Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: dnc
Alias: CG10791, CG10792, CG10797, CG14267, CG14268, CG32498, DNC, Dmel\CG32498, EG:140G11.4, EG:96G10.7, EG:BACN05I09.3, EG:BACN5I9.2, PDE, PDE4, PDEII, fs(1)M42, dunce, CG32498-PA, CG32498-PB, CG32498-PC, CG32498-PD, CG32498-PE, CG32498-PF, CG32498-PG, CG32498-PI, CG32498-PJ, CG32498-PL, CG32498-PN, CG32498-PP, CG32498-PQ, CG32498-PR, CG32498-PS, CG32498-PT, CG32498-PU, dnc-PA, dnc-PB, dnc-PC, dnc-PD, dnc-PE, dnc-PF, dnc-PG, dnc-PI, dnc-PJ, dnc-PL, dnc-PN, dnc-PP, dnc-PQ, dnc-PR, dnc-PS, dnc-PT, dnc-PU, phosphodiesterase
Species: fruit fly
- Mayford M, Kandel E. Genetic approaches to memory storage. Trends Genet. 1999;15:463-70 pubmed..In these organisms, the effectiveness of genetic approaches in the study of memory has improved significantly in the past five years. Below we review these advances. ..
- Thummel C. Mechanisms of transcriptional timing in Drosophila. Science. 1992;255:39-40 pubmed
- Dubnau J, Tully T. Gene discovery in Drosophila: new insights for learning and memory. Annu Rev Neurosci. 1998;21:407-44 pubmed..Second, because core cellular mechanisms of simple forms of learning are evolutionarily conserved, biological pathways discovered in invertebrates are likely to be conserved in vertebrate systems as well. ..
- Diao F, White B. A novel approach for directing transgene expression in Drosophila: T2A-Gal4 in-frame fusion. Genetics. 2012;190:1139-44 pubmed publisher..This method requires explicit knowledge only of the endogenous gene's open reading frame and not its regulatory elements. ..
- Dudai Y, Jan Y, Byers D, Quinn W, Benzer S. dunce, a mutant of Drosophila deficient in learning. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1976;73:1684-8 pubmedNormal Drosophilia learn to avoid an odorant associated with electric shock. An X-linked mutant, dunce, has been isolated that fails to display this learning in spite of being able to sense the odorant and electric shock and showing ..
- Davis R, Kiger J. Dunce mutants of Drosophila melanogaster: mutants defective in the cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase enzyme system. J Cell Biol. 1981;90:101-7 pubmedThe cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase activities present in flies of six mutant strains of the dunce gene and in the parent wild-type strains are characterized. All of the mutants exhibit aberrant cyclic AMP metabolism...
- Chen C, Denome S, Davis R. Molecular analysis of cDNA clones and the corresponding genomic coding sequences of the Drosophila dunce+ gene, the structural gene for cAMP phosphodiesterase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986;83:9313-7 pubmed..is strikingly homologous to the amino acid sequence of a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase isolated from bovine brain and more weakly related to the predicted amino acid sequence of a yeast cAMP ..
- van Swinderen B. Attention-like processes in Drosophila require short-term memory genes. Science. 2007;315:1590-3 pubmed..These processes were modulated by genes involved in short-term memory formation, namely dunce and rutabaga...
- Renger J, Ueda A, Atwood H, Govind C, Wu C. Role of cAMP cascade in synaptic stability and plasticity: ultrastructural and physiological analyses of individual synaptic boutons in Drosophila memory mutants. J Neurosci. 2000;20:3980-92 pubmedMutations of the genes rutabaga (rut) and dunce (dnc) affect the synthesis and degradation of cAMP, respectively, and disrupt learning in Drosophila...
- Aceves Piña E, Booker R, Duerr J, Livingstone M, Quinn W, Smith R, et al. Learning and memory in Drosophila, studied with mutants. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1983;48 Pt 2:831-40 pubmed
- Gong Z, Xia S, Liu L, Feng C, Guo A. Operant visual learning and memory in Drosophila mutants dunce, amnesiac and radish. J Insect Physiol. 1998;44:1149-1158 pubmedLearning and memory of Drosophila mutants dunce, amnesiac and radish which were isolated originally from the classical olfactory learning paradigm are analyzed in an operant visual learning paradigm...
- Ganguly Fitzgerald I, Donlea J, Shaw P. Waking experience affects sleep need in Drosophila. Science. 2006;313:1775-81 pubmed..Furthermore, this experience-dependent plasticity in sleep need is subserved by the dopaminergic and adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate signaling pathways and a particular subset of 17 long-term memory genes. ..
- Lee D, O Dowd D. cAMP-dependent plasticity at excitatory cholinergic synapses in Drosophila neurons: alterations in the memory mutant dunce. J Neurosci. 2000;20:2104-11 pubmed..We report that chronic elevation in neuronal cAMP (in dunce neurons or wild-type neurons grown in db-cAMP) results in an increase in the frequency of cholinergic miniature ..
- Tinette S, Zhang L, Robichon A. Cooperation between Drosophila flies in searching behavior. Genes Brain Behav. 2004;3:39-50 pubmed..shows that flies carrying mutations in specific genes (for example, the dunce (dnc) gene which codes for a phosphodiesterase) were defective in this search-aggregation behavior when compared to normal flies...
- Levine J, Casey C, Kalderon D, Jackson F. Altered circadian pacemaker functions and cyclic AMP rhythms in the Drosophila learning mutant dunce. Neuron. 1994;13:967-74 pubmed..and free-running activity rhythms in Drosophila dunce (dnc) and DC0 mutants, which identify a cAMP specific phosphodiesterase and the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, respectively...
- Livingstone M, Sziber P, Quinn W. Loss of calcium/calmodulin responsiveness in adenylate cyclase of rutabaga, a Drosophila learning mutant. Cell. 1984;37:205-15 pubmed..The mutation possibly affects the catalytic subunit directly. We postulate that there is at least one other type of adenylate cyclase activity that is unaffected by the mutation and insensitive to calcium/calmodulin. ..
- Feany M. Rescue of the learning defect in dunce, a Drosophila learning mutant, by an allele of rutabaga, a second learning mutant. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:2795-9 pubmed..A second learning mutant, dunce, is defective in cyclic AMP degradation due to decreased or absent phosphodiesterase activity...
- Nighorn A, Healy M, Davis R. The cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase encoded by the Drosophila dunce gene is concentrated in the mushroom body neuropil. Neuron. 1991;6:455-67 pubmed..flies are defective in learning and memory as a result of lesions in the gene that codes for a cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE)...
- de Belle J, Heisenberg M. Associative odor learning in Drosophila abolished by chemical ablation of mushroom bodies. Science. 1994;263:692-5 pubmed..This deficit cannot be attributed to reductions in olfactory sensitivity, shock reactivity, or locomotor behavior. The results demonstrate that MBs mediate associative odor learning in flies. ..
- Qiu Y, Davis R. Genetic dissection of the learning/memory gene dunce of Drosophila melanogaster. Genes Dev. 1993;7:1447-58 pubmedThe dunce (dnc) gene of Drosophila melanogaster codes for cAMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) and is required for normal learning/memory and for female fertility...
- Hong S, Bang S, Hyun S, Kang J, Jeong K, Paik D, et al. cAMP signalling in mushroom bodies modulates temperature preference behaviour in Drosophila. Nature. 2008;454:771-5 pubmed publisher..Preferred temperatures were affected by the level of cAMP and PKA activity in the MBs in various PKA pathway mutants...
- Dubnau J, Chiang A, Tully T. Neural substrates of memory: from synapse to system. J Neurobiol. 2003;54:238-53 pubmed..Our objective here is to offer a conceptually unifying perspective and to discuss this perspective in relation to an experiment analysis of memory in Drosophila. ..
- Hou J, Kuromi H, Fukasawa Y, Ueno K, Sakai T, Kidokoro Y. Repetitive exposures to nicotine induce a hyper-responsiveness via the cAMP/PKA/CREB signal pathway in Drosophila. J Neurobiol. 2004;60:249-61 pubmed..Compared with this effect of nicotine in wild-type flies, it was stronger in dunce, which has defective phosphodiesterase, and in wild-type flies treated with a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, whereas it was weaker in DC0, which has ..
- Neuser K, Triphan T, Mronz M, Poeck B, Strauss R. Analysis of a spatial orientation memory in Drosophila. Nature. 2008;453:1244-7 pubmed publisher..The S6KII signalling pathway therefore seems to be acutely required in the ring neurons for spatial orientation memory in flies. ..
- van Swinderen B, McCartney A, Kauffman S, Flores K, Agrawal K, Wagner J, et al. Shared visual attention and memory systems in the Drosophila brain. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5989 pubmed publisher..Mutations affecting olfactory and visual memory formation in Drosophila, such as in dunce and rutabaga, also affect short-term visual processes relevant to selective attention...
- Duerr J, Quinn W. Three Drosophila mutations that block associative learning also affect habituation and sensitization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982;79:3646-50 pubmed..The dunce, turnip, and rutabaga mutants all habituate less than normal flies...
- Chow D, Theobald J, Frye M. An olfactory circuit increases the fidelity of visual behavior. J Neurosci. 2011;31:15035-47 pubmed publisher..Together, our results implicate the MBs in a fast-acting, memory-independent olfactory modification of a visual reflex that is critical for flight control. ..
- Devaud J, Acebes A, Ferrus A. Odor exposure causes central adaptation and morphological changes in selected olfactory glomeruli in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2001;21:6274-82 pubmed..Finally, the dunce mutant fails to develop behavioral adaptation as well as morphological changes in the olfactory glomeruli after ..
- Rosay P, Armstrong J, Wang Z, Kaiser K. Synchronized neural activity in the Drosophila memory centers and its modulation by amnesiac. Neuron. 2001;30:759-70 pubmed..It is also sensitive to pharmacological agents specific for several classes of ion channel and for acetylcholine and GABA receptors. A role in memory consolidation involving transcriptionally mediated synaptic strengthening is proposed. ..
- Tinette S, Zhang L, Garnier A, Engler G, Tares S, Robichon A. Exploratory behaviour in NO-dependent cyclase mutants of Drosophila shows defects in coincident neuronal signalling. BMC Neurosci. 2007;8:65 pubmed..We show that these mutants present errors in integrative and/or coincident processing of signals, which are not reducible to the functions of the peripheral sensory cells. ..
- Lee D. Global and local missions of cAMP signaling in neural plasticity, learning, and memory. Front Pharmacol. 2015;6:161 pubmed publisher..Among them, adenylyl cyclase (AC) gene rutabaga and phosphodiesterase (PDE) gene dunce have been intensively studied to understand the role of cAMP signaling...
- Kim Y, Wu C. Reduced growth cone motility in cultured neurons from Drosophila memory mutants with a defective cAMP cascade. J Neurosci. 1996;16:5593-602 pubmedDrosophila memory mutants dunce (dnc) and rutabaga (rut) are known to have altered intracellular cAMP levels, nerve terminal growth, and plasticity of synaptic transmission...
- Bolger G. Molecular biology of the cyclic AMP-specific cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases: a diverse family of regulatory enzymes. Cell Signal. 1994;6:851-9 pubmed
- Chang Q, Balice Gordon R. Highwire, rpm-1, and futsch: balancing synaptic growth and stability. Neuron. 2000;26:287-90 pubmed
- Harbison S, McCoy L, Mackay T. Genome-wide association study of sleep in Drosophila melanogaster. BMC Genomics. 2013;14:281 pubmed publisher..Our discovery of genetic variants that influence environmental sensitivity to sleep may have a wider application to all GWA studies, because individuals with highly plastic genotypes will not have consistent phenotypes. ..
- Salz H, Davis R, Kiger J. Genetic Analysis of Chromomere 3d4 in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER: The DUNCE and SPERM-AMOTILE Genes. Genetics. 1982;100:587-96 pubmed..that are homozygous deficient for chromomere 3D4 are viable but sterile and lack detectable cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase activity. Two genes have been localized to this region: spermamotile (sam) and dunce (dnc)...
- Budnik V. Synapse maturation and structural plasticity at Drosophila neuromuscular junctions. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 1996;6:858-67 pubmed..The manipulation of the genes encoding ion channels, components of second-messenger cascades, and cell adhesion molecules is beginning to tease apart the mechanisms underlying structural synaptic plasticity. ..
- Davis R, Davidson N. The memory gene dunce+ encodes a remarkable set of RNAs with internal heterogeneity. Mol Cell Biol. 1986;6:1464-70 pubmedWe have previously isolated the region of the Drosophila melanogaster X chromosome which contains the dunce+ gene and mapped the dunce2 mutation by recombination to a 10- to 12-kilobase (kb) interval (R. L. Davis and N. Davidson, Mol...
- Waddell S. Courtship learning: scent of a woman. Curr Biol. 2005;15:R88-90 pubmed..Learning to predict an outcome based on previous experience is of considerable selective advantage. Getting it wrong can be costly. In a complex environment, however, using the appropriate predictor is not necessarily a trivial task. ..
- Rosato E, Piccin A, Kyriacou C. Circadian rhythms: from behaviour to molecules. Bioessays. 1997;19:1075-82 pubmed..More recently, the cloning of mouse clock genes, including putative per homologues, opens up exciting possibilities for mammalian molecular chronobiology. ..
- Hall J. Tripping along the trail to the molecular mechanisms of biological clocks. Trends Neurosci. 1995;18:230-40 pubmed
- Bate M, Broadie K. Wiring by fly: the neuromuscular system of the Drosophila embryo. Neuron. 1995;15:513-25 pubmed
- Xia S, Tully T. Segregation of odor identity and intensity during odor discrimination in Drosophila mushroom body. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e264 pubmed
- Grotewiel M, Beck C, Wu K, Zhu X, Davis R. Integrin-mediated short-term memory in Drosophila. Nature. 1998;391:455-60 pubmed..We propose a model in which integrins act as dynamic regulators of synapse structure or the signalling events underlying short-term memory formation. ..
- Korzus E. The relation of transcription to memory formation. Acta Biochim Pol. 2003;50:775-82 pubmed..Transcription seems to play essential role in memory formation but the mechanisms for activation of transcription and downstream processes during memory consolidation remain unclear. ..
- Emmons S, Lipton J. Genetic basis of male sexual behavior. J Neurobiol. 2003;54:93-110 pubmed..It can also help us to gain an appreciation of how behavior is encoded by genes and their regulatory sequences. ..
- Burrell B, Sahley C. Learning in simple systems. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2001;11:757-64 pubmed..Some pathways contribute to a single stage of memory formation, whereas others impact on multiple stages of memory development. Distinct cellular pathways may also act in series or in parallel during various stages of memory formation. ..
- Kamyshev N, Iliadi K, Bragina Y, Savvateeva Popova E, Tokmacheva E, Preat T. Identification of Drosophila mutant with memory defects after acquisition of conditioned reflex suppression of courtship. Neurosci Behav Physiol. 2000;30:307-13 pubmed..reflex in the repeated impregnated-female courting test were similar to those of known short-term memory mutants dnc and rut...
- Landmesser L. Synaptic plasticity: fastening synapses by adhesion. Curr Biol. 1997;7:R28-30 pubmed
- Acevedo S, Froudarakis E, Tsiorva A, Skoulakis E. Distinct neuronal circuits mediate experience-dependent, non-associative osmotactic responses in Drosophila. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2007;34:378-89 pubmed..Finally, these experience-dependent non-associative paradigms are excellent methods of functionally ascertaining normal activity of the mushroom bodies and inner antenoglomerular tract in putative leaning and memory mutants. ..
- Sackton T, Kulathinal R, Bergman C, Quinlan A, Dopman E, Carneiro M, et al. Population genomic inferences from sparse high-throughput sequencing of two populations of Drosophila melanogaster. Genome Biol Evol. 2009;1:449-65 pubmed publisher..Continued development of methods for statistical inference of shallow-depth genome-wide sequencing data will allow such sparse, partial data sets to become the norm in the emerging field of population genomics. ..
- Brembs B. Operant conditioning in invertebrates. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2003;13:710-7 pubmed..These insights demonstrate the usefulness of a variety of invertebrate model systems to complement and stimulate research in vertebrates. ..
- Lannutti B, Schneider L. Gprk2 controls cAMP levels in Drosophila development. Dev Biol. 2001;233:174-85 pubmed..this possibility, we tested for a genetic interaction between Gprk2 and dunce (which encodes cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase)...
- Zars T. Behavioral functions of the insect mushroom bodies. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2000;10:790-5 pubmed..In addition, the mushroom bodies are necessary for context generalization in visual learning and for regulating the transition from walking to rest. ..
- Reaume C, Sokolowski M. The nature of Drosophila melanogaster. Curr Biol. 2006;16:R623-8 pubmed
- Alberini C. Genes to remember. J Exp Biol. 1999;202:2887-91 pubmed..Here, we review the studies showing that conserved molecules and biological mechanisms are engaged in simple and complex forms of memory. ..
- Guo F, Yi W, Zhou M, Guo A. Go signaling in mushroom bodies regulates sleep in Drosophila. Sleep. 2011;34:273-81 pubmed..Genetic interaction results showed that Go signaling serves as a neuronal transmission inhibitor in a cAMP-independent pathway. Go signaling is a novel signaling pathway in MBs that regulates sleep in Drosophila. ..
- Koon A, Ashley J, Barria R, Dasgupta S, Brain R, Waddell S, et al. Autoregulatory and paracrine control of synaptic and behavioral plasticity by octopaminergic signaling. Nat Neurosci. 2011;14:190-9 pubmed publisher..Our results provide a mechanism for global regulation of excitatory synapses, presumably to maintain synaptic and behavioral plasticity in a dynamic range. ..
- Corfas G, Dudai Y. Adaptation and fatigue of a mechanosensory neuron in wild-type Drosophila and in memory mutants. J Neurosci. 1990;10:491-9 pubmed..Two mutants, rutabaga (rut) and dunce (dnc), which are defective in learning and in the activity of the cAMP cascade, show altered kinetics of sensory ..
- DeZazzo J, Tully T. Dissection of memory formation: from behavioral pharmacology to molecular genetics. Trends Neurosci. 1995;18:212-8 pubmed..These studies support the application of reverse-genetic strategies, including the use of temporally specific agonists and antagonists, to advance the functional dissection of memory formation. ..
- Ejima A, Smith B, Lucas C, Levine J, Griffith L. Sequential learning of pheromonal cues modulates memory consolidation in trainer-specific associative courtship conditioning. Curr Biol. 2005;15:194-206 pubmed..Suppression of memory by new learning demonstrates that the dynamics of memory consolidation are subject to plasticity in Drosophila. This type of metaplasticity is essential for navigation of experience-rich natural environments. ..
- Lamprecht R. CREB: a message to remember. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999;55:554-63 pubmed..The present review is focused on the CREB protein, its role in memory formation and considers mechanistic models pertaining to CREB action in modulating neuronal networks that underlie LTM. ..
- Sanyal S, Sandstrom D, Hoeffer C, Ramaswami M. AP-1 functions upstream of CREB to control synaptic plasticity in Drosophila. Nature. 2002;416:870-4 pubmed
- Chen C, Malone T, Beckendorf S, Davis R. At least two genes reside within a large intron of the dunce gene of Drosophila. Nature. 1987;329:721-4 pubmed..and biochemical evidence, recently provides compelling evidence that the gene codes for the enzyme cAMP phosphodiesterase. The observation that the gene encodes at least six overlapping poly(A)+ RNA molecules ranging in size from ..
- Ueyama M, Fuyama Y. Enhanced cost of mating in female sterile mutants of Drosophila melanogaster. Genes Genet Syst. 2003;78:29-36 pubmed..Three different mutant alleles of ovarian tumors (otu) and an allele of dunce (dnc(M11)) of Drosophila melanogaster were used to sterilize females...
- Yao W, Rusch J, Poo M, Wu C. Spontaneous acetylcholine secretion from developing growth cones of Drosophila central neurons in culture: effects of cAMP-pathway mutations. J Neurosci. 2000;20:2626-37 pubmed..by a series of studies on the cAMP pathway mutations, dunce (dnc) and PKA-RI, which disrupt a cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase and the regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A, respectively...
- Ogden S, Fei D, Schilling N, Ahmed Y, Hwa J, Robbins D. G protein Galphai functions immediately downstream of Smoothened in Hedgehog signalling. Nature. 2008;456:967-70 pubmed publisher..Our results demonstrate that Smo functions as a canonical GPCR, which signals through Galphai to regulate Hh pathway activation. ..
- Peng I, Berke B, Zhu Y, Lee W, Chen W, Wu C. Temperature-dependent developmental plasticity of Drosophila neurons: cell-autonomous roles of membrane excitability, Ca2+ influx, and cAMP signaling. J Neurosci. 2007;27:12611-22 pubmed..Presumably, activity-dependent Ca2+ accumulation triggers the cAMP cascade to confer the activity-dependent plasticity of neuronal excitability and growth. ..
- Phillis R, Bramlage A, Wotus C, Whittaker A, Gramates L, Seppala D, et al. Isolation of mutations affecting neural circuitry required for grooming behavior in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1993;133:581-92 pubmed..We have also used our assay to test the grooming ability of stocks containing mutations that produce known neural defects. ..
- Koon A, Budnik V. Inhibitory control of synaptic and behavioral plasticity by octopaminergic signaling. J Neurosci. 2012;32:6312-22 pubmed publisher..These results demonstrate the dual action of octopamine on synaptic growth and behavioral plasticity, and highlight the important role of inhibitory influences for normal responses to physiological stimuli. ..
- van Alphen B, Yap M, Kirszenblat L, Kottler B, van Swinderen B. A dynamic deep sleep stage in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2013;33:6917-27 pubmed publisher..Our results show that sleep is not homogenous in insects, and suggest that waking behavior and the associated synaptic plasticity mechanisms determine the timing and intensity of deep sleep stages in Drosophila...
- Balling A, Technau G, Heisenberg M. Are the structural changes in adult Drosophila mushroom bodies memory traces? Studies on biochemical learning mutants. J Neurogenet. 2007;21:209-17 pubmed..Experience consolidates certain synapses, thus prolonging survival of the respective Kenyon cell fibers and increasing the steady state level of fiber number (Fig. 3). ..
- Scopelliti A, Cordero J, Diao F, Strathdee K, White B, Sansom O, et al. Local control of intestinal stem cell homeostasis by enteroendocrine cells in the adult Drosophila midgut. Curr Biol. 2014;24:1199-211 pubmed publisher..We therefore identify a novel paradigm in the regulation of ISC quiescence involving the conserved ligand/receptor Bursicon/DLGR2 and a previously unrecognized tissue-intrinsic role of enteroendocrine cells. ..
- Dubnau J, Tully T. Functional anatomy: from molecule to memory. Curr Biol. 2001;11:R240-3 pubmed..Blockade of synaptic transmission in the amnesiac-expressing cells disrupts memory, but not learning, suggesting presynaptic and postsynaptic sites for memory formation. ..