Gene Symbol: dimm
Description: dimmed
Alias: CG8667, DIMM, Dimm, Dmel\CG8667, Mistr, bHLHa16, c929, dim, dimmed, CG8667-PA, CG8667-PB, dimm-PA, dimm-PB, mist 1-related
Species: fruit fly
Products:     dimm

Top Publications

  1. Baumgardt M, Karlsson D, Terriente J, Diaz Benjumea F, Thor S. Neuronal subtype specification within a lineage by opposing temporal feed-forward loops. Cell. 2009;139:969-82 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism of temporal and "subtemporal" genes acting in opposing feed-forward loops may be used by many stem cell lineages to generate diversity. ..
  2. Park D, Han M, Kim Y, Han K, Taghert P. Ap-let neurons--a peptidergic circuit potentially controlling ecdysial behavior in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2004;269:95-108 pubmed
    ..The products include the neuroendocrine-specific bHLH regulator called Dimmed (Dimm), four neuropeptide biosynthetic enzymes (PC2, Fur1, PAL2, and PHM), and a specific dopamine receptor ..
  3. Allan D, Park D, St Pierre S, Taghert P, Thor S. Regulators acting in combinatorial codes also act independently in single differentiating neurons. Neuron. 2005;45:689-700 pubmed
    ..ap, the zinc finger gene squeeze, the bHLH gene dimmed, and the BMP pathway are all required for proper specification of these cells...
  4. Park D, Shafer O, Shepherd S, Suh H, Trigg J, Taghert P. The Drosophila basic helix-loop-helix protein DIMMED directly activates PHM, a gene encoding a neuropeptide-amidating enzyme. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:410-21 pubmed
    The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein DIMMED (DIMM) supports the differentiation of secretory properties in numerous peptidergic cells of Drosophila melanogaster...
  5. Santos J, Vömel M, Struck R, Homberg U, Nässel D, Wegener C. Neuroarchitecture of peptidergic systems in the larval ventral ganglion of Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e695 pubmed
    ..The data can further be useful to identify colocalized transmitters and receptors, and develop peptidergic neurons as new landmarks. ..
  6. Karlsson D, Baumgardt M, Thor S. Segment-specific neuronal subtype specification by the integration of anteroposterior and temporal cues. PLoS Biol. 2010;8:e1000368 pubmed publisher
    ..This study reveals a surprisingly restricted, yet multifaceted, function of both anteroposterior and temporal cues with respect to lineage control and cell fate specification...
  7. Jansen A, Nassel D, Madsen K, Jung A, Gether U, Kjaerulff O. PICK1 expression in the Drosophila central nervous system primarily occurs in the neuroendocrine system. J Comp Neurol. 2009;517:313-32 pubmed publisher
    ..PICK1 immunolabeling of peptidergic neurons in the neuroendocrine system, which express the transcription factor DIMM and the amidating enzyme peptidylglycine-alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase (PHM)...
  8. Nassel D, Enell L, Santos J, Wegener C, Johard H. A large population of diverse neurons in the Drosophila central nervous system expresses short neuropeptide F, suggesting multiple distributed peptide functions. BMC Neurosci. 2008;9:90 pubmed publisher
    ..To unravel possible functional diversity we have mapped the distribution of transcript of the snpf gene and its peptide products in the central nervous system (CNS) of Drosophila in relation to other neuronal markers...
  9. Miguel Aliaga I, Thor S, Gould A. Postmitotic specification of Drosophila insulinergic neurons from pioneer neurons. PLoS Biol. 2008;6:e58 pubmed publisher
    ..bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling and four transcription factors: Abdominal-B, Hb9, Fork Head, and Dimmed. These five inputs contribute in a partially overlapping manner to combinatorial codes for dMP2 apoptosis, ..

More Information


  1. Baumgardt M, Miguel Aliaga I, Karlsson D, Ekman H, Thor S. Specification of neuronal identities by feedforward combinatorial coding. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e37 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that a limited number of regulators may constitute a potent combinatorial code that dictates unique neuronal cell fate, and that such codes show a surprising disregard for many global instructive cues. ..
  2. Miguel Aliaga I, Allan D, Thor S. Independent roles of the dachshund and eyes absent genes in BMP signaling, axon pathfinding and neuronal specification. Development. 2004;131:5837-48 pubmed
    ..Thus, we show that dac and eya perform entirely different functions in a single cell type to ultimately regulate a single phenotypic outcome. ..
  3. Hewes R, Park D, Gauthier S, Schaefer A, Taghert P. The bHLH protein Dimmed controls neuroendocrine cell differentiation in Drosophila. Development. 2003;130:1771-81 pubmed
    ..We show that the Drosophila dimmed/Mist1 bHLH gene confers such a pro-secretory phenotype on neuroendocrine cells...
  4. Park D, Hadzic T, Yin P, Rusch J, Abruzzi K, Rosbash M, et al. Molecular organization of Drosophila neuroendocrine cells by Dimmed. Curr Biol. 2011;21:1515-24 pubmed publisher
    In Drosophila, the basic-helix-loop-helix protein DIMM coordinates the molecular and cellular properties of all major neuroendocrine cells, irrespective of the secretory peptides they produce...
  5. O Brien M, Taghert P. A peritracheal neuropeptide system in insects: release of myomodulin-like peptides at ecdysis. J Exp Biol. 1998;201:193-209 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that peritracheal cells release MM-like peptides as part of a conserved feature of the endocrine regulation of insect ecdysis. ..
  6. Hewes R, Gu T, Brewster J, Qu C, Zhao T. Regulation of secretory protein expression in mature cells by DIMM, a basic helix-loop-helix neuroendocrine differentiation factor. J Neurosci. 2006;26:7860-9 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the Drosophila basic helix-loop-helix protein DIMM, a critical regulator of neuroendocrine cell differentiation, controls secretory capacity in mature neurons...
  7. Gauthier S, Hewes R. Transcriptional regulation of neuropeptide and peptide hormone expression by the Drosophila dimmed and cryptocephal genes. J Exp Biol. 2006;209:1803-15 pubmed
    ..Here we show that two evolutionarily conserved transcription factor genes, the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) gene dimmed (dimm) and the basic-leucine zipper (bZIP) gene cryptocephal (crc), control expression of diverse neuropeptides ..
  8. Park D, Li P, Dani A, Taghert P. Peptidergic cell-specific synaptotagmins in Drosophila: localization to dense-core granules and regulation by the bHLH protein DIMMED. J Neurosci. 2014;34:13195-207 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, both display significant overlap with the bHLH transcription factor DIMM, a known neuroendocrine (NE) regulator...
  9. Hamanaka Y, Park D, Yin P, Annangudi S, Edwards T, Sweedler J, et al. Transcriptional orchestration of the regulated secretory pathway in neurons by the bHLH protein DIMM. Curr Biol. 2010;20:9-18 pubmed publisher
    The Drosophila basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) gene dimmed (dimm) promotes a neurosecretory/neuroendocrine phenotype in cells but is not associated with specific neuropeptides or neurohormones...
  10. Luo J, Liu Y, Nassel D. Insulin/IGF-regulated size scaling of neuroendocrine cells expressing the bHLH transcription factor Dimmed in Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1004052 pubmed publisher
    ..demonstrate that the cell size is affected only in neuroendocrine cells specified by the bHLH transcription factor DIMMED (DIMM)...
  11. Luan H, Lemon W, Peabody N, Pohl J, Zelensky P, Wang D, et al. Functional dissection of a neuronal network required for cuticle tanning and wing expansion in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2006;26:573-84 pubmed
    ..The first group, which we call NCCAP-c929, includes 14 bursicon-expressing neurons of the abdominal ganglion that lie within the expression pattern of the ..
  12. Park D, Taghert P. Peptidergic neurosecretory cells in insects: organization and control by the bHLH protein DIMMED. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2009;162:2-7 pubmed publisher
    This review considers evidence that defines a role for the transcription factor DIMMED in the regulation of insect neurosecretory cells...
  13. Bulgari D, Zhou C, Hewes R, Deitcher D, Levitan E. Vesicle capture, not delivery, scales up neuropeptide storage in neuroendocrine terminals. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:3597-601 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, expression of the Dimmed transcription factor in cotransmitting neurons increases presynaptic DCV capture...
  14. Eade K, Fancher H, Ridyard M, Allan D. Developmental transcriptional networks are required to maintain neuronal subtype identity in the mature nervous system. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002501 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings have implications for understanding the maintenance of all long-lived cell types and the functional degeneration of neurons in the aging brain. ..
  15. Kahsai L, Kapan N, Dircksen H, Winther A, Nassel D. Metabolic stress responses in Drosophila are modulated by brain neurosecretory cells that produce multiple neuropeptides. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11480 pubmed publisher
    ..were detected by immunocytochemistry in combination with GFP expression driven by the enhancer trap Gal4 lines c929 and Kurs-6, both of which are expressed in ipc-1 and 2a cells...
  16. Suska A, Miguel Aliaga I, Thor S. Segment-specific generation of Drosophila Capability neuropeptide neurons by multi-faceted Hox cues. Dev Biol. 2011;353:72-80 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, in thoracic segments, Antennapedia suppresses the Va cell fate. Thus, Hox genes act in a multi-faceted manner to control the segment-specific appearance of the Va neuropeptide neurons in the ventral nerve cord. ..
  17. Kunst M, Hughes M, Raccuglia D, Felix M, Li M, Barnett G, et al. Calcitonin gene-related peptide neurons mediate sleep-specific circadian output in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2014;24:2652-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that outputs of the clock controlling sleep and locomotor rhythms are mediated via distinct neuronal pathways. ..
  18. Hadžić T, Park D, Abruzzi K, Yang L, Trigg J, Rohs R, et al. Genome-wide features of neuroendocrine regulation in Drosophila by the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor DIMMED. Nucleic Acids Res. 2015;43:2199-215 pubmed publisher
    ..The dimmed (DIMM) basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor of Drosophila controls the level of regulated secretory ..
  19. Berndt A, Tang J, Ridyard M, Lian T, Keatings K, Allan D. Gene Regulatory Mechanisms Underlying the Spatial and Temporal Regulation of Target-Dependent Gene Expression in Drosophila Neurons. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005754 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the target-dependent FMRFa gene is repressed prior to target contact, and that target-derived BMP signaling directly activates FMRFa gene expression through an atypical gene regulatory mechanism. ..
  20. Davis S, Thomas A, Nomie K, Huang L, Dierick H. Tailless and Atrophin control Drosophila aggression by regulating neuropeptide signalling in the pars intercerebralis. Nat Commun. 2014;5:3177 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results suggest that a transcriptional control module regulates neuropeptide signalling from the neurosecretory cells of the brain to control aggressive behaviour. ..
  21. Laneve P, Delaporte C, Trebuchet G, Komonyi O, Flici H, Popkova A, et al. The Gcm/Glide molecular and cellular pathway: new actors and new lineages. Dev Biol. 2013;375:65-78 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to emphasizing the importance of following the distribution and the activity of endogenous proteins in vivo, this study provides new insights and a novel frame to understand the Gcm/Glide biology. ..
  22. Jayakumar S, Richhariya S, Reddy O, Texada M, Hasan G. Drosophila larval to pupal switch under nutrient stress requires IP3R/Ca(2+) signalling in glutamatergic interneurons. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    ..Activity in this circuit is thus likely to be an adaptation that provides a layer of regulation to help surpass nutritional stress during development. ..
  23. Kula Eversole E, Nagoshi E, Shang Y, Rodriguez J, Allada R, Rosbash M. Surprising gene expression patterns within and between PDF-containing circadian neurons in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:13497-502 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that RNA cycling is much more prominent in circadian neurons than elsewhere in heads and may be particularly important for the functioning of these neurons. ..
  24. Kahsai L, Winther A. Chemical neuroanatomy of the Drosophila central complex: distribution of multiple neuropeptides in relation to neurotransmitters. J Comp Neurol. 2011;519:290-315 pubmed publisher
  25. Losada Pérez M, Gabilondo H, del Saz D, Baumgardt M, Molina I, Leon Y, et al. Lineage-unrelated neurons generated in different temporal windows and expressing different combinatorial codes can converge in the activation of the same terminal differentiation gene. Mech Dev. 2010;127:458-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, these results imply that the activation of a particular terminal differentiation gene in temporally unrestricted. ..
  26. Park D, Hou X, Sweedler J, Taghert P. Therapeutic peptide production in Drosophila. Peptides. 2012;36:251-6 pubmed publisher
  27. Morton D, Stewart J, Langlais K, Clemens Grisham R, Vermehren A. Synaptic transmission in neurons that express the Drosophila atypical soluble guanylyl cyclases, Gyc-89Da and Gyc-89Db, is necessary for the successful completion of larval and adult ecdysis. J Exp Biol. 2008;211:1645-56 pubmed publisher
    ..By using the conditional expression of tetanus toxin we were also able to demonstrate that synaptic activity in the Gyc-89Da and Gyc-89Db neurons is required during early adult development for adult eclosion. ..
  28. Manning A, Peters K, Peifer M, Rogers S. Regulation of epithelial morphogenesis by the G protein-coupled receptor mist and its ligand fog. Sci Signal. 2013;6:ra98 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data revealed how a cell fate transcriptional program acts through a ligand-GPCR pair to stimulate epithelial morphogenetic shape changes. ..
  29. Shafer O, Taghert P. RNA-interference knockdown of Drosophila pigment dispersing factor in neuronal subsets: the anatomical basis of a neuropeptide's circadian functions. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8298 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal the neuroanatomical basis PDF's various circadian functions and refine our understanding of the clock neuron circuitry of Drosophila. ..
  30. Moore A, Barbel S, Jan L, Jan Y. A genomewide survey of basic helix-loop-helix factors in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:10436-41 pubmed
    ..mRNA in situ analysis demonstrates that the genes encoding these proteins are expressed in several tissue types but are particularly concentrated in the developing nervous system and mesoderm. ..
  31. Peyrefitte S, Kahn D, Haenlin M. New members of the Drosophila Myc transcription factor subfamily revealed by a genome-wide examination for basic helix-loop-helix genes. Mech Dev. 2001;104:99-104 pubmed
    ..Together with previous reports, our data suggest that, similar to networks involved in neurogenesis and myogenesis, the network of Myc-related genes has been globally conserved throughout evolution. ..
  32. Hari P, Deshpande M, Sharma N, Rajadhyaksha N, Ramkumar N, Kimura K, et al. Chip is required for posteclosion behavior in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2008;28:9145-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide the first evidence of transcriptional mechanisms involved in the development of the neuronal circuit that regulates posteclosion behavior in Drosophila. ..
  33. Heckscher E, Long F, Layden M, Chuang C, Manning L, Richart J, et al. Atlas-builder software and the eNeuro atlas: resources for developmental biology and neuroscience. Development. 2014;141:2524-32 pubmed publisher
  34. Losada Pérez M, Gabilondo H, Molina I, Turiegano E, Torroja L, Thor S, et al. Klumpfuss controls FMRFamide expression by enabling BMP signaling within the NB5-6 lineage. Development. 2013;140:2181-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar to WT1, klu seems to have either self-renewal or differentiation-promoting functions, depending on the developmental context. ..
  35. Saleem S, Schwedes C, Ellis L, Grady S, Adams R, Johnson N, et al. Drosophila melanogaster p24 trafficking proteins have vital roles in development and reproduction. Mech Dev. 2012;129:177-91 pubmed publisher
  36. Benito Sipos J, Ulvklo C, Gabilondo H, Baumgardt M, Angel A, Torroja L, et al. Seven up acts as a temporal factor during two different stages of neuroblast 5-6 development. Development. 2011;138:5311-20 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies show that a temporal factor may play dual roles, acting at two different stages during the development of one neural lineage. ..
  37. Jones R. Combinatorial coding for Drosophila neurons. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e51 pubmed publisher
  38. Yew J, Wang Y, Barteneva N, Dikler S, Kutz Naber K, Li L, et al. Analysis of neuropeptide expression and localization in adult drosophila melanogaster central nervous system by affinity cell-capture mass spectrometry. J Proteome Res. 2009;8:1271-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Neuropeptide profiling also was performed on targeted populations of cells which were enriched with immunoaffinity purification using a genetically expressed marker. ..
  39. Bronstein R, Levkovitz L, Yosef N, Yanku M, Ruppin E, Sharan R, et al. Transcriptional regulation by CHIP/LDB complexes. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1001063 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the combinatorial nature of transcription complexes as presented here is crucial to the study of transcription regulation of gene batteries required for development. ..