Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: DptA
Description: Diptericin A
Alias: 143443_at, CG12763, DIM 27, DIPT, DPT, Dep, Dip, Dipt, DiptA, Dit, Dmel\CG12763, Dpt, dip, dipt, diptA, dpt, diptericin A, CG12763-PA, Diptericin-A, DiptericinA, DptA-PA, dipt, diptericin, diptericin precursor
Species: fruit fly
- Stenbak C, Ryu J, Leulier F, Pili Floury S, Parquet C, Hervé M, et al. Peptidoglycan molecular requirements allowing detection by the Drosophila immune deficiency pathway. J Immunol. 2004;173:7339-48 pubmed..Altogether, these results indicate multiple requirements for efficient PG-mediated activation of the Imd pathway and demonstrate that PG is a complex immune elicitor. ..
- Landis G, Abdueva D, Skvortsov D, Yang J, Rabin B, Carrick J, et al. Similar gene expression patterns characterize aging and oxidative stress in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:7663-8 pubmed..Immune reporter expression in young flies was partially predictive of remaining life span, suggesting their potential as biomonitors of aging. ..
- Limmer S, Haller S, Drenkard E, Lee J, Yu S, Kocks C, et al. Pseudomonas aeruginosa RhlR is required to neutralize the cellular immune response in a Drosophila melanogaster oral infection model. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:17378-83 pubmed publisher..These results illustrate the power of studying infection from the dual perspective of host and pathogen by revealing that RhlR plays a more complex role during pathogenesis than previously appreciated...
- Thevenon D, Engel E, Avet Rochex A, Gottar M, Bergeret E, Tricoire H, et al. The Drosophila ubiquitin-specific protease dUSP36/Scny targets IMD to prevent constitutive immune signaling. Cell Host Microbe. 2009;6:309-20 pubmed publisher..Our findings identify dUSP36 as a repressor whose IMD deubiquitination activity prevents nonspecific activation of innate immune signaling. ..
- Radyuk S, Michalak K, Klichko V, Benes J, Orr W. Peroxiredoxin 5 modulates immune response in Drosophila. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1800:1153-63 pubmed publisher..Molecular and epistatic analyses identified dPrx5 as a negative regulator in the dTak1-JNK arm of immune signaling. Our findings suggest that peroxiredoxins play an important modulatory role in the Drosophila immune response. ..
- Flatt T, Heyland A, Rus F, Porpiglia E, Sherlock C, Yamamoto R, et al. Hormonal regulation of the humoral innate immune response in Drosophila melanogaster. J Exp Biol. 2008;211:2712-24 pubmed publisher..Our results suggest that 20E and JH play major roles in the regulation of gene expression in response to immune challenge. ..
- Takehana A, Yano T, Mita S, Kotani A, Oshima Y, Kurata S. Peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP)-LE and PGRP-LC act synergistically in Drosophila immunity. EMBO J. 2004;23:4690-700 pubmed..A role for PGRP-LE in the epithelial induction of antimicrobial peptides is also suggested. ..
- Narbonne Reveau K, Charroux B, Royet J. Lack of an antibacterial response defect in Drosophila Toll-9 mutant. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17470 pubmed publisher..Our results suggest that Toll-9 is neither required to maintain a basal anti-microbial response nor to mount an efficient immune response to bacterial infection. ..
- Paquette N, Broemer M, Aggarwal K, Chen L, Husson M, Erturk Hasdemir D, et al. Caspase-mediated cleavage, IAP binding, and ubiquitination: linking three mechanisms crucial for Drosophila NF-kappaB signaling. Mol Cell. 2010;37:172-82 pubmed publisher..Through its association with DIAP2, IMD is rapidly conjugated with K63-linked polyubiquitin chains. These results mechanistically connect caspase-mediated cleavage and K63 ubiquitination in immune-induced NF-kappaB signaling. ..
- Lu Y, Wu L, Anderson K. The antibacterial arm of the drosophila innate immune response requires an IkappaB kinase. Genes Dev. 2001;15:104-10 pubmed..The ird5 gene encodes a Drosophila homolog of mammalian IkappaB kinases (IKKs). The ird5 phenotype and sequence suggest that the gene is specifically required for the activation of Relish, a Drosophila NF-kappaB family member. ..
- Martinez J, Longdon B, Bauer S, Chan Y, Miller W, Bourtzis K, et al. Symbionts commonly provide broad spectrum resistance to viruses in insects: a comparative analysis of Wolbachia strains. PLoS Pathog. 2014;10:e1004369 pubmed publisher..The large variation in Wolbachia's antiviral properties highlights the need to carefully select Wolbachia strains introduced into mosquito populations to prevent the transmission of arboviruses. ..
- Lemaitre B, Nicolas E, Michaut L, Reichhart J, Hoffmann J. The dorsoventral regulatory gene cassette spätzle/Toll/cactus controls the potent antifungal response in Drosophila adults. Cell. 1996;86:973-83 pubmed..Antibacterial genes are induced either by a distinct pathway involving the immune deficiency gene (imd) or by combined activation of both imd and dorsoventral pathways. ..
- Manfruelli P, Reichhart J, Steward R, Hoffmann J, Lemaitre B. A mosaic analysis in Drosophila fat body cells of the control of antimicrobial peptide genes by the Rel proteins Dorsal and DIF. EMBO J. 1999;18:3380-91 pubmed..Interestingly, the gene encoding the antibacterial peptide Diptericin remains fully inducible in the absence of the dorsal and dif genes...
- Bosco Drayon V, Poidevin M, Boneca I, Narbonne Reveau K, Royet J, Charroux B. Peptidoglycan sensing by the receptor PGRP-LE in the Drosophila gut induces immune responses to infectious bacteria and tolerance to microbiota. Cell Host Microbe. 2012;12:153-65 pubmed publisher..Together these data indicate that PGRP-LE functions as a master gut bacterial sensor that induces balanced responses to infectious bacteria and tolerance to microbiota. ..
- Sibley C, Duan K, Fischer C, Parkins M, Storey D, Rabin H, et al. Discerning the complexity of community interactions using a Drosophila model of polymicrobial infections. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000184 pubmed publisher..aeruginosa. ..
- Deddouche S, Matt N, Budd A, Mueller S, Kemp C, Galiana Arnoux D, et al. The DExD/H-box helicase Dicer-2 mediates the induction of antiviral activity in drosophila. Nat Immunol. 2008;9:1425-32 pubmed publisher..We propose that this family represents an evolutionary conserved set of sensors that detect viral nucleic acids and direct antiviral responses. ..
- Hashimoto Y, Tabuchi Y, Sakurai K, Kutsuna M, Kurokawa K, Awasaki T, et al. Identification of lipoteichoic acid as a ligand for draper in the phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus by Drosophila hemocytes. J Immunol. 2009;183:7451-60 pubmed publisher..We propose that lipoteichoic acid serves as a ligand for Draper in the phagocytosis of S. aureus by Drosophila hemocytes and that the phagocytic elimination of invading bacteria is required for flies to survive the infection. ..
- Lazzaro B, Sceurman B, Clark A. Genetic basis of natural variation in D. melanogaster antibacterial immunity. Science. 2004;303:1873-6 pubmed..Variation in these genes, therefore, seems to drive variability in immunocompetence among wild Drosophila. ..
- Jin L, Shim J, Yoon J, Kim B, Kim J, Kim Ha J, et al. Identification and functional analysis of antifungal immune response genes in Drosophila. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000168 pubmed publisher..Our results identify a new class of genes involved in antifungal immune responses in Drosophila. ..
- Meister M, Richards G. Ecdysone and insect immunity: the maturation of the inducibility of the diptericin gene in Drosophila larvae. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 1996;26:155-60 pubmedThe developmental analysis of the inducibility of the Drosophila diptericin gene promoter as a response to septic injury shows an important increase in the response during the third larval instar leading to a maximum in late larvae and ..
- Wicker C, Reichhart J, Hoffmann D, Hultmark D, Samakovlis C, Hoffmann J. Insect immunity. Characterization of a Drosophila cDNA encoding a novel member of the diptericin family of immune peptides. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:22493-8 pubmed..Transcripts for the Drosophila diptericin are detected 2 h after injection of bacteria...
- Mellroth P, Karlsson J, Steiner H. A scavenger function for a Drosophila peptidoglycan recognition protein. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:7059-64 pubmed..Furthermore, a sequence homology comparison with phage T7 lysozyme, also an N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidase, shows that as many as six of the Drosophila PGRPs could belong to this class of proteins. ..
- Rutschmann S, Jung A, Hetru C, Reichhart J, Hoffmann J, Ferrandon D. The Rel protein DIF mediates the antifungal but not the antibacterial host defense in Drosophila. Immunity. 2000;12:569-80 pubmed..We discuss in this light the possibility that NF-KB1/p50 might be required more specifically in the innate immune response against gram-positive bacteria in mammals. ..
- Avet Rochex A, Bergeret E, Attree I, Meister M, Fauvarque M. Suppression of Drosophila cellular immunity by directed expression of the ExoS toxin GAP domain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Cell Microbiol. 2005;7:799-810 pubmed..Our results highlight the major contribution of cellular immunity during the first hours after Drosophila infection by P. aeruginosa, an opportunist pathogen affecting patients with pathologies associated to a reduced leukocyte number. ..
- Liehl P, Blight M, Vodovar N, Boccard F, Lemaitre B. Prevalence of local immune response against oral infection in a Drosophila/Pseudomonas infection model. PLoS Pathog. 2006;2:e56 pubmed..More precisely, our data points to an important role for the antimicrobial peptide Diptericin against orally infectious Gram-negative bacteria, emphasizing the critical role of local antimicrobial peptide ..
- Garver L, Wu J, Wu L. The peptidoglycan recognition protein PGRP-SC1a is essential for Toll signaling and phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:660-5 pubmed
- Costa A, Jan E, Sarnow P, Schneider D. The Imd pathway is involved in antiviral immune responses in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7436 pubmed publisher..Our data show that antiviral innate immune responses in flies infected with CrPV depend upon hemocytes and signaling through the Imd pathway. ..
- Zambon R, Nandakumar M, Vakharia V, Wu L. The Toll pathway is important for an antiviral response in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:7257-62 pubmed..Additionally, our results demonstrate the validity of using a genetic approach to identify genes and pathways used in viral innate immune responses in Drosophila...
- Choe K, Werner T, Stoven S, Hultmark D, Anderson K. Requirement for a peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP) in Relish activation and antibacterial immune responses in Drosophila. Science. 2002;296:359-62 pubmed
- DiAngelo J, Bland M, Bambina S, Cherry S, Birnbaum M. The immune response attenuates growth and nutrient storage in Drosophila by reducing insulin signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:20853-8 pubmed publisher..These data suggest that communication between these two regulatory systems evolved as a means to divert energy in times of need from organismal growth to the acute requirement of combating infection...
- Zaidman Rémy A, Poidevin M, Hervé M, Welchman D, Paredes J, Fahlander C, et al. Drosophila immunity: analysis of PGRP-SB1 expression, enzymatic activity and function. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17231 pubmed publisher..Possible immune functions of PGRP-SB1 are discussed. ..
- Han Z, Ip Y. Interaction and specificity of Rel-related proteins in regulating Drosophila immunity gene expression. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:21355-61 pubmed..These results illustrate how the formation of Rel protein dimers differentially regulate target gene expression. ..
- Kim M, Lee J, Lee S, Kim E, Chung J. Caspar, a suppressor of antibacterial immunity in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:16358-63 pubmed..immune responses including increased resistance to bacterial infection and a constitutive expression of diptericin, a representative antibacterial peptide gene...
- Bischoff V, Vignal C, Duvic B, Boneca I, Hoffmann J, Royet J. Downregulation of the Drosophila immune response by peptidoglycan-recognition proteins SC1 and SC2. PLoS Pathog. 2006;2:e14 pubmed..We further show that a strict control of IMD-pathway activation is essential to prevent bacteria-induced developmental defects and larval death. ..
- Avadhanula V, Weasner B, Hardy G, Kumar J, Hardy R. A novel system for the launch of alphavirus RNA synthesis reveals a role for the Imd pathway in arthropod antiviral response. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000582 pubmed publisher..These findings show that the Imd pathway mediates an antiviral response to Sindbis virus replication. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of an antiviral role for the Imd pathway in insects. ..
- Ligoxygakis P, Bulet P, Reichhart J. Critical evaluation of the role of the Toll-like receptor 18-Wheeler in the host defense of Drosophila. EMBO Rep. 2002;3:666-73 pubmed..18-Wheeler does not qualify as a pattern recognition receptor of Gram-negative bacteria. ..
- Delaney J, Stoven S, Uvell H, Anderson K, Engstrom Y, Mlodzik M. Cooperative control of Drosophila immune responses by the JNK and NF-kappaB signaling pathways. EMBO J. 2006;25:3068-77 pubmed..Our data indicate that dTAK1 is not required for Relish activation, but instead is required in JNK signaling for antimicrobial peptide gene expression. ..
- Sackton T, Lazzaro B, Clark A. Genotype and gene expression associations with immune function in Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000797 pubmed publisher..These results show that polymorphism in genes near the top of the immune system signaling cascade can have a disproportionate effect on organismal phenotype due to the amplification of minor effects through the cascade. ..
- Kaneko T, Yano T, Aggarwal K, Lim J, Ueda K, Oshima Y, et al. PGRP-LC and PGRP-LE have essential yet distinct functions in the drosophila immune response to monomeric DAP-type peptidoglycan. Nat Immunol. 2006;7:715-23 pubmed..These data demonstrate that like mammals, drosophila use both extracellular and intracellular receptors, which have conserved signaling mechanisms, for innate immune recognition...
- Rutschmann S, Kilinc A, Ferrandon D. Cutting edge: the toll pathway is required for resistance to gram-positive bacterial infections in Drosophila. J Immunol. 2002;168:1542-6 pubmed..In this study, we report that the Toll pathway, but not that of immune deficiency, is required for resistance to other Gram-positive bacteria and that this response does not involve Defensin...
- Meinander A, Runchel C, Tenev T, Chen L, Kim C, Ribeiro P, et al. Ubiquitylation of the initiator caspase DREDD is required for innate immune signalling. EMBO J. 2012;31:2770-83 pubmed publisher..The direct involvement of ubiquitylation in caspase activation represents a novel mechanism for non-apoptotic caspase-mediated signalling. ..
- Fellous S, Lazzaro B. Larval food quality affects adult (but not larval) immune gene expression independent of effects on general condition. Mol Ecol. 2010;19:1462-8 pubmed publisher..We conclude that the nutritional environment of insect larvae can affect adult immunity by influencing plastic allocation of resources. These influences are less predictable than constraints linked to general condition would be. ..
- Lee K, Kim S, Kim E, Ha E, You H, Kim B, et al. Bacterial-derived uracil as a modulator of mucosal immunity and gut-microbe homeostasis in Drosophila. Cell. 2013;153:797-811 pubmed publisher..These results reveal that bacteria with distinct abilities to activate uracil-induced gut inflammation, in terms of intensity and duration, act as critical factors that determine homeostasis or pathogenesis in gut-microbe interactions. ..
- Buchon N, Broderick N, Kuraishi T, Lemaitre B. Drosophila EGFR pathway coordinates stem cell proliferation and gut remodeling following infection. BMC Biol. 2010;8:152 pubmed publisher..We show that one signaling pathway, the EGFR pathway, is central to all these stages, and its activation at multiple steps could synchronize the complex cellular events leading to gut repair and homeostasis. ..
- Lazzaro B, Sackton T, Clark A. Genetic variation in Drosophila melanogaster resistance to infection: a comparison across bacteria. Genetics. 2006;174:1539-54 pubmed..lactis and E. faecalis, respectively, most of the molecular polymorphisms tested explain <10% of the total variance in bacterial load sustained after infection...
- Hallem E, Rengarajan M, Ciche T, Sternberg P. Nematodes, bacteria, and flies: a tripartite model for nematode parasitism. Curr Biol. 2007;17:898-904 pubmed
- Tanji T, Hu X, Weber A, Ip Y. Toll and IMD pathways synergistically activate an innate immune response in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:4578-88 pubmed..together caused synergistic activation of representative target genes of the two pathways, including Drosomycin, Diptericin, and AttacinA. Constitutive activation of Toll and PGRP-LC/IMD could mimic the synergistic stimulation...
- Tsuda M, Langmann C, Harden N, Aigaki T. The RING-finger scaffold protein Plenty of SH3s targets TAK1 to control immunity signalling in Drosophila. EMBO Rep. 2005;6:1082-7 pubmed..We show that POSH binds to and degrades TAK1, a crucial activator of both the JNK and the Relish signalling pathways. These results establish a novel role for POSH in the Drosophila immune system. ..
- Chrostek E, Marialva M, Yamada R, O Neill S, Teixeira L. High anti-viral protection without immune upregulation after interspecies Wolbachia transfer. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e99025 pubmed publisher..Overall, we prove that stable transinfection with a highly protective Wolbachia is not necessarily associated with general immune activation. ..
- Ryu J, Kim S, Lee H, Bai J, Nam Y, Bae J, et al. Innate immune homeostasis by the homeobox gene caudal and commensal-gut mutualism in Drosophila. Science. 2008;319:777-82 pubmed publisher..These results reveal that a specific genetic deficiency within a host can profoundly influence the gut commensal microbial community and host physiology...
- Leulier F, Vidal S, Saigo K, Ueda R, Lemaitre B. Inducible expression of double-stranded RNA reveals a role for dFADD in the regulation of the antibacterial response in Drosophila adults. Curr Biol. 2002;12:996-1000 pubmed..Epistatic studies indicate that dFADD acts between Imd and Dredd. Our results reinforce the parallels between the Imd and the TNF-R1 pathways. ..
- Tzou P, Ohresser S, Ferrandon D, Capovilla M, Reichhart J, Lemaitre B, et al. Tissue-specific inducible expression of antimicrobial peptide genes in Drosophila surface epithelia. Immunity. 2000;13:737-48 pubmed
- Buchon N, Broderick N, Chakrabarti S, Lemaitre B. Invasive and indigenous microbiota impact intestinal stem cell activity through multiple pathways in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 2009;23:2333-44 pubmed publisher..Altogether, these results indicate that gut homeostasis is achieved by a complex interregulation of the immune response, gut microbiota, and stem cell activity...
- De Gregorio E, Han S, Lee W, Baek M, Osaki T, Kawabata S, et al. An immune-responsive Serpin regulates the melanization cascade in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2002;3:581-92 pubmed..Our data demonstrate that Serpin-27A is required to restrict the phenoloxidase activity to the site of injury or infection, preventing the insect from excessive melanization. ..
- Gross I, Georgel P, Kappler C, Reichhart J, Hoffmann J. Drosophila immunity: a comparative analysis of the Rel proteins dorsal and Dif in the induction of the genes encoding diptericin and cecropin. Nucleic Acids Res. 1996;24:1238-45 pubmed..The upstream sequences of the diptericin and cecropin Al genes, which have been investigated in detail, contain two, respectively one sequence element ..
- Tanji T, Yun E, Ip Y. Heterodimers of NF-kappaB transcription factors DIF and Relish regulate antimicrobial peptide genes in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:14715-20 pubmed publisher..The DIF and Relish complex is detectable in whole animal extracts, suggesting that this heterodimer may function in vivo to increase the spectrum and level of antimicrobial peptide production in response to different infections. ..
- Agaisse H, Petersen U, Boutros M, Mathey Prevot B, Perrimon N. Signaling role of hemocytes in Drosophila JAK/STAT-dependent response to septic injury. Dev Cell. 2003;5:441-50 pubmed
- Pili Floury S, Leulier F, Takahashi K, Saigo K, Samain E, Ueda R, et al. In vivo RNA interference analysis reveals an unexpected role for GNBP1 in the defense against Gram-positive bacterial infection in Drosophila adults. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:12848-53 pubmed..Altogether, our results demonstrate that the detection of Gram-positive bacteria in Drosophila requires two putative pattern recognition receptors, PGRP-SA and GNBP1. ..
- Levashina E, Langley E, Green C, Gubb D, Ashburner M, Hoffmann J, et al. Constitutive activation of toll-mediated antifungal defense in serpin-deficient Drosophila. Science. 1999;285:1917-9 pubmed..Hence, Spn43Ac negatively regulates the Toll signaling pathway, and Toll does not function as a pattern recognition receptor in the Drosophila host defense...
- Levashina E, Ohresser S, Lemaitre B, Imler J. Two distinct pathways can control expression of the gene encoding the Drosophila antimicrobial peptide metchnikowin. J Mol Biol. 1998;278:515-27 pubmed..5 kb of metchnikowin gene upstream sequences indicates that this fragment is able to confer full immune inducibility and tissue specificity of expression on the transgene. ..
- Gottar M, Gobert V, Michel T, Belvin M, Duyk G, Hoffmann J, et al. The Drosophila immune response against Gram-negative bacteria is mediated by a peptidoglycan recognition protein. Nature. 2002;416:640-4 pubmed..The data on PGRP-SA with respect to the response to Gram-positive infections, together with the present report, indicate that the PGRP family has a principal role in sensing microbial infections in Drosophila. ..
- Tang H, Kambris Z, Lemaitre B, Hashimoto C. A serpin that regulates immune melanization in the respiratory system of Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2008;15:617-26 pubmed publisher..Such signaling between local and systemic immune responses could represent an alarm mechanism that prepares the host in case a pathogen breaches epithelial defenses to invade internal tissues. ..
- Zhou R, Silverman N, Hong M, Liao D, Chung Y, Chen Z, et al. The role of ubiquitination in Drosophila innate immunity. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:34048-55 pubmed..These studies reveal an evolutionarily conserved role of ubiquitination in IKK activation, and provide new insights into the hierarchy of signaling components in the Drosophila antibacterial immunity pathway. ..
- Naitza S, Rosse C, Kappler C, Georgel P, Belvin M, Gubb D, et al. The Drosophila immune defense against gram-negative infection requires the death protein dFADD. Immunity. 2002;17:575-81 pubmed..By genetic analysis we show that dFADD acts downstream of IMD in the pathway that controls inducibility of the antibacterial peptide genes. ..
- Brennan C, Delaney J, Schneider D, Anderson K. Psidin is required in Drosophila blood cells for both phagocytic degradation and immune activation of the fat body. Curr Biol. 2007;17:67-72 pubmed..These data establish a role for the phagocytic blood cells of Drosophila in detection of infection and activation of the humoral immune response. ..
- Foley E, O Farrell P. Nitric oxide contributes to induction of innate immune responses to gram-negative bacteria in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 2003;17:115-25 pubmed..larval sensitivity to gram-negative bacterial infection, and abrogated induction of the antimicrobial peptide Diptericin. NOS was up-regulated after infection...
- Kocks C, Cho J, Nehme N, Ulvila J, Pearson A, Meister M, et al. Eater, a transmembrane protein mediating phagocytosis of bacterial pathogens in Drosophila. Cell. 2005;123:335-46 pubmed..Our results suggest that Eater is a major phagocytic receptor for a broad range of bacterial pathogens in Drosophila and provide a powerful model to address the role of phagocytosis in vivo. ..
- Benassi V, Coustau C, Carton Y. Insect immunity: a genetic factor (hrtp) is essential for antibacterial peptide expression in Drosophila after infection by parasitoid wasps. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2000;43:64-71 pubmed..Expression of the gene encoding diptericin, an antibacterial peptide in various D...
- Mabery E, Schneider D. The Drosophila TNF ortholog eiger is required in the fat body for a robust immune response. J Innate Immun. 2010;2:371-8 pubmed publisher..This includes reduced melanization, altered antimicrobial peptide expression and reduced feeding rates. The effect of eiger on feeding rates alone may account for the entire phenotype seen in eiger mutants infected with S. typhimurium. ..
- Lemaitre B, Reichhart J, Hoffmann J. Drosophila host defense: differential induction of antimicrobial peptide genes after infection by various classes of microorganisms. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:14614-9 pubmed..This response is mediated through the selective activation of the Toll pathway. ..
- Nicolas E, Reichhart J, Hoffmann J, Lemaitre B. In vivo regulation of the IkappaB homologue cactus during the immune response of Drosophila. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:10463-9 pubmed..This degradation is also dependent on the Toll signaling pathway. Altogether, our results underline the striking similarities between the regulation of IkappaB and cactus during the immune response. ..
- Werner T, Borge Renberg K, Mellroth P, Steiner H, Hultmark D. Functional diversity of the Drosophila PGRP-LC gene cluster in the response to lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:26319-22 pubmed..Two additional PGRP domains in the gene cluster, z and w, are both included in a single transcript of a separate gene, PGRP-LF. Suppression of this transcript does not block the response to any of the microorganisms tested. ..
- Brown A, Baumbach J, Cook P, Ligoxygakis P. Short-term starvation of immune deficient Drosophila improves survival to gram-negative bacterial infections. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4490 pubmed publisher..Our results show that NO release through STS may reflect an evolutionary conserved process. Moreover, STS could be explored to address immune phenotypes related to infection and may offer ways to boost natural immunity. ..
- Gendrin M, Welchman D, Poidevin M, Hervé M, Lemaitre B. Long-range activation of systemic immunity through peptidoglycan diffusion in Drosophila. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000694 pubmed publisher..Ecc15) on various sites of the cuticle and monitored the immune response via expression of the AMP gene Diptericin. A strong response was observed to deposition on the genital plate of males (up to 20% of a septic injury ..
- Vonkavaara M, Telepnev M, Ryden P, Sjostedt A, Stoven S. Drosophila melanogaster as a model for elucidating the pathogenicity of Francisella tularensis. Cell Microbiol. 2008;10:1327-38 pubmed publisher..melanogaster is a suitable model for the analysis of interactions between F. tularensis and its arthropod hosts and that it can also be used to identify F. tularensis virulence factors relevant for mammalian hosts. ..
- Basset A, Khush R, Braun A, Gardan L, Boccard F, Hoffmann J, et al. The phytopathogenic bacteria Erwinia carotovora infects Drosophila and activates an immune response. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:3376-81 pubmed
- Silverman N, Zhou R, Stoven S, Pandey N, Hultmark D, Maniatis T. A Drosophila IkappaB kinase complex required for Relish cleavage and antibacterial immunity. Genes Dev. 2000;14:2461-71 pubmed..Thus, a yet to be identified IkappaB kinase complex must be required for Rel protein activation via the Toll signaling pathway. ..
- Vidal S, Khush R, Leulier F, Tzou P, Nakamura M, Lemaitre B. Mutations in the Drosophila dTAK1 gene reveal a conserved function for MAPKKKs in the control of rel/NF-kappaB-dependent innate immune responses. Genes Dev. 2001;15:1900-12 pubmed..Our genetic demonstration of dTAK1's role in the regulation of Drosophila antimicrobial peptide gene expression suggests an evolutionary conserved role for TAK1 in the activation of Rel/NF-kappaB-mediated host defense reactions. ..
- Khush R, Cornwell W, Uram J, Lemaitre B. A ubiquitin-proteasome pathway represses the Drosophila immune deficiency signaling cascade. Curr Biol. 2002;12:1728-37 pubmed..partial loss-of-function mutations in the SkpA gene that constitutively induce the antibacterial peptide gene, Diptericin, a target of the IMD pathway...
- Lhocine N, Ribeiro P, Buchon N, Wepf A, Wilson R, Tenev T, et al. PIMS modulates immune tolerance by negatively regulating Drosophila innate immune signaling. Cell Host Microbe. 2008;4:147-58 pubmed publisher..Therefore, PIMS is required to establish immune tolerance to commensal bacteria and to maintain a balanced Imd response following exposure to bacterial infections. ..
- Ha E, Lee K, Seo Y, Kim S, Lim J, Oh B, et al. Coordination of multiple dual oxidase-regulatory pathways in responses to commensal and infectious microbes in drosophila gut. Nat Immunol. 2009;10:949-57 pubmed publisher..Thus, the coordinated regulation of DUOX enables the host to achieve gut-microbe homeostasis by efficiently combating infection while tolerating commensal microbes. ..