Gene Symbol: disp
Description: dispatched
Alias: CG2019, Disp, Dmel\CG2019, anon-WO0146227.1, dispatched, CG2019-PA, disp-PA
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Briscoe J, Therond P. Hedgehog signaling: from the Drosophila cuticle to anti-cancer drugs. Dev Cell. 2005;8:143-51 pubmed
  2. Kuwabara P, Labouesse M. The sterol-sensing domain: multiple families, a unique role?. Trends Genet. 2002;18:193-201 pubmed
    ..This article discusses how the SSD appears to function as a regulatory domain involved in linking vesicle trafficking and protein localization with such varied processes as cholesterol homeostasis, cell signalling and cytokinesis. ..
  3. Gallet A, Ruel L, Staccini Lavenant L, Therond P. Cholesterol modification is necessary for controlled planar long-range activity of Hedgehog in Drosophila epithelia. Development. 2006;133:407-18 pubmed
    ..We conclude that, as in vertebrates, cholesterol modification is essential for controlled long-range Hh signalling in Drosophila. ..
  4. Lum L, Beachy P. The Hedgehog response network: sensors, switches, and routers. Science. 2004;304:1755-9 pubmed
  5. Ma Y, Erkner A, Gong R, Yao S, Taipale J, Basler K, et al. Hedgehog-mediated patterning of the mammalian embryo requires transporter-like function of dispatched. Cell. 2002;111:63-75 pubmed
    The dispatched (disp) gene is required for long-range Hedgehog (Hh) signaling in Drosophila...
  6. Callejo A, Bilioni A, Mollica E, Gorfinkiel N, Andres G, Ibañez C, et al. Dispatched mediates Hedgehog basolateral release to form the long-range morphogenetic gradient in the Drosophila wing disk epithelium. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:12591-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Functional analysis of the 12-transmembrane protein Dispatched, the glypican Dally-like (Dlp) protein, and the Ig-like and FNNIII domains of protein Interference Hh (Ihog) ..
  7. Amanai K, Jiang J. Distinct roles of Central missing and Dispatched in sending the Hedgehog signal. Development. 2001;128:5119-27 pubmed
    ..We recovered multiple new alleles of hh and dispatched (disp). In addition, we identified a novel component in the hh pathway, which we name central missing (cmn)...
  8. Chamoun Z, Mann R, Nellen D, von Kessler D, Bellotto M, Beachy P, et al. Skinny hedgehog, an acyltransferase required for palmitoylation and activity of the hedgehog signal. Science. 2001;293:2080-4 pubmed
  9. Burke R, Nellen D, Bellotto M, Hafen E, Senti K, Dickson B, et al. Dispatched, a novel sterol-sensing domain protein dedicated to the release of cholesterol-modified hedgehog from signaling cells. Cell. 1999;99:803-15 pubmed
    ..Here we identify a novel segment-polarity gene in Drosophila, dispatched (disp), and demonstrate that its product is required in sending cells for normal Hh function...

More Information


  1. Khaliullina H, Panàkovà D, Eugster C, Riedel F, Carvalho M, Eaton S. Patched regulates Smoothened trafficking using lipoprotein-derived lipids. Development. 2009;136:4111-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Ptc normally regulates Smo degradation by changing the lipid composition of endosomes through which Smo passes, and that the presence of Hh on lipoproteins inhibits utilization of their lipids by Ptc. ..
  2. Torroja C, Gorfinkiel N, Guerrero I. Patched controls the Hedgehog gradient by endocytosis in a dynamin-dependent manner, but this internalization does not play a major role in signal transduction. Development. 2004;131:2395-408 pubmed
  3. Rojas Ríos P, Guerrero I, González Reyes A. Cytoneme-mediated delivery of hedgehog regulates the expression of bone morphogenetic proteins to maintain germline stem cells in Drosophila. PLoS Biol. 2012;10:e1001298 pubmed publisher
  4. Raisin S, Ruel L, Ranieri N, Staccini Lavenant L, Thérond P. Dynamic phosphorylation of the kinesin Costal-2 in vivo reveals requirement of fused kinase activity for all levels of hedgehog signalling. Dev Biol. 2010;344:119-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we propose that the extracellular Hh information is conveyed to an intracellular signal through graded Fu kinase activity. ..
  5. Gallet A, Rodriguez R, Ruel L, Therond P. Cholesterol modification of hedgehog is required for trafficking and movement, revealing an asymmetric cellular response to hedgehog. Dev Cell. 2003;4:191-204 pubmed
    ..in large punctate structures and apical sorting through the activity of the sterol-sensing domain-containing Dispatched protein...
  6. D Angelo G, Matusek T, Pizette S, Thérond P. Endocytosis of Hedgehog through dispatched regulates long-range signaling. Dev Cell. 2015;32:290-303 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the effect of the resistance-nodulation-division transporter Dispatched (Disp) on long-range Hh signaling and unexpectedly found that Disp is specifically required for apical ..
  7. Vincent J, Dubois L. Morphogen transport along epithelia, an integrated trafficking problem. Dev Cell. 2002;3:615-23 pubmed
    ..The question of how this is achieved has aroused the interest of many cell biologically minded developmental biologists. ..
  8. McMahon A. More surprises in the Hedgehog signaling pathway. Cell. 2000;100:185-8 pubmed
  9. Deshpande G, Schedl P. HMGCoA reductase potentiates hedgehog signaling in Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Cell. 2005;9:629-38 pubmed
    ..Consistent with this model, there are substantial germ cell migration defects in trans combinations between hmgcr and mutations in different components of the hh pathway. ..
  10. Palm W, Swierczynska M, Kumari V, Ehrhart Bornstein M, Bornstein S, Eaton S. Secretion and signaling activities of lipoprotein-associated hedgehog and non-sterol-modified hedgehog in flies and mammals. PLoS Biol. 2013;11:e1001505 pubmed publisher
    ..The existence of Hh secretion forms with distinct signaling activities suggests a novel mechanism for generating a diversity of Hh responses...
  11. Baeg G, Perrimon N. Functional binding of secreted molecules to heparan sulfate proteoglycans in Drosophila. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2000;12:575-80 pubmed
  12. Bischoff M, Gradilla A, Seijo I, Andrés G, Rodríguez Navas C, González Méndez L, et al. Cytonemes are required for the establishment of a normal Hedgehog morphogen gradient in Drosophila epithelia. Nat Cell Biol. 2013;15:1269-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Indeed, mutant conditions that affect cytoneme formation reduce both cytoneme length and Hh gradient length. Our results suggest that cytoneme-mediated Hh transport is the mechanistic basis for Hh gradient formation. ..
  13. Chang W, Chang C, Chang Y, Sung H, Lin M, Chang S, et al. The Drosophila GOLPH3 homolog regulates the biosynthesis of heparan sulfate proteoglycans by modulating the retrograde trafficking of exostosins. Development. 2013;140:2798-807 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data demonstrate that GOLPH3 modulates the activities of EXTs, thus implicating a putative role for GOLPH3 in the formation of MO. ..
  14. Wendler F, Franch Marro X, Vincent J. How does cholesterol affect the way Hedgehog works?. Development. 2006;133:3055-61 pubmed
    ..However, the absence of the cholesterol adduct affects the spread of Hh within tissues. As we discuss here, the exact nature of this effect is controversial. ..
  15. Nusse R. Wnts and Hedgehogs: lipid-modified proteins and similarities in signaling mechanisms at the cell surface. Development. 2003;130:5297-305 pubmed
    ..Several other aspects of Wnt and Hedgehog transport and signaling are discussed, as well as the possible origin of these pathways. ..
  16. Garcia C, Avila V, Quesada H, Caballero A. Candidate transcriptomic sources of inbreeding depression in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e70067 pubmed publisher
  17. Hartl T, Scott M. Wing tips: The wing disc as a platform for studying Hedgehog signaling. Methods. 2014;68:199-206 pubmed publisher
    ..The tools and approaches we highlight form the cornerstone of research efforts in many laboratories that use Drosophila to study Hh signaling, and are essential for ongoing discoveries. ..
  18. Im S, Takle K, Jo J, Babcock D, Ma Z, Xiang Y, et al. Tachykinin acts upstream of autocrine Hedgehog signaling during nociceptive sensitization in Drosophila. elife. 2015;4:e10735 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results highlight a conserved role for Tachykinin signaling in regulating nociception and the power of Drosophila for genetic dissection of nociception. ..
  19. Bijlsma M, Spek C, Peppelenbosch M. Hedgehog: an unusual signal transducer. Bioessays. 2004;26:387-94 pubmed
    ..These atypical features make Hedgehog physiology unique in biology and may explain why this field has attracted such significant attention. ..
  20. Chuang P, Kornberg T. On the range of hedgehog signaling. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2000;10:515-22 pubmed
    ..Understanding how the movement of Hh is controlled and propelled will be key to understanding how it carries out its essential roles. ..
  21. Dawber R, Hebbes S, Herpers B, Docquier F, van den Heuvel M. Differential range and activity of various forms of the Hedgehog protein. BMC Dev Biol. 2005;5:21 pubmed
  22. Bellotto M, Bopp D, Senti K, Burke R, Deak P, Maroy P, et al. Maternal-effect loci involved in Drosophila oogenesis and embryogenesis: P element-induced mutations on the third chromosome. Int J Dev Biol. 2002;46:149-57 pubmed
  23. Chen Y, Jiang J. Decoding the phosphorylation code in Hedgehog signal transduction. Cell Res. 2013;23:186-200 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we focus on the multifaceted roles that phosphorylation plays in Hh signal transduction, and discuss the conservation and difference between Drosophila and mammalian Hh signaling mechanisms. ..
  24. Lu X, Liu S, Kornberg T. The C-terminal tail of the Hedgehog receptor Patched regulates both localization and turnover. Genes Dev. 2006;20:2539-51 pubmed
    ..These data show that degradation of Ptc is regulated at a step subsequent to endocytosis, although endocytosis is a likely prerequisite. We also show that the CTD of mouse Ptc regulates turnover. ..
  25. Howes R, Bray S. Pattern formation: Wingless on the move. Curr Biol. 2000;10:R222-6 pubmed
    ..Recent studies have provided important new insights into this process, though the issue is still far from being resolved. ..
  26. Vincent J, Magee T. Argosomes: membrane fragments on the run. Trends Cell Biol. 2002;12:57-60 pubmed
    ..Recent work demonstrates the transfer of membrane fragments in a live epithelium and, importantly, suggests that these fragments might be used as a vehicle to transport morphogens in a developing tissue. ..
  27. Geisbrecht E, Sawant K, Su Y, Liu Z, Silver D, Burtscher A, et al. Genetic interaction screens identify a role for hedgehog signaling in Drosophila border cell migration. Dev Dyn. 2013;242:414-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified a pathway by which Hh signaling connects to Rac and Par-1 in cell migration. These results further highlight the importance of modifier screens in the identification of new genes that function in developmental pathways. ..
  28. Casali A. Self-induced patched receptor down-regulation modulates cell sensitivity to the hedgehog morphogen gradient. Sci Signal. 2010;3:ra63 pubmed publisher
  29. Gerlitz O, Basler K. Wingful, an extracellular feedback inhibitor of Wingless. Genes Dev. 2002;16:1055-9 pubmed
    ..We propose that Wf may provide feedback control for the long-range morphogen activities of Wg. ..
  30. Mann R, Beachy P. Cholesterol modification of proteins. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1529:188-202 pubmed
    ..Finally, the developmental consequences of chemical and genetic disruption of cholesterol homeostasis are summarized, along with the potential importance of cholesterol-rich lipid rafts in production of and response to the Hh signal. ..
  31. Christian J. BMP, Wnt and Hedgehog signals: how far can they go?. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2000;12:244-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, recent studies suggest that variations in the signaling range of these molecules may be due to tissue-specific differences in intracellular processing or tissue-restricted expression of binding proteins. ..
  32. Kornberg T. The contrasting roles of primary cilia and cytonemes in Hh signaling. Dev Biol. 2014;394:1-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Implicit in this model is the idea that initial binding and uptake of Hh is independent of and segregated from the processes of signal transduction and activation. ..
  33. Callejo A, Culi J, Guerrero I. Patched, the receptor of Hedgehog, is a lipoprotein receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:912-7 pubmed publisher
    ..However, by using different Ptc mutants, we show that Lp internalization does not play a major role in Hh signal transduction but does in Hh gradient formation. ..
  34. Ingham P. How cholesterol modulates the signal. Curr Biol. 2000;10:R180-3 pubmed
    ..Novel genes have now been identified that control the release and dispersal of Hedgehog, shedding new light on the part played by cholesterol in these processes. ..
  35. Ingham P. Hedgehog signaling: a tale of two lipids. Science. 2001;294:1879-81 pubmed
    ..Recent studies suggest that the lipid adducts regulate the range and potency of the signals, whereas the sterol-sensing domain is essential for receptor activity. ..