Gene Symbol: Dfd
Description: Deformed
Alias: BG:DS00276.5, CG2189, DFD, DmDfd, Dmel\CG2189, EbR11, dfd, l(3)84Ae, deformed, CG2189-PA, Dfd-PA
Species: fruit fly
Products:     Dfd

Top Publications

  1. Kuziora M. Abdominal-B protein isoforms exhibit distinct cuticular transformations and regulatory activities when ectopically expressed in Drosophila embryos. Mech Dev. 1993;42:125-37 pubmed
    ..A structural and functional comparison of the ABD-B proteins and a chimeric DFD/ABD-B protein reaffirms that target specificity is largely determined by the homeodomain region and suggests ..
  2. Merrill V, Turner F, Kaufman T. A genetic and developmental analysis of mutations in the Deformed locus in Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 1987;122:379-95 pubmed
    Individuals expressing recessive mutations in the Deformed (Dfd) locus of Drosophila melanogaster were examined for embryonic and adult defects...
  3. Zhao J, Lazzarini R, Pick L. The mouse Hox-1.3 gene is functionally equivalent to the Drosophila Sex combs reduced gene. Genes Dev. 1993;7:343-54 pubmed
    ..3. The results suggest that mouse Hox-1.3 cannot only substitute functionally for Drosophila Scr in the determination of external structures but also can participate in the regulatory hierarchy of insect organogenesis. ..
  4. Schock F, Reischl J, Wimmer E, Taubert H, Purnell B, Jackle H. Phenotypic suppression of empty spiracles is prevented by buttonhead. Nature. 2000;405:351-4 pubmed
    ..The data indicate that this interaction may allow ems to escape from the bottom of the HOX-cluster gene hierarchy and cause a dominant switch of homeotic prevalence in the anterior-posterior direction. ..
  5. Malicki J, Bogarad L, Martin M, Ruddle F, McGinnis W. Functional analysis of the mouse homeobox gene HoxB9 in Drosophila development. Mech Dev. 1993;42:139-50 pubmed
    ..2), suggesting that HoxB9 specifies a positional identity that is intermediate between Antennapedia and Abdominal-B. ..
  6. Grieder N, Marty T, Ryoo H, Mann R, Affolter M. Synergistic activation of a Drosophila enhancer by HOM/EXD and DPP signaling. EMBO J. 1997;16:7402-10 pubmed
    ..Our results illustrate how a tissue-specific response to DPP can be generated through synergistic effects on an enhancer carrying both DPP- and HOX-responsive sequences. ..
  7. Chan S, Ryoo H, Gould A, Krumlauf R, Mann R. Switching the in vivo specificity of a minimal Hox-responsive element. Development. 1997;124:2007-14 pubmed
    ..change in a Hox-PBC binding site switches the Hox-dependent expression pattern generated in vivo, from labial to Deformed. The change in vivo correlates with an altered Hox binding specificity in vitro...
  8. Bergson C, McGinnis W. An autoregulatory enhancer element of the Drosophila homeotic gene Deformed. EMBO J. 1990;9:4287-97 pubmed
    ..One mechanism that has been proposed to explain the persistent expression of the homeotic gene Deformed is an autoactivation circuit that would be used once Deformed expression had been established by earlier acting ..
  9. Botas J. Control of morphogenesis and differentiation by HOM/Hox genes. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1993;5:1015-22 pubmed
    ..Some of the genes they regulate and that mediate specific identify functions have been identified. Research in Drosophila has shown that HOM genes are continuously required during development for correct axial identity. ..

More Information


  1. Duboule D. The rise and fall of Hox gene clusters. Development. 2007;134:2549-60 pubmed
    ..By integrating these parameters, general conclusions emerge that can help solve the aforementioned dilemma. ..
  2. Slattery M, Riley T, Liu P, Abe N, Gomez Alcala P, Dror I, et al. Cofactor binding evokes latent differences in DNA binding specificity between Hox proteins. Cell. 2011;147:1270-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data suggest that emergent DNA recognition properties revealed by interactions with cofactors contribute to transcription factor specificities in vivo. ..
  3. Eulenberg K, Schuh R. The tracheae defective gene encodes a bZIP protein that controls tracheal cell movement during Drosophila embryogenesis. EMBO J. 1997;16:7156-65 pubmed
    ..We propose that the bZIP protein TDF functions as a co-regulator of target genes that provide cells with the ability to migrate. ..
  4. Kosman D, Mizutani C, Lemons D, Cox W, McGinnis W, Bier E. Multiplex detection of RNA expression in Drosophila embryos. Science. 2004;305:846 pubmed
  5. Hunter C, Kenyon C. Specification of anteroposterior cell fates in Caenorhabditis elegans by Drosophila Hox proteins. Nature. 1995;377:229-32 pubmed
    ..Together these findings suggest that factors important for target recognition by specific Hox proteins have been conserved throughout much of the animal kingdom. ..
  6. Dalton D, Chadwick R, McGinnis W. Expression and embryonic function of empty spiracles: a Drosophila homeo box gene with two patterning functions on the anterior-posterior axis of the embryo. Genes Dev. 1989;3:1940-56 pubmed
    ..In contrast, the metameric ems pattern is initiated independently of bicoid protein, and ems becomes expressed at high levels in the primordia of the duplicated fïlzkörper that develop in the anterior half of bicoid mutant embryos. ..
  7. Percival Smith A, Teft W, Barta J. Tarsus determination in Drosophila melanogaster. Genome. 2005;48:712-21 pubmed
    ..iii) Ectopic overexpression of ANTP, Labial (LAB), Deformed (DFD), SCR, Ultrabithorax (UBX), Abdominal-A (ABD-A), or Abdominal-B (ABD-B), using the dppGAL4 driver, resulted ..
  8. McGinnis N, Kuziora M, McGinnis W. Human Hox-4.2 and Drosophila deformed encode similar regulatory specificities in Drosophila embryos and larvae. Cell. 1990;63:969-76 pubmed
    ..complexes, it is possible to define a subgroup that is structurally homologous to the Drosophila homeotic gene Deformed (Dfd)...
  9. Gellon G, Harding K, McGinnis N, Martin M, McGinnis W. A genetic screen for modifiers of Deformed homeotic function identifies novel genes required for head development. Development. 1997;124:3321-31 pubmed
    ..genes, we screened for mutations on loci on the Drosophila second chromosome that interact with the homeotic gene Deformed (Dfd)...
  10. Joshi R, Sun L, Mann R. Dissecting the functional specificities of two Hox proteins. Genes Dev. 2010;24:1533-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we provide evidence that another Drosophila Hox protein, Deformed (Dfd), uses a very similar mechanism to achieve specificity in vivo, thus generalizing this mechanism...
  11. Shu J, Li Y. A statistical fat-tail test of predicting regulatory regions in the Drosophila genome. Comput Biol Med. 2012;42:935-41 pubmed publisher
    ..These two fatness coefficients may serve as valuable filtering indexes to predict CRMs experimentally. ..
  12. Heuer J, Kaufman T. Homeotic genes have specific functional roles in the establishment of the Drosophila embryonic peripheral nervous system. Development. 1992;115:35-47 pubmed
    ..In addition, we also report the effects of ectopic expression of the homeotic genes labial (lab), Deformed (Dfd), Scr, Antp or Ubx on the normal development of sensory organs in the embryonic PNS...
  13. Mahaffey J, Griswold C, Cao Q. The Drosophila genes disconnected and disco-related are redundant with respect to larval head development and accumulation of mRNAs from deformed target genes. Genetics. 2001;157:225-36 pubmed
    ..in an attempt to identify loci potentially encoding cofactors for the protein encoded by the HOM-C gene Deformed (Dfd)...
  14. Lohmann I, McGinnis N, Bodmer M, McGinnis W. The Drosophila Hox gene deformed sculpts head morphology via direct regulation of the apoptosis activator reaper. Cell. 2002;110:457-66 pubmed
    ..We show that during early Drosophila development, the Hox protein Deformed (Dfd) maintains the boundary between the maxillary and mandibular head lobes by activating localized apoptosis...
  15. Pederson J, LaFollette J, Gross C, Veraksa A, McGinnis W, Mahaffey J. Regulation by homeoproteins: a comparison of deformed-responsive elements. Genetics. 2000;156:677-86 pubmed
    ..Here we present evidence that the gene 1.28 is likely to be a direct target of Deformed in the maxillary segment. We identified a 664-bp Deformed Response Element (1...
  16. McGinnis W, Krumlauf R. Homeobox genes and axial patterning. Cell. 1992;68:283-302 pubmed
  17. Lebreton G, Faucher C, Cribbs D, Benassayag C. Timing of Wingless signalling distinguishes maxillary and antennal identities in Drosophila melanogaster. Development. 2008;135:2301-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that a maxillary field, defined by expression of the Hox gene Deformed, is established at about the same time as the eye and antennal fields during the L2 larval stage...
  18. McGinnis W, Jack T, Chadwick R, Regulski M, Bergson C, McGinnis N, et al. Establishment and maintenance of position-specific expression of the Drosophila homeotic selector gene Deformed. Adv Genet. 1990;27:363-402 pubmed
  19. Denell R. Discovery and genetic definition of the Drosophila Antennapedia complex. Genetics. 1994;138:549-52 pubmed
  20. Goodman R, Smolik S. CBP/p300 in cell growth, transformation, and development. Genes Dev. 2000;14:1553-77 pubmed
  21. Jack T, McGinnis W. Establishment of the Deformed expression stripe requires the combinatorial action of coordinate, gap and pair-rule proteins. EMBO J. 1990;9:1187-98 pubmed
    ..of early genes that are required to establish a unique blastoderm stripe of expression of the homeotic gene Deformed, we have analysed single and double patterning mutants and heat shock promoter fusion constructs that ectopically ..
  22. Chouinard S, Kaufman T. Control of expression of the homeotic labial (lab) locus of Drosophila melanogaster: evidence for both positive and negative autogenous regulation. Development. 1991;113:1267-80 pubmed
    ..this aberrant expression pattern is correlated with the abnormal expression of two other homeotic genes, Deformed (Dfd) and Sex combs reduced (Scr) in the eye-antennal disc...
  23. Zhai Z, Stein M, Lohmann I. Expression of the apoptosis gene reaper in homeotic, segmentation and other mutants in Drosophila. Gene Expr Patterns. 2009;9:357-63 pubmed publisher
  24. Stultz B, Park S, Mortin M, Kennison J, Hursh D. Hox proteins coordinate peripodial decapentaplegic expression to direct adult head morphogenesis in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2012;369:362-76 pubmed publisher
    ..of labial and homothorax are required for dpp expression in the peripodial epithelium, while the Hox gene Deformed represses labial in this location, thus limiting its expression and indirectly that of dpp to the lateral side of ..
  25. Telford M. Evidence for the derivation of the Drosophila fushi tarazu gene from a Hox gene orthologous to lophotrochozoan Lox5. Curr Biol. 2000;10:349-52 pubmed
  26. Hayashi S, Scott M. What determines the specificity of action of Drosophila homeodomain proteins?. Cell. 1990;63:883-94 pubmed
  27. Ekker S, von Kessler D, Beachy P. Differential DNA sequence recognition is a determinant of specificity in homeotic gene action. EMBO J. 1992;11:4059-72 pubmed
    ..We show here that the homeodomains encoded by the Ultrabithorax and Deformed homeotic genes bind optimally to distinct DNA sequences and have mapped the determinants responsible for ..
  28. Bienz M. Homeotic genes and positional signalling in the Drosophila viscera. Trends Genet. 1994;10:22-6 pubmed
    ..The homeotic genes that are expressed in the viscera control morphogenesis and differentiation of the larval midgut. ..
  29. Hazelrigg T, Kaufman T. Revertants of Dominant Mutations Associated with the Antennapedia Gene Complex of DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER: Cytology and Genetics. Genetics. 1983;105:581-600 pubmed
    ..include seven revertants of Antennapedia-73b (Antp(73b)), six of Extra Sex Combs of Wakimoto (Scx(w)), three of Deformed (Dfd) and one of Humeral (Hu)...
  30. Hoopengardner B, Helfand S. Temperature compensation and temporal expression mediated by an enhancer element in Drosophila. Mech Dev. 2002;110:27-37 pubmed
    A comparison of the activity of genetic elements from the regulatory region of the Drosophila melanogaster Deformed gene during embryogenesis and adult life reveals important similarities and differences. The 2...
  31. Brown S, Holtzman S, Kaufman T, Denell R. Characterization of the Tribolium Deformed ortholog and its ability to directly regulate Deformed target genes in the rescue of a Drosophila Deformed null mutant. Dev Genes Evol. 1999;209:389-98 pubmed
    We have analyzed the Tribolium castaneum ortholog of the Drosophila homeotic gene Deformed (Dfd) and determined its expression pattern during embryogenesis in this beetle...
  32. Lo P, Skeath J, Gajewski K, Schulz R, Frasch M. Homeotic genes autonomously specify the anteroposterior subdivision of the Drosophila dorsal vessel into aorta and heart. Dev Biol. 2002;251:307-19 pubmed
  33. Johnston L, Schubiger G. Ectopic expression of wingless in imaginal discs interferes with decapentaplegic expression and alters cell determination. Development. 1996;122:3519-29 pubmed
    ..The dose-dependent effects of wg on dpp expression, ventralization of dorsal cells and transdetermination support a model in which wg functions as a morphogen in imaginal discs. ..
  34. Gellon G, McGinnis W. Shaping animal body plans in development and evolution by modulation of Hox expression patterns. Bioessays. 1998;20:116-25 pubmed
  35. Jagla K, Georgel P, Bellard F, Dretzen G, Bellard M. A novel homeobox nkch4 gene from the Drosophila 93E region. Gene. 1993;127:165-71 pubmed
    ..Low levels of nkch4 transcripts were detected during late stages of embryogenesis as well as in third instar larvae and pupae. In late embryos nkch4 is expressed in the developing CNS. ..
  36. Gallitano Mendel A, Finkelstein R. Ectopic orthodenticle expression alters segment polarity gene expression but not head segment identity in the Drosophila embryo. Dev Biol. 1998;199:125-37 pubmed
    ..We show that this effect is associated with otd repression of the homeotic selector gene Deformed (Dfd).
  37. Mahaffey J, Jones D, Hickel J, Griswold C. Identification and characterization of a gene activated by the deformed homeoprotein. Development. 1993;118:203-14 pubmed
    ..Here we identify and characterize one such target gene, a gene activated by the product of the homeotic gene Deformed. DNA binding assays and expression of reporter gene constructs indicate that activation of this gene requires a ..
  38. Ekker S, Jackson D, von Kessler D, Sun B, Young K, Beachy P. The degree of variation in DNA sequence recognition among four Drosophila homeotic proteins. EMBO J. 1994;13:3551-60 pubmed
    ..the Ultrabithorax and Antennapedia homeodomains display indistinguishable preferences outside the core while Deformed differs...
  39. Shu J, Li Y. A statistical thin-tail test of predicting regulatory regions in the Drosophila genome. Theor Biol Med Model. 2013;10:11 pubmed publisher
  40. Roush W. Nobel prizes: fly development work bears prize-winning fruit. Science. 1995;270:380-1 pubmed
  41. Scheuermann J, de Ayala Alonso A, Oktaba K, Ly Hartig N, McGinty R, Fraterman S, et al. Histone H2A deubiquitinase activity of the Polycomb repressive complex PR-DUB. Nature. 2010;465:243-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Polycomb gene silencing may thus entail a dynamic balance between H2A ubiquitination by PRC1 and dRAF, and H2A deubiquitination by PR-DUB. ..
  42. Sprecher S, Muller M, Kammermeier L, Miller D, Kaufman T, Reichert H, et al. Hox gene cross-regulatory interactions in the embryonic brain of Drosophila. Mech Dev. 2004;121:527-36 pubmed
  43. Kenyon C. If birds can fly, why can't we? Homeotic genes and evolution. Cell. 1994;78:175-80 pubmed
  44. Zeng C, Pinsonneault J, Gellon G, McGinnis N, McGinnis W. Deformed protein binding sites and cofactor binding sites are required for the function of a small segment-specific regulatory element in Drosophila embryos. EMBO J. 1994;13:2362-77 pubmed
    ..Here we describe a detailed functional dissection of a small element that is specifically regulated by the Deformed homeotic protein. This 120 bp element (module E) is part of a larger 2...
  45. Burstein Z. A network model of developmental gene hierarchy. J Theor Biol. 1995;174:1-11 pubmed
    ..The model not only incorporates a program of control at gene level, but also makes a direct connection with current molecular studies throughout the whole hierarchy of the early embryogenesis of Drosophila. ..
  46. Kuziora M, McGinnis W. Autoregulation of a Drosophila homeotic selector gene. Cell. 1988;55:477-85 pubmed
    The Deformed (Dfd) gene is a homeotic selector that functions in specifying the identity of the mandibular and maxillary segments...
  47. Kaufman T, Severson D, Robinson G. The Anopheles genome and comparative insect genomics. Science. 2002;298:97-8 pubmed
    ..The Anopheles gambiae genome sequence, coupled with the Drosophila melanogaster genome sequence, provides a better understanding of the insects, a group that contains our friends, foes, and competitors. ..
  48. Andrenacci D, Le Bras S, Rosaria Grimaldi M, Rugarli E, Graziani F. Embryonic expression pattern of the Drosophila Kallmann syndrome gene kal-1. Gene Expr Patterns. 2004;5:67-73 pubmed
    ..By studying the expression in Dfd and cnc homeotic mutants, we found that these ectodermal cells derive from the anterior and posterior mandibular ..
  49. Merrill V, Diederich R, Turner F, Kaufman T. A genetic and developmental analysis of mutations in labial, a gene necessary for proper head formation in Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 1989;135:376-91 pubmed
    ..Mutations in lab, like those in the Deformed and proboscipedia loci of the ANT-C, reveal a homoeotic phenotype only in the adult stage of the life cycle.
  50. Tour E, Hittinger C, McGinnis W. Evolutionarily conserved domains required for activation and repression functions of the Drosophila Hox protein Ultrabithorax. Development. 2005;132:5271-81 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the N-terminal region containing the SSYF motif has been conserved in many Hox proteins for its role in transcriptional activation. ..
  51. Schmid K, Tautz D. A comparison of homologous developmental genes from Drosophila and Tribolium reveals major differences in length and trinucleotide repeat content. J Mol Evol. 1999;49:558-66 pubmed
  52. McCarron M, Duttaroy A, Doughty G, Chovnick A. Drosophila P element transposase induces male recombination additively and without a requirement for P element excision or insertion. Genetics. 1994;136:1013-23 pubmed
    ..Crossovers increased 58-fold in the immediate region of the P element target. ..
  53. Tchuraev R, Galimzyanov A. Gene and epigene networks: two levels in organizing the hereditary system. J Theor Biol. 2009;259:659-69 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the experimental results are given on construction an artificial epigene. ..
  54. Pinsonneault J, Florence B, Vaessin H, McGinnis W. A model for extradenticle function as a switch that changes HOX proteins from repressors to activators. EMBO J. 1997;16:2032-42 pubmed
    ..Here we show that exd function is required for the autoactivation phase of Dfd expression in the posterior head...
  55. Wiellette E, Harding K, Mace K, Ronshaugen M, Wang F, McGinnis W. spen encodes an RNP motif protein that interacts with Hox pathways to repress the development of head-like sclerites in the Drosophila trunk. Development. 1999;126:5373-85 pubmed
    ..This raises the intriguing possibility that the Spen RNP protein might integrate signals from both the Raf and Hox pathways. ..
  56. Barad M, Jack T, Chadwick R, McGinnis W. A novel, tissue-specific, Drosophila homeobox gene. EMBO J. 1988;7:2151-61 pubmed
    ..0 exhibits a tissue-specific pattern of expression. The cells that accumulate transcripts for this novel gene correspond to the visceral musculature and its anlagen. ..
  57. Duboule D, Morata G. Colinearity and functional hierarchy among genes of the homeotic complexes. Trends Genet. 1994;10:358-64 pubmed
  58. Awgulewitsch A, Jacobs D. Deformed autoregulatory element from Drosophila functions in a conserved manner in transgenic mice. Nature. 1992;358:341-4 pubmed
    ..5). One of the few elements characterized in detail is the autoregulatory enhancer of the homeotic gene Deformed (Dfd), which supports expression in subregions of posterior head segments of Drosophila embryos...
  59. González Reyes A, Morata G. The developmental effect of overexpressing a Ubx product in Drosophila embryos is dependent on its interactions with other homeotic products. Cell. 1990;61:515-22 pubmed
    ..In segment A9 the highly expressed Ubx product is phenotypically suppressed by the r product of Abdominal-B. The presence of high levels of Ubx protein is also irrelevant in the telson. ..
  60. Duncan I, Kaufman T. Cytogenic analysis of chromosome 3 in Drosophila melanogaster: mapping of the proximal portion of the right arm. Genetics. 1975;80:733-52 pubmed
  61. Herz H, Madden L, Chen Z, Bolduc C, Buff E, Gupta R, et al. The H3K27me3 demethylase dUTX is a suppressor of Notch- and Rb-dependent tumors in Drosophila. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:2485-97 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, these data suggest that dUTX is a suppressor of Notch- and Rbf-dependent tumors in Drosophila melanogaster and may provide a model for UTX-dependent tumorigenesis in humans. ..
  62. Zhang J, Nei M. Evolution of Antennapedia-class homeobox genes. Genetics. 1996;142:295-303 pubmed
  63. Restifo L, Merrill V. Two Drosophila regulatory genes, deformed and the Broad-Complex, share common functions in development of adult CNS, head, and salivary glands. Dev Biol. 1994;162:465-85 pubmed
    b>Deformed (Dfd), a homeotic selector gene required for segment identity in the head, and the Broad-Complex (BR-C), a steroid hormone-regulated locus required for metamorphosis of the epidermis and multiple internal tissues, are members of ..
  64. Hyde R, Powell H. Mosaics in DROSOPHILA AMPELOPHILA. Genetics. 1916;1:581-3 pubmed
  65. Lou L, Bergson C, McGinnis W. Deformed expression in the Drosophila central nervous system is controlled by an autoactivated intronic enhancer. Nucleic Acids Res. 1995;23:3481-7 pubmed
    b>Deformed (Dfd) is a Drosophila homeotic selector gene required for normal development of maxillary segment morphology in the larval and adult head...
  66. Lewis R, Wakimoto B, Denell R, Kaufman T. Genetic Analysis of the Antennapedia Gene Complex (Ant-C) and Adjacent Chromosomal Regions of DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER. II. Polytene Chromosome Segments 84A-84B1,2. Genetics. 1980;95:383-97 pubmed
    ..new mutations correspond to complementation groups defined previously in the Df(3R)Antp(Ns+R17) screen four to the EbR11 group, two to the Scr group and four to the Antp group...
  67. Sánchez Higueras C, Hombria J. Precise long-range migration results from short-range stepwise migration during ring gland organogenesis. Dev Biol. 2016;414:45-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Our finding of a succession of independent migration stages is consistent with the stepwise evolution of ring gland assembly and fits with the observed gland locations found in extant crustaceans, basal insects and flies. ..
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    ..These results demonstrate that the kinase encoded by Doa is required at multiple stages of development, for both differentiation and maintenance of specific cell types. ..
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    ..Their results indicate that gnathal adaptations in this bug are correlated with changes in Hox gene functions and interactions. ..
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    ..Here, we show that each of six amino acids tested at position 50 can confer a distinct DNA binding specificity. ..
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    ..g. HPHAHPHP in paired protein. Detailed molecular modelling and database searches lead to the suggestion that (HX)n repeats can mediate interaction between transcription factors in a pH-controlled fashion. ..
  75. Fitzpatrick V, Percival Smith A, Ingles C, Krause H. Homeodomain-independent activity of the fushi tarazu polypeptide in Drosophila embryos. Nature. 1992;356:610-2 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the same phenotype is induced by ectopic expression of a ftz polypeptide containing a deletion in the homeodomain. Thus, ftz can alter gene expression without binding directly to DNA. ..
  76. Lewis R, Kaufman T, Denell R, Tallerico P. Genetic Analysis of the Antennapedia Gene Complex (Ant-C) and Adjacent Chromosomal Regions of DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER. I. Polytene Chromosome Segments 84b-D. Genetics. 1980;95:367-81 pubmed
    ..Mutations affecting seven additional functional groups within the 84B-D region were also recovered. ..
  77. Gao Q, Wang Y, Finkelstein R. Orthodenticle regulation during embryonic head development in Drosophila. Mech Dev. 1996;56:3-15 pubmed
    ..Finally, we identify a novel pathway mediated by the gap gene huckebein through which three maternal systems cooperate to repress otd expression at the anterior terminus of the embryo. ..
  78. Delorenzi M, Bienz M. Expression of Abdominal-B homeoproteins in Drosophila embryos. Development. 1990;108:323-9 pubmed
    ..Moreover, an antibody-positive Abd-B mutant suggests that these differ, in the case of m protein expression, to some extent in individual germ layers. ..
  79. Mann R. Why are Hox genes clustered?. Bioessays. 1997;19:661-4 pubmed
    ..Moreover, characterizing the activity of one of these mouse enhancers in Drosophila illustrates that despite many similarities, not all Hox clusters are built in the same way. ..
  80. González Reyes A, Macias A, Morata G. Autocatalysis and phenotypic expression of Drosophila homeotic gene Deformed: its dependence on polarity and homeotic gene function. Development. 1992;116:1059-68 pubmed
    Previously published experiments have shown that the endogenous Dfd gene can be ectopically activated by its own (heat-shock-driven) product in a subset of cells of different segments...
  81. Lin G, Kozaki T, Scott J. Hormone receptor-like in 96 and Broad-Complex modulate phenobarbital induced transcription of cytochrome P450 CYP6D1 in Drosophila S2 cells. Insect Mol Biol. 2011;20:87-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Putative binding sites for Drosophila Broad-Complex (BR-C) and deformed (Dfd) were identified within this promoter region using TFsearch...
  82. Boube M, Hudry B, Immarigeon C, Carrier Y, Bernat Fabre S, Merabet S, et al. Drosophila melanogaster Hox transcription factors access the RNA polymerase II machinery through direct homeodomain binding to a conserved motif of mediator subunit Med19. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004303 pubmed publisher
    ..They support a role for Med19 as a PolII holoenzyme-embedded "co-factor" that acts together with Hox proteins through their homeodomains in regulated developmental transcription. ..