Gene Symbol: Diap2
Description: Death-associated inhibitor of apoptosis 2
Alias: CG8293, D-IAP2, D-iap2, DIAP, DIAP-2, DIAP2, DIAPII, DIHA, Diap, Diap-2, Diha, Dmel\CG8293, IAP, IAP2, Iap2, Ilp, dIAP, dIAP2, dILP, diap2, Death-associated inhibitor of apoptosis 2, CG8293-PA, CG8293-PB, Diap2-PA, Diap2-PB, IAP-like protein, drosophila inhibitor of apoptosis 2, drosophila melanogaster inhibitor of apoptosis 2, inhibitor of apoptosis 2, inhibitor of apoptosis protein 2
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Kanuka H, Hisahara S, Sawamoto K, Shoji S, Okano H, Miura M. Proapoptotic activity of Caenorhabditis elegans CED-4 protein in Drosophila: implicated mechanisms for caspase activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:145-50 pubmed
    ..Thus, CED-4 function is evolutionarily conserved in Drosophila, and the molecular mechanisms by which CED-4 activates caspases might require ATP binding and direct interaction with the caspases. ..
  2. Doumanis J, Quinn L, Richardson H, Kumar S. STRICA, a novel Drosophila melanogaster caspase with an unusual serine/threonine-rich prodomain, interacts with DIAP1 and DIAP2. Cell Death Differ. 2001;8:387-94 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, unlike other fly caspases, STRICA showed physical association with DIAP2, in cotransfection experiments. These results suggest that STRICA may have a unique cellular function.
  3. Gesellchen V, Kuttenkeuler D, Steckel M, Pelte N, Boutros M. An RNA interference screen identifies Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein 2 as a regulator of innate immune signalling in Drosophila. EMBO Rep. 2005;6:979-84 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, the screen identified the Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein 2 (IAP 2) as being required for IMD signalling...
  4. Tenev T, Zachariou A, Wilson R, Paul A, Meier P. Jafrac2 is an IAP antagonist that promotes cell death by liberating Dronc from DIAP1. EMBO J. 2002;21:5118-29 pubmed
    Members of the Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein (IAP) family are essential for cell survival in Drosophila and appear to neutralize the cell death machinery by binding to and ubiquitylating pro-apoptotic caspases...
  5. Igaki T, Kanuka H, Inohara N, Sawamoto K, Nunez G, Okano H, et al. Drob-1, a Drosophila member of the Bcl-2/CED-9 family that promotes cell death. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:662-7 pubmed
    ..Our identification of Drob-1 and further genetic analysis should provide increased understanding of the universal mechanisms by which the Bcl-2/CED-9 family members and other related proteins regulate apoptosis. ..
  6. Hawkins C, Ekert P, Uren A, Holmgreen S, Vaux D. Anti-apoptotic potential of insect cellular and viral IAPs in mammalian cells. Cell Death Differ. 1998;5:569-76 pubmed
    ..apoptotic mechanism, but as none of these IAPs could bind TRAF proteins, TRAFs are not likely to be important for IAP mediated apoptosis inhibition...
  7. Xu D, Woodfield S, Lee T, Fan Y, Antonio C, Bergmann A. Genetic control of programmed cell death (apoptosis) in Drosophila. Fly (Austin). 2009;3:78-90 pubmed
    ..Here, we review the key players of the cell death pathway in Drosophila and discuss their roles in apoptotic and non-apoptotic processes. ..
  8. Kaiser W, Vucic D, Miller L. The Drosophila inhibitor of apoptosis D-IAP1 suppresses cell death induced by the caspase drICE. FEBS Lett. 1998;440:243-8 pubmed
    ..Drosophila IAPs (D-IAP1 and D-IAP2) and a baculovirus-derived IAP, Op-IAP, physically interact with and inhibit the anti-apoptotic activity of Reaper, ..
  9. Paquette N, Broemer M, Aggarwal K, Chen L, Husson M, Erturk Hasdemir D, et al. Caspase-mediated cleavage, IAP binding, and ubiquitination: linking three mechanisms crucial for Drosophila NF-kappaB signaling. Mol Cell. 2010;37:172-82 pubmed publisher
    ..A functional IBM is required for the association of cleaved IMD with the ubiquitin E3-ligase DIAP2. Through its association with DIAP2, IMD is rapidly conjugated with K63-linked polyubiquitin chains...

More Information


  1. Yan N, Wu J, Chai J, Li W, Shi Y. Molecular mechanisms of DrICE inhibition by DIAP1 and removal of inhibition by Reaper, Hid and Grim. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2004;11:420-8 pubmed
    ..Crystal structures of BIR1 bound to the RHG peptides show that the RHG proteins use their N-terminal IAP-binding motifs to bind to the same surface groove, hence relieving DIAP1-mediated inhibition of DrICE...
  2. Leulier F, Lhocine N, Lemaitre B, Meier P. The Drosophila inhibitor of apoptosis protein DIAP2 functions in innate immunity and is essential to resist gram-negative bacterial infection. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:7821-31 pubmed
    ..To investigate the in vivo function of Drosophila melanogaster IAP2, we have generated diap2 null alleles...
  3. Duckett C, Nava V, Gedrich R, Clem R, van Dongen J, Gilfillan M, et al. A conserved family of cellular genes related to the baculovirus iap gene and encoding apoptosis inhibitors. EMBO J. 1996;15:2685-94 pubmed
    ..Consistent with this hypothesis, we have isolated Drosophila and human genes which encode IAP-like proteins (dILP and hILP)...
  4. Kanuka H, Sawamoto K, Inohara N, Matsuno K, Okano H, Miura M. Control of the cell death pathway by Dapaf-1, a Drosophila Apaf-1/CED-4-related caspase activator. Mol Cell. 1999;4:757-69 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that Dapaf-1/cytochrome c-dependent cell death-inducing machinery is present in Drosophila, and the requirement of Dapaf-1/Apaf-1 in neural cell death is conserved through evolution. ..
  5. Bergmann A, Agapite J, Steller H. Mechanisms and control of programmed cell death in invertebrates. Oncogene. 1998;17:3215-23 pubmed
    ..This review summarizes some of the key findings in this area, but also touches on some of the many unresolved questions and challenges that remain. ..
  6. Vucic D, Kaiser W, Harvey A, Miller L. Inhibition of reaper-induced apoptosis by interaction with inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:10183-8 pubmed
    ..IAPs physically interact with an apoptosis-inducing protein of Drosophila, Reaper (RPR), through their baculovirus IAP repeat (BIR) region...
  7. Vucic D, Kaiser W, Miller L. Inhibitor of apoptosis proteins physically interact with and block apoptosis induced by Drosophila proteins HID and GRIM. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:3300-9 pubmed
    ..of RPR in the lepidopteran SF-21 cell line induces apoptosis and that members of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family of antiapoptotic proteins can inhibit RPR-induced apoptosis and physically interact with RPR through their ..
  8. Deveraux Q, Reed J. IAP family proteins--suppressors of apoptosis. Genes Dev. 1999;13:239-52 pubmed
  9. Zachariou A, Tenev T, Goyal L, Agapite J, Steller H, Meier P. IAP-antagonists exhibit non-redundant modes of action through differential DIAP1 binding. EMBO J. 2003;22:6642-52 pubmed
    ..In cells destined to die this IAP-mediated inhibition of caspases is overcome by IAP-antagonists...
  10. Hawkins C, Yoo S, Peterson E, Wang S, Vernooy S, Hay B. The Drosophila caspase DRONC cleaves following glutamate or aspartate and is regulated by DIAP1, HID, and GRIM. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:27084-93 pubmed
    ..However, DRONC activity is not suppressed by the caspase inhibitor and cell death suppressor baculovirus p35. We discuss possible models for DRONC function as a cell death inhibitor. ..
  11. Jiang C, Baehrecke E, Thummel C. Steroid regulated programmed cell death during Drosophila metamorphosis. Development. 1997;124:4673-83 pubmed
    ..In addition, the diap2 anti-cell death gene is repressed in larval salivary glands as rpr and hid are induced, suggesting that the death ..
  12. Ikeya T, Galic M, Belawat P, Nairz K, Hafen E. Nutrient-dependent expression of insulin-like peptides from neuroendocrine cells in the CNS contributes to growth regulation in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2002;12:1293-300 pubmed
    ..Three of the dilp genes are expressed in seven median neurosecretory cells (m-NSCs) in the brain...
  13. Lhocine N, Ribeiro P, Buchon N, Wepf A, Wilson R, Tenev T, et al. PIMS modulates immune tolerance by negatively regulating Drosophila innate immune signaling. Cell Host Microbe. 2008;4:147-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, PIMS is required to establish immune tolerance to commensal bacteria and to maintain a balanced Imd response following exposure to bacterial infections. ..
  14. Leulier F, Ribeiro P, Palmer E, Tenev T, Takahashi K, Robertson D, et al. Systematic in vivo RNAi analysis of putative components of the Drosophila cell death machinery. Cell Death Differ. 2006;13:1663-74 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we found that overexpression of DIAP2 can rescue diap1-RNAi-mediated apoptosis, suggesting that DIAP2 regulates caspases directly...
  15. Meinander A, Runchel C, Tenev T, Chen L, Kim C, Ribeiro P, et al. Ubiquitylation of the initiator caspase DREDD is required for innate immune signalling. EMBO J. 2012;31:2770-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that stimulation of the Drosophila pattern recognition protein PGRP-LCx induces DIAP2-dependent polyubiquitylation of the initiator caspase DREDD...
  16. Colussi P, Quinn L, Huang D, Coombe M, Read S, Richardson H, et al. Debcl, a proapoptotic Bcl-2 homologue, is a component of the Drosophila melanogaster cell death machinery. J Cell Biol. 2000;148:703-14 pubmed
    ..RNA interference studies indicate that Debcl is required for developmental apoptosis in Drosophila embryos. These results suggest that the main components of the mammalian apoptosis machinery are conserved in insects. ..
  17. Huh J, Foe I, Muro I, Chen C, Seol J, Yoo S, et al. The Drosophila inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) DIAP2 is dispensable for cell survival, required for the innate immune response to gram-negative bacterial infection, and can be negatively regulated by the reaper/hid/grim family of IAP-binding apoptosis i. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:2056-68 pubmed
    ..A second Drosophila IAP, DIAP2, also binds Rpr and Hid and inhibits apoptosis in multiple contexts when overexpressed...
  18. Zimmermann K, Ricci J, Droin N, Green D. The role of ARK in stress-induced apoptosis in Drosophila cells. J Cell Biol. 2002;156:1077-87 pubmed
    ..Reduction of DIAP1 induced rapid apoptosis in these cells, whereas the inhibition of DIAP2 expression did not but resulted in increased sensitivity to stress-induced apoptosis; apoptosis in both cases was ..
  19. White K. Cell death: drosophila Apaf-1 - no longer in the (d)Ark. Curr Biol. 2000;10:R167-9 pubmed
    ..The new findings also suggest that cell death in flies is very similar to that in mammals after all. ..
  20. Miller L. An exegesis of IAPs: salvation and surprises from BIR motifs. Trends Cell Biol. 1999;9:323-8 pubmed
    The BIR (baculovirus IAP repeat) motif is a conserved sequence of approximately 70 amino acids that was identified originally in the 'inhibitor of apoptosis' (IAP) family of proteins...
  21. Uren A, Pakusch M, Hawkins C, Puls K, Vaux D. Cloning and expression of apoptosis inhibitory protein homologs that function to inhibit apoptosis and/or bind tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:4974-8 pubmed
    ..Here we describe three mammalian homologs of IAP, MIHA, MIHB, and MIHC, and a Drosophila IAP homolog, DIHA. Each protein bears three baculovirus IAP repeats and an N-terminal ring finger motif...
  22. Foley K, Cooley L. Apoptosis in late stage Drosophila nurse cells does not require genes within the H99 deficiency. Development. 1998;125:1075-82 pubmed
    ..regulators, reaper (rpr), head involution defective (hid) and grim, as well as the negative regulators, DIAP1 and DIAP2, are transcribed during oogenesis...
  23. Abrams J. An emerging blueprint for apoptosis in Drosophila. Trends Cell Biol. 1999;9:435-40 pubmed
    ..This animal model promises continued insights into the determinants of cell death in 'naturally occurring' and pathological contexts. ..
  24. Jiang C, Lamblin A, Steller H, Thummel C. A steroid-triggered transcriptional hierarchy controls salivary gland cell death during Drosophila metamorphosis. Mol Cell. 2000;5:445-55 pubmed
    ..This response is preceded by an ecdysone-triggered switch in gene expression in which the diap2 death inhibitor is repressed and the reaper (rpr) and head involution defective (hid) death activators are induced...
  25. Hay B, Wassarman D, Rubin G. Drosophila homologs of baculovirus inhibitor of apoptosis proteins function to block cell death. Cell. 1995;83:1253-62 pubmed
    ..Overexpression of DIAP1 or a related protein, DIAP2, in the eye suppresses normally occurring cell death as well as death due to overexpression of rpr or head ..
  26. Liston P, Roy N, Tamai K, Lefebvre C, Baird S, Cherton Horvat G, et al. Suppression of apoptosis in mammalian cells by NAIP and a related family of IAP genes. Nature. 1996;379:349-53 pubmed
    ..This gene is homologous to two baculovirus inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (Cp-IAP and Op-IAP) and is partly deleted in individuals with type I SMA...
  27. Nagai R, Hashimoto R, Tanaka Y, Taguchi O, Sato M, Matsukage A, et al. Syntrophin-2 is required for eye development in Drosophila. Exp Cell Res. 2010;316:272-85 pubmed publisher
    ..This information should facilitate identification of Syn2 regulators in Drosophila and clarification of roles of Syn2 in eye development. ..
  28. Tittel J, Steller H. A comparison of programmed cell death between species. Genome Biol. 2000;1:REVIEWS0003 pubmed
    ..The search for additional homologs has been facilitated by the availability of the entire genomic sequence for each of these organisms. ..
  29. Hirose F, Ohshima N, Shiraki M, Inoue Y, Taguchi O, Nishi Y, et al. Ectopic expression of DREF induces DNA synthesis, apoptosis, and unusual morphogenesis in the Drosophila eye imaginal disc: possible interaction with Polycomb and trithorax group proteins. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:7231-42 pubmed
    ..These deletions should be useful to identify novel targets of DREF and its positive or negative regulators. ..
  30. Harvey A, Soliman H, Kaiser W, Miller L. Anti- and pro-apoptotic activities of baculovirus and Drosophila IAPs in an insect cell line. Cell Death Differ. 1997;4:733-44 pubmed
    ..of two baculovirus IAPs, OpIAP and CpIAP, were directly compared with that of two Drosophila IAPs, DIAP1 and DIAP2, in the same insect cell line, SF-21 cells...
  31. Guntermann S, Fraser B, Hazes B, Foley E. Independent Proteolytic Activities Control the Stability and Size of Drosophila Inhibitor of Apoptosis 2 Protein. J Innate Immun. 2015;7:518-29 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we examined the molecular basis for inhibitor of apoptosis 2 protein regulation in the immune deficiency pathway...
  32. Di Fruscio M, Styhler S, Wikholm E, Boulanger M, Lasko P, Richard S. Kep1 interacts genetically with dredd/caspase-8, and kep1 mutants alter the balance of dredd isoforms. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:1814-9 pubmed
    ..We observed increased levels of the beta isoform of dredd mRNA in kep1 mutants as compared with wild-type. Taken together, our results suggest that Kep1 regulates apoptosis by influencing the processing of dredd RNA. ..
  33. Aparicio R, Neyen C, Lemaitre B, Busturia A. dRYBP contributes to the negative regulation of the Drosophila Imd pathway. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e62052 pubmed publisher
    ..Beyond the identification of dRYBP as a novel component of Imd pathway regulation, our results also suggest that the evolutionarily conserved RYBP protein may be involved in the human innate immune response. ..
  34. Harvey N, Daish T, Mills K, Dorstyn L, Quinn L, Read S, et al. Characterization of the Drosophila caspase, DAMM. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:25342-50 pubmed
  35. Massague J, Chen Y. Controlling TGF-beta signaling. Genes Dev. 2000;14:627-44 pubmed
  36. Ribeiro P, Kuranaga E, Tenev T, Leulier F, Miura M, Meier P. DIAP2 functions as a mechanism-based regulator of drICE that contributes to the caspase activity threshold in living cells. J Cell Biol. 2007;179:1467-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that Drosophila melanogaster inhibitor of apoptosis protein 2 (DIAP2) controls the level of caspase activity in living cells...
  37. Zapata J, Matsuzawa S, Godzik A, Leo E, Wasserman S, Reed J. The Drosophila tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor-1 (DTRAF1) interacts with Pelle and regulates NFkappaB activity. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:12102-7 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, DTRAF1 interacts with human cIAP-1 and cIAP-2 but not with Drosophila DIAP-1 and -2...
  38. Lee C, Baehrecke E. Steroid regulation of autophagic programmed cell death during development. Development. 2001;128:1443-55 pubmed
    ..In contrast, E93 expression is sufficient to induce the removal of cells by phagocytes in the absence of the H99 genes. These studies indicate that apoptosis and autophagy utilize some common regulatory mechanisms. ..
  39. Meier P, Finch A, Evan G. Apoptosis in development. Nature. 2000;407:796-801 pubmed
    ..Dysfunctions in the regulation or execution of cell suicide are implicated in a wide range of developmental abnormalities and diseases. ..
  40. Nakayama T, Cui Y, Christian J. Regulation of BMP/Dpp signaling during embryonic development. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2000;57:943-56 pubmed
    ..Recent studies have shown that the BMP signal transduction cascade can be modulated at every step of this process. ..
  41. Wu L, Silverman N. Fighting infection fly-style. Fly (Austin). 2007;1:106-9 pubmed
  42. Valanne S, Kleino A, Myllymäki H, Vuoristo J, Ramet M. Iap2 is required for a sustained response in the Drosophila Imd pathway. Dev Comp Immunol. 2007;31:991-1001 pubmed
    ..Recently, Tak1-binding protein 2 (Tab2) and Inhibitor of apoptosis 2 (Iap2) were identified as components of the Imd pathway...
  43. Oeda E, Oka Y, Miyazono K, Kawabata M. Interaction of Drosophila inhibitors of apoptosis with thick veins, a type I serine/threonine kinase receptor for decapentaplegic. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:9353-6 pubmed
    ..DIAP1 associates with Tkv in vivo. The binding region in DIAP1 is mapped to its C-terminal RING finger region. DIAP2, another Drosophila member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein family, also interacts with Tkv in vivo...
  44. Pecasse F, Beck Y, Ruiz C, Richards G. Krüppel-homolog, a stage-specific modulator of the prepupal ecdysone response, is essential for Drosophila metamorphosis. Dev Biol. 2000;221:53-67 pubmed
    ..Our studies on the corresponding gene, named Krüppel-homolog (Kr-h), add to a growing body of evidence that specific isoforms of a number of key genes are implicated in both embryogenesis and metamorphosis. ..
  45. Otsuki K, Hayashi Y, Kato M, Yoshida H, Yamaguchi M. Characterization of dRFX2, a novel RFX family protein in Drosophila. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:5636-48 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that dRFX2 plays a role in G1-S transition and/or in progression of S phase. ..
  46. Kramer J, Davidge J, Lockyer J, Staveley B. Expression of Drosophila FOXO regulates growth and can phenocopy starvation. BMC Dev Biol. 2003;3:5 pubmed
    ..This work has implications in the understanding of cancer and insulin related disorders, such as diabetes and obesity. ..
  47. Verma P, Tapadia M. Epithelial immune response in Drosophila malpighian tubules: interplay between Diap2 and ion channels. J Cell Physiol. 2014;229:1078-95 pubmed publisher
    Systemic immune response via the Immune deficiency pathway requires Drosophila inhibitor of apoptosis protein 2 to activate the NF-?B transcription factor Relish...
  48. Meier P, Evan G. Dying like flies. Cell. 1998;95:295-8 pubmed
  49. Erturk Hasdemir D, Broemer M, Leulier F, Lane W, Paquette N, Hwang D, et al. Two roles for the Drosophila IKK complex in the activation of Relish and the induction of antimicrobial peptide genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:9779-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Instead they are critical for recruitment of RNA polymerase II and antimicrobial peptide gene induction, whereas IKK functions noncatalytically to support Dredd-mediated cleavage of Relish. ..
  50. Holcik M. Drosophila veto puts a stop to cell survival. Trends Cell Biol. 2002;12:213 pubmed
  51. Rallis A, Lu B, Ng J. Molecular chaperones protect against JNK- and Nmnat-regulated axon degeneration in Drosophila. J Cell Sci. 2013;126:838-49 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that molecular chaperones are key in JNK- and Nmnat-regulated axonal protective functions. ..
  52. Yin V, Thummel C. A balance between the diap1 death inhibitor and reaper and hid death inducers controls steroid-triggered cell death in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:8022-7 pubmed
  53. Khan F, Fujioka M, Datta P, Fernandes Alnemri T, Jaynes J, Alnemri E. The interaction of DIAP1 with dOmi/HtrA2 regulates cell death in Drosophila. Cell Death Differ. 2008;15:1073-83 pubmed publisher
    ..dOmi-L contains a canonical N-terminal IAP-binding motif (AVVS), whereas dOmi-S contains a distinct N-terminal motif (SKMT)...
  54. Vucic D, Seshagiri S, Miller L. Characterization of reaper- and FADD-induced apoptosis in a lepidopteran cell line. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:667-76 pubmed
    ..Inhibitors of ICE-family proteases p35 and crmA, as well as members of the iap class of genes, Op-iap and D-iap2, but not bcl-2 family members, blocked rpr-induced apoptosis...
  55. Kanuka H, Kuranaga E, Takemoto K, Hiratou T, Okano H, Miura M. Drosophila caspase transduces Shaggy/GSK-3beta kinase activity in neural precursor development. EMBO J. 2005;24:3793-806 pubmed
    ..These results imply a novel role for caspases in modulating cell signaling pathways through substrate cleavage in neural precursor development...
  56. Reed J, Bischoff J. BIRinging chromosomes through cell division--and survivin' the experience. Cell. 2000;102:545-8 pubmed
  57. Jackson G, Wiedau Pazos M, Sang T, Wagle N, Brown C, Massachi S, et al. Human wild-type tau interacts with wingless pathway components and produces neurofibrillary pathology in Drosophila. Neuron. 2002;34:509-19 pubmed
    ..The genetic system we have established provides a powerful reagent for identification of novel modifiers of tau-induced neurodegeneration that may serve as future therapeutic targets. ..
  58. Vandenabeele P, Bertrand M. The role of the IAP E3 ubiquitin ligases in regulating pattern-recognition receptor signalling. Nat Rev Immunol. 2012;12:833-44 pubmed publisher
    ..In this Review, we discuss the findings implicating members of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family in the ubiquitylation-dependent regulation of PRR signalling...
  59. Grewal S. Controlling animal growth and body size - does fruit fly physiology point the way?. F1000 Biol Rep. 2012;4:12 pubmed publisher
    ..While this concept is obviously not new, these fly studies now open up the possibility of using a genetically tractable system to dissect in detail how organ-to-organ communication dictates body size. ..
  60. Wing J, Schwartz L, Nambu J. The RHG motifs of Drosophila Reaper and Grim are important for their distinct cell death-inducing abilities. Mech Dev. 2001;102:193-203 pubmed
    ..unlike Grim, R/Grim, or G/Reaper, its actions were not efficiently blocked by the cell death inhibitors, Diap1, Diap2, p35, or a dominant/negative Dronc caspase...
  61. Resnik Docampo M, de Celis J. MAP4K3 is a component of the TORC1 signalling complex that modulates cell growth and viability in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e14528 pubmed publisher
  62. Quinn L, Dorstyn L, Mills K, Colussi P, Chen P, Coombe M, et al. An essential role for the caspase dronc in developmentally programmed cell death in Drosophila. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:40416-24 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Dronc is a key caspase mediating programmed cell death in Drosophila. ..
  63. Geisbrecht E, Montell D. A role for Drosophila IAP1-mediated caspase inhibition in Rac-dependent cell migration. Cell. 2004;118:111-25 pubmed
    ..These results indicate an apoptosis-independent role for DIAP1-mediated Dronc inhibition in Rac-mediated cell motility. ..
  64. Kumar S. Cell death in the fly comes of age. Cell Death Differ. 2000;7:1021-4 pubmed
  65. Ziraldo R, Ma L. A mathematical model for apoptotic switch in Drosophila. Phys Biol. 2015;12:056003 pubmed publisher
    ..Using theoretical modeling, our study proposes plausible evolution of the switch mechanism for apoptosis between organisms. ..
  66. Bischoff M. Lamellipodia-based migrations of larval epithelial cells are required for normal closure of the adult epidermis of Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2012;363:179-90 pubmed publisher
    ..It furthermore provides insights into how the migratory behaviour of cells is regulated during morphogenesis. ..
  67. Dotto G, Silke J. More than cell death: caspases and caspase inhibitors on the move. Dev Cell. 2004;7:2-3 pubmed
    ..It is becoming clear that "apoptotic" caspases can effect cellular processes other than cell death. A recent paper in Cell points to a novel role of the Drosophila caspase inhibitor DIAP1 as a determinant of cell migration. ..