense. Development. 2007;134:2605-14 pubmed
    ..All mutant phenotypes described were reversible upon conditional expression of CYLD transgenes. Our results implicate CYLD in a broad range of functions associated with fat homeostasis and host defence in Drosophila. ..
  4. Delaney J, Stoven S, Uvell H, Anderson K, Engstrom Y, Mlodzik M. Cooperative control of Drosophila immune responses by the JNK and NF-kappaB signaling pathways. EMBO J. 2006;25:3068-77 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that dTAK1 is not required for Relish activation, but instead is required in JNK signaling for antimicrobial peptide gene expression. ..
  5. Ryu J, Kim S, Lee H, Bai J, Nam Y, Bae J, et al. Innate immune homeostasis by the homeobox gene caudal and commensal-gut mutualism in Drosophila. Science. 2008;319:777-82 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal that a specific genetic deficiency within a host can profoundly influence the gut commensal microbial community and host physiology...
  6. Aggarwal K, Rus F, Vriesema Magnuson C, Erturk Hasdemir D, Paquette N, Silverman N. Rudra interrupts receptor signaling complexes to negatively regulate the IMD pathway. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000120 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that Rudra is a critical component in a negative feedback loop, whereby immune-induced gene expression rapidly produces a potent inhibitor that binds and inhibits pattern recognition receptors...
  7. Gesellchen V, Kuttenkeuler D, Steckel M, Pelte N, Boutros M. An RNA interference screen identifies Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein 2 as a regulator of innate immune signalling in Drosophila. EMBO Rep. 2005;6:979-84 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that IAP gene family members may have acquired other functions, such as the regulation of the tumour necrosis factor-like IMD pathway during innate immune responses. ..
  8. Hu S, Yang X. dFADD, a novel death domain-containing adapter protein for the Drosophila caspase DREDD. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:30761-4 pubmed
    ..a death domain that is highly homologous to the FADD death domain, and it also shares a novel domain with a Drosophila caspase DREDD, which we call death-inducing domain...
  9. Meinander A, Runchel C, Tenev T, Chen L, Kim C, Ribeiro P, et al. Ubiquitylation of the initiator caspase DREDD is required for innate immune signalling. EMBO J. 2012;31:2770-83 pubmed publisher
    ..the Drosophila pattern recognition protein PGRP-LCx induces DIAP2-dependent polyubiquitylation of the initiator caspase DREDD...
  10. Yu S, Yoo S, Yang L, Zapata C, Srinivasan A, Hay B, et al. A pathway of signals regulating effector and initiator caspases in the developing Drosophila eye. Development. 2002;129:3269-78 pubmed
    ..An antibody raised against a peptide from human caspase 3 was used to investigate how extracellular signals controlled spatial patterning of cell death...
  11. Kondo S, Senoo Matsuda N, Hiromi Y, Miura M. DRONC coordinates cell death and compensatory proliferation. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:7258-68 pubmed
    ..Here, we provide genetic evidence that the Drosophila initiator caspase DRONC governs both apoptosis execution and subsequent compensatory proliferation...
  12. Bangi E, Pitsouli C, Rahme L, Cagan R, Apidianakis Y. Immune response to bacteria induces dissemination of Ras-activated Drosophila hindgut cells. EMBO Rep. 2012;13:569-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Drosophila hindgut provides a valuable system for the study of intestinal malignancies. ..
  13. Deveraux Q, Reed J. IAP family proteins--suppressors of apoptosis. Genes Dev. 1999;13:239-52 pubmed
  14. Bergmann A, Agapite J, Steller H. Mechanisms and control of programmed cell death in invertebrates. Oncogene. 1998;17:3215-23 pubmed
    ..This review summarizes some of the key findings in this area, but also touches on some of the many unresolved questions and challenges that remain. ..
  15. Kim M, Lee J, Lee S, Kim E, Chung J. Caspar, a suppressor of antibacterial immunity in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:16358-63 pubmed
    ..In addition, we further demonstrated that Dredd-dependent cleavage of Relish, a prerequisite event for the nuclear entry of Relish, is the target of the Caspar-..
  16. Ha E, Oh C, Ryu J, Bae Y, Kang S, Jang I, et al. An antioxidant system required for host protection against gut infection in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2005;8:125-32 pubmed
    ..These results imply that homeostasis of redox balance by IRC is one of the most critical factors affecting host survival during continuous host-microbe interaction in the gastrointestinal tract. ..
  17. Sang T, Li C, Liu W, Rodriguez A, Abrams J, Zipursky S, et al. Inactivation of Drosophila Apaf-1 related killer suppresses formation of polyglutamine aggregates and blocks polyglutamine pathogenesis. Hum Mol Genet. 2005;14:357-72 pubmed
    ..Suppression of cell death, caspase activation and aggregate formation were also observed when mutant huntingtin exon 1 was expressed in homozygous ..
  18. Rodriguez A, Oliver H, Zou H, Chen P, Wang X, Abrams J. Dark is a Drosophila homologue of Apaf-1/CED-4 and functions in an evolutionarily conserved death pathway. Nat Cell Biol. 1999;1:272-9 pubmed
    ..Dark selectively associates with another protein involved in apoptosis, the fly apical caspase, Dredd...
  19. White K. Cell death: drosophila Apaf-1 - no longer in the (d)Ark. Curr Biol. 2000;10:R167-9 pubmed
    ..The new findings also suggest that cell death in flies is very similar to that in mammals after all. ..
  20. Stoven S, Ando I, Kadalayil L, Engstrom Y, Hultmark D. Activation of the Drosophila NF-kappaB factor Relish by rapid endoproteolytic cleavage. EMBO Rep. 2000;1:347-52 pubmed
    ..The C-terminal IkappaB-like fragment remains in the cytoplasm. This endoproteolytic cleavage does not involve the proteasome, requires the DREDD caspase, and is different from previously described mechanisms for Rel factor activation.
  21. Khush R, Cornwell W, Uram J, Lemaitre B. A ubiquitin-proteasome pathway represses the Drosophila immune deficiency signaling cascade. Curr Biol. 2002;12:1728-37 pubmed
    ..A possible target of this proteolytic activity is the Relish transcription factor, suggesting a mechanism for NF-kappaB downregulation in Drosophila. ..
  22. Paquette N, Broemer M, Aggarwal K, Chen L, Husson M, Erturk Hasdemir D, et al. Caspase-mediated cleavage, IAP binding, and ubiquitination: linking three mechanisms crucial for Drosophila NF-kappaB signaling. Mol Cell. 2010;37:172-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Signaling downstream from the peptidoglycan receptors is thought to involve K63 ubiquitination and caspase-mediated cleavage, but the molecular mechanisms remain obscure...
  23. Lhocine N, Ribeiro P, Buchon N, Wepf A, Wilson R, Tenev T, et al. PIMS modulates immune tolerance by negatively regulating Drosophila innate immune signaling. Cell Host Microbe. 2008;4:147-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, PIMS is required to establish immune tolerance to commensal bacteria and to maintain a balanced Imd response following exposure to bacterial infections. ..
  24. Akira S, Uematsu S, Takeuchi O. Pathogen recognition and innate immunity. Cell. 2006;124:783-801 pubmed
    ..New insights into innate immunity are changing the way we think about pathogenesis and the treatment of infectious diseases, allergy, and autoimmunity. ..
  25. Leulier F, Rodriguez A, Khush R, Abrams J, Lemaitre B. The Drosophila caspase Dredd is required to resist gram-negative bacterial infection. EMBO Rep. 2000;1:353-8 pubmed
    ..We have isolated loss-of-function mutations in the caspase encoding gene dredd, which block the expression of all genes that code for peptides with antibacterial activity...
  26. Wang S, Hawkins C, Yoo S, Muller H, Hay B. The Drosophila caspase inhibitor DIAP1 is essential for cell survival and is negatively regulated by HID. Cell. 1999;98:453-63 pubmed
    Drosophila Reaper (RPR), Head Involution Defective (HID), and GRIM induce caspase-dependent cell death and physically interact with the cell death inhibitor DIAP1...
  27. Abrams J. An emerging blueprint for apoptosis in Drosophila. Trends Cell Biol. 1999;9:435-40 pubmed
    ..signals, possibly through IAPs (inhibitor of apoptosis proteins) and Dark (an Apaf-1/Ced-4 homologue), to trigger caspase function...
  28. Leulier F, Vidal S, Saigo K, Ueda R, Lemaitre B. Inducible expression of double-stranded RNA reveals a role for dFADD in the regulation of the antibacterial response in Drosophila adults. Curr Biol. 2002;12:996-1000 pubmed
    ..is processed in order to translocate to the nucleus, and this cleavage is dependent on both Dredd, an apical caspase related to caspase-8 of mammals, and the fly Ikappa-B kinase complex (dmIKK)...
  29. Lee G, Wang Z, Sehgal R, Chen C, Kikuno K, Hay B, et al. Drosophila caspases involved in developmentally regulated programmed cell death of peptidergic neurons during early metamorphosis. J Comp Neurol. 2011;519:34-48 pubmed publisher
    ..neurons initiates within 1 hour after pupariation, as demonstrated by the cytological signs of cell death and caspase activation...
  30. Kumar S, Doumanis J. The fly caspases. Cell Death Differ. 2000;7:1039-44 pubmed
    ..For example, the transcript for the fly caspase DRONC is regulated by the hormone ecdysone during programmed cell death in specific tissues...
  31. Guntermann S, Primrose D, Foley E. Dnr1-dependent regulation of the Drosophila immune deficiency signaling pathway. Dev Comp Immunol. 2009;33:127-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, we provide molecular data to indicate that Dnr1 inhibits the Imd pathway at the level of the initiator caspase Dredd.
  32. Baum J, Arama E, Steller H, McCall K. The Drosophila caspases Strica and Dronc function redundantly in programmed cell death during oogenesis. Cell Death Differ. 2007;14:1508-17 pubmed
    ..We have analyzed the role of caspases in PCD of the female germline by examining caspase mutants and overexpressing caspase inhibitors...
  33. Choe K, Werner T, Stoven S, Hultmark D, Anderson K. Requirement for a peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP) in Relish activation and antibacterial immune responses in Drosophila. Science. 2002;296:359-62 pubmed
  34. Leulier F, Lhocine N, Lemaitre B, Meier P. The Drosophila inhibitor of apoptosis protein DIAP2 functions in innate immunity and is essential to resist gram-negative bacterial infection. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:7821-31 pubmed
    ..Our genetic epistasis analysis places diap2 downstream of or in parallel to imd, Dredd, Tak1, and Relish. Therefore, DIAP2 functions in the host immune response to gram-negative bacteria...
  35. Wang Z, Berkey C, Watnick P. The Drosophila protein mustard tailors the innate immune response activated by the immune deficiency pathway. J Immunol. 2012;188:3993-4000 pubmed publisher
    ..Mtd homologs have been implicated in resistance to oxidative stress. However, to our knowledge this is the first evidence that Mtd or its homologs alter the output of an innate immunity signaling cascade from within the nucleus...
  36. Danial N, Korsmeyer S. Cell death: critical control points. Cell. 2004;116:205-19 pubmed
    ..The identification of critical control points in the cell death pathway has yielded fundamental insights for basic biology, as well as provided rational targets for new therapeutics. ..
  37. Horng T, Medzhitov R. Drosophila MyD88 is an adapter in the Toll signaling pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:12654-8 pubmed
    ..Drosophila Fas-associated death domain-containing protein (dFADD), which in turn interacts with the apical caspase Dredd...
  38. Ryu J, Ha E, Oh C, Seol J, Brey P, Jin I, et al. An essential complementary role of NF-kappaB pathway to microbicidal oxidants in Drosophila gut immunity. EMBO J. 2006;25:3693-701 pubmed
    ..This system provides the Drosophila gut immunity the versatility necessary to manage sporadic invasion of virulent pathogens that somehow counteract or evade the ROS-dependent immunity. ..
  39. Lu Y, Wu L, Anderson K. The antibacterial arm of the drosophila innate immune response requires an IkappaB kinase. Genes Dev. 2001;15:104-10 pubmed
    ..The ird5 gene encodes a Drosophila homolog of mammalian IkappaB kinases (IKKs). The ird5 phenotype and sequence suggest that the gene is specifically required for the activation of Relish, a Drosophila NF-kappaB family member. ..
  40. Vidal S, Khush R, Leulier F, Tzou P, Nakamura M, Lemaitre B. Mutations in the Drosophila dTAK1 gene reveal a conserved function for MAPKKKs in the control of rel/NF-kappaB-dependent innate immune responses. Genes Dev. 2001;15:1900-12 pubmed
    ..In addition, our epistatic analysis places the caspase, Dredd, downstream of the IKK complex, which supports the idea that Relish is processed and activated by a ..
  41. Keller L, Cheng L, Locke C, Muller M, Fetter R, Davis G. Glial-derived prodegenerative signaling in the Drosophila neuromuscular system. Neuron. 2011;72:760-75 pubmed publisher
    ..for a prodegenerative, glial-derived signaling framework in the Drosophila neuromuscular system that includes caspase and mitochondria-dependent signaling...
  42. Khush R, Leulier F, Lemaitre B. Immunology. Pathogen surveillance--the flies have it. Science. 2002;296:273-5 pubmed
  43. Baena Lopez L, Alexandre C, Mitchell A, Pasakarnis L, Vincent J. Accelerated homologous recombination and subsequent genome modification in Drosophila. Development. 2013;140:4818-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our method retains the advantages of homologous recombination while capitalising on the mutagenic power of CRISPR...
  44. Elrod Erickson M, Mishra S, Schneider D. Interactions between the cellular and humoral immune responses in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2000;10:781-4 pubmed
    ..coli. From this screen, we identified a new gene we have named red shirt and identified the caspase Dredd as a regulator of the Drosophila immune response...
  45. Amarneh B, Matthews K, Rawson R. Activation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein by the caspase Drice in Drosophila larvae. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:9674-82 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to flies lacking dSREBP, flies lacking dS2P are viable. The Drosophila effector caspase Drice cleaves dSREBP, and cleavage requires an Asp residue at position 386, in the cytoplasmic juxtamembrane ..
  46. Sevrioukov E, Burr J, Huang E, Assi H, Monserrate J, Purves D, et al. Drosophila Bcl-2 proteins participate in stress-induced apoptosis, but are not required for normal development. Genesis. 2007;45:184-93 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that developmental PCD regulation in the fly does not rely upon the Bcl-2 proteins, but that they provide an added layer of protection in the apoptotic response to stress. ..
  47. Meyer S, Amoyel M, Bergantiños C, de la Cova C, Schertel C, Basler K, et al. An ancient defense system eliminates unfit cells from developing tissues during cell competition. Science. 2014;346:1258236 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate a functional repurposing of components of TRRs and NFκB signaling modules in the surveillance of cell fitness during development. ..
  48. Primrose D, Chaudhry S, Johnson A, Hrdlicka A, Schindler A, Tran D, et al. Interactions of DNR1 with the apoptotic machinery of Drosophila melanogaster. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:1189-99 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila, the caspase-9 counterpart Dronc is essential for most apoptotic death, whereas the caspase-8 homolog Dredd activates NF-..
  49. Kanuka H, Kuranaga E, Takemoto K, Hiratou T, Okano H, Miura M. Drosophila caspase transduces Shaggy/GSK-3beta kinase activity in neural precursor development. EMBO J. 2005;24:3793-806 pubmed
    ..by the sgg gene and essential for the negative regulation of Wingless signaling, is cleaved by the Dark-dependent caspase. This cleavage converts it to an active kinase, which contributes to the formation of neural precursor (sensory ..
  50. Hill Burns E, Clark A. X-linked variation in immune response in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2009;183:1477-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Many of the associations act in a sex-specific or sexually antagonistic manner, supporting the theory that with the selective pressures facing genes on the X chromosome, sexually antagonistic variation may be more easily maintained. ..
  51. Nandi N, Tyra L, Stenesen D, Krämer H. Acinus integrates AKT1 and subapoptotic caspase activities to regulate basal autophagy. J Cell Biol. 2014;207:253-68 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that cell type-specific regulation of Acn depends on proteolysis by the caspase Dcp-1...
  52. Michel T, Reichhart J, Hoffmann J, Royet J. Drosophila Toll is activated by Gram-positive bacteria through a circulating peptidoglycan recognition protein. Nature. 2001;414:756-9 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, seml does not affect Toll activation by fungal infection, indicating the existence of a distinct recognition system for fungi to activate the Toll pathway...
  53. Ivanov D, Escott Price V, Ziehm M, Magwire M, Mackay T, Partridge L, et al. Longevity GWAS Using the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2015;70:1470-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Genes in the target of rapamycin pathway (TOR; Chrb, slif, mipp2, dredd, RpS9, dm) contributed to the significant enrichment of this pathway among the top-ranked 100 genes (p = 4...
  54. Irion U, Leptin M. Developmental and cell biological functions of the Drosophila DEAD-box protein abstrakt. Curr Biol. 1999;9:1373-81 pubmed
    ..Abstrakt must affect processing of specific subsets of RNAs, suggesting that differential post-translational control during development is more common than previously suspected. ..
  55. Pili Floury S, Leulier F, Takahashi K, Saigo K, Samain E, Ueda R, et al. In vivo RNA interference analysis reveals an unexpected role for GNBP1 in the defense against Gram-positive bacterial infection in Drosophila adults. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:12848-53 pubmed
    ..Altogether, our results demonstrate that the detection of Gram-positive bacteria in Drosophila requires two putative pattern recognition receptors, PGRP-SA and GNBP1. ..
  56. Kumar S. Cell death in the fly comes of age. Cell Death Differ. 2000;7:1021-4 pubmed
  57. Brachmann C, Cagan R. Patterning the fly eye: the role of apoptosis. Trends Genet. 2003;19:91-6 pubmed
    ..But, we have yet to understand how this signaling is regulated spatially to result in such precision. In this article, we describe and speculate on the role of selective cell death during maturation of the fly eye. ..
  58. Tittel J, Steller H. A comparison of programmed cell death between species. Genome Biol. 2000;1:REVIEWS0003 pubmed
    ..The search for additional homologs has been facilitated by the availability of the entire genomic sequence for each of these organisms. ..
  59. Fan Y, Bergmann A. The cleaved-Caspase-3 antibody is a marker of Caspase-9-like DRONC activity in Drosophila. Cell Death Differ. 2010;17:534-9 pubmed publisher
    The cleaved-Caspase-3 antibody is a popular tool in apoptosis research in Drosophila...
  60. Avadhanula V, Weasner B, Hardy G, Kumar J, Hardy R. A novel system for the launch of alphavirus RNA synthesis reveals a role for the Imd pathway in arthropod antiviral response. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000582 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings show that the Imd pathway mediates an antiviral response to Sindbis virus replication. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of an antiviral role for the Imd pathway in insects. ..
  61. Schneider D. Using Drosophila as a model insect. Nat Rev Genet. 2000;1:218-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Specifically, I discuss recent work on the use of Drosophila to study the transmission of disease by insect vectors and to investigate insecticide function and development. ..