Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Def
Alias: 143607_at, CG1385, DEF, DIM 26, Dmel\CG1385, def, defensin, defensin, CG1385-PA, Def-PA, defensin precursor
Species: fruit fly
- Chrostek E, Marialva M, Yamada R, O Neill S, Teixeira L. High anti-viral protection without immune upregulation after interspecies Wolbachia transfer. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e99025 pubmed publisher..Overall, we prove that stable transinfection with a highly protective Wolbachia is not necessarily associated with general immune activation. ..
- Wong Z, Hedges L, Brownlie J, Johnson K. Wolbachia-mediated antibacterial protection and immune gene regulation in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25430 pubmed publisher..flies which are naturally infected with Wolbachia showed no upregulation of the antibacterial immune genes TepIV, Defensin, Diptericin B, PGRP-SD, Cecropin A1 and Attacin D compared to paired flies without Wolbachia...
- Charroux B, Royet J. Elimination of plasmatocytes by targeted apoptosis reveals their role in multiple aspects of the Drosophila immune response. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:9797-802 pubmed publisher..Finally, we show that plasmatocytes are involved in immune surveillance during pupal development, because they prevent bacterial infection that causes pupal lethality...
- Tzou P, Ohresser S, Ferrandon D, Capovilla M, Reichhart J, Lemaitre B, et al. Tissue-specific inducible expression of antimicrobial peptide genes in Drosophila surface epithelia. Immunity. 2000;13:737-48 pubmed
- Rutschmann S, Jung A, Zhou R, Silverman N, Hoffmann J, Ferrandon D. Role of Drosophila IKK gamma in a toll-independent antibacterial immune response. Nat Immunol. 2000;1:342-7 pubmed..Thus, in contrast to the vertebrate inflammatory response, IKK gamma is required for the activation of only one immune signaling pathway in Drosophila. ..
- Verleyen P, Baggerman G, D Hertog W, Vierstraete E, Husson S, Schoofs L. Identification of new immune induced molecules in the haemolymph of Drosophila melanogaster by 2D-nanoLC MS/MS. J Insect Physiol. 2006;52:379-88 pubmed..Many of the identified peptides are post-translationally modified by an N-terminal pyroglutamic acid and/or a C-terminal amide. Haemolymph of control larvae was treated in the same way and revealed only one peptide. ..
- Meng X, Khanuja B, Ip Y. Toll receptor-mediated Drosophila immune response requires Dif, an NF-kappaB factor. Genes Dev. 1999;13:792-7 pubmed..The results show that the presence of Dif without Dorsal is sufficient to mediate the induction of drosomycin and defensin. We also demonstrate that Dif is a downstream component of the Toll signaling pathway in activating the ..
- Lemaitre B, Reichhart J, Hoffmann J. Drosophila host defense: differential induction of antimicrobial peptide genes after infection by various classes of microorganisms. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:14614-9 pubmed..This response is mediated through the selective activation of the Toll pathway. ..
- Ooi J, Yagi Y, Hu X, Ip Y. The Drosophila Toll-9 activates a constitutive antimicrobial defense. EMBO Rep. 2002;3:82-7 pubmed
- Tanji T, Hu X, Weber A, Ip Y. Toll and IMD pathways synergistically activate an innate immune response in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:4578-88 pubmed..These results illustrate how specific ligand binding by separate upstream pattern recognition receptors can be translated into a broad-spectrum host response, a hallmark of innate immunity. ..
- Uvell H, Engstrom Y. Functional characterization of a novel promoter element required for an innate immune response in Drosophila. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:8272-81 pubmed..We propose that the R1 and kappaB motifs are targets for distinct regulatory complexes that act in concert to promote high levels of antimicrobial peptide gene expression in response to infection. ..
- Lu Y, Wu L, Anderson K. The antibacterial arm of the drosophila innate immune response requires an IkappaB kinase. Genes Dev. 2001;15:104-10 pubmed..The ird5 gene encodes a Drosophila homolog of mammalian IkappaB kinases (IKKs). The ird5 phenotype and sequence suggest that the gene is specifically required for the activation of Relish, a Drosophila NF-kappaB family member. ..
- Zambon R, Nandakumar M, Vakharia V, Wu L. The Toll pathway is important for an antiviral response in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:7257-62 pubmed..Additionally, our results demonstrate the validity of using a genetic approach to identify genes and pathways used in viral innate immune responses in Drosophila...
- Matova N, Anderson K. Rel/NF-kappaB double mutants reveal that cellular immunity is central to Drosophila host defense. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:16424-9 pubmed
- Flatt T, Heyland A, Rus F, Porpiglia E, Sherlock C, Yamamoto R, et al. Hormonal regulation of the humoral innate immune response in Drosophila melanogaster. J Exp Biol. 2008;211:2712-24 pubmed publisher..Our results suggest that 20E and JH play major roles in the regulation of gene expression in response to immune challenge. ..
- Dimarcq J, Hoffmann D, Meister M, Bulet P, Lanot R, Reichhart J, et al. Characterization and transcriptional profiles of a Drosophila gene encoding an insect defensin. A study in insect immunity. Eur J Biochem. 1994;221:201-9 pubmed..We report the characterization of a novel defensin isoform from Drosophila and the cloning of the gene encoding a preprodefensin...
- Lemaitre B, Nicolas E, Michaut L, Reichhart J, Hoffmann J. The dorsoventral regulatory gene cassette spätzle/Toll/cactus controls the potent antifungal response in Drosophila adults. Cell. 1996;86:973-83 pubmed..Antibacterial genes are induced either by a distinct pathway involving the immune deficiency gene (imd) or by combined activation of both imd and dorsoventral pathways. ..
- Leulier F, Rodriguez A, Khush R, Abrams J, Lemaitre B. The Drosophila caspase Dredd is required to resist gram-negative bacterial infection. EMBO Rep. 2000;1:353-8 pubmed
- Hallem E, Rengarajan M, Ciche T, Sternberg P. Nematodes, bacteria, and flies: a tripartite model for nematode parasitism. Curr Biol. 2007;17:898-904 pubmed
- Rutschmann S, Jung A, Hetru C, Reichhart J, Hoffmann J, Ferrandon D. The Rel protein DIF mediates the antifungal but not the antibacterial host defense in Drosophila. Immunity. 2000;12:569-80 pubmed..We discuss in this light the possibility that NF-KB1/p50 might be required more specifically in the innate immune response against gram-positive bacteria in mammals. ..
- Lazzaro B, Sceurman B, Clark A. Genetic basis of natural variation in D. melanogaster antibacterial immunity. Science. 2004;303:1873-6 pubmed..Variation in these genes, therefore, seems to drive variability in immunocompetence among wild Drosophila. ..
- Han Z, Ip Y. Interaction and specificity of Rel-related proteins in regulating Drosophila immunity gene expression. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:21355-61 pubmed..Furthermore, the drosomycin and defensin expression is best induced by the Relish/Dif and the Relish/Dorsal heterodimers, respectively, whereas the ..
- Hoffmann J, Kafatos F, Janeway C, Ezekowitz R. Phylogenetic perspectives in innate immunity. Science. 1999;284:1313-8 pubmed..In addition to its role in the early phase of defense, innate immunity in mammals appears to play a key role in stimulating the subsequent, clonal response of adaptive immunity. ..
- Tzou P, Reichhart J, Lemaitre B. Constitutive expression of a single antimicrobial peptide can restore wild-type resistance to infection in immunodeficient Drosophila mutants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:2152-7 pubmed
- Rutschmann S, Kilinc A, Ferrandon D. Cutting edge: the toll pathway is required for resistance to gram-positive bacterial infections in Drosophila. J Immunol. 2002;168:1542-6 pubmed..The gene coding for the only known peptide with high activity against Gram-positive bacteria, Defensin, is regulated by both pathways...
- Becker T, Loch G, Beyer M, Zinke I, Aschenbrenner A, Carrera P, et al. FOXO-dependent regulation of innate immune homeostasis. Nature. 2010;463:369-73 pubmed publisher..The sparse production of AMPs in epithelial tissues in response to FOXO may help modulating the defence reaction without harming the host tissues, in particular when animals are suffering from energy shortage or stress. ..
- Vuilleumier R, Springhorn A, Patterson L, Koidl S, Hammerschmidt M, Affolter M, et al. Control of Dpp morphogen signalling by a secreted feedback regulator. Nat Cell Biol. 2010;12:611-7 pubmed publisher..We show that Pent interacts with the glypican Dally to control Dpp distribution and provide evidence that proper establishment of the BMP morphogen gradient requires the inbuilt feedback loop embodied by Pent. ..
- Costa A, Jan E, Sarnow P, Schneider D. The Imd pathway is involved in antiviral immune responses in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7436 pubmed publisher..Our data show that antiviral innate immune responses in flies infected with CrPV depend upon hemocytes and signaling through the Imd pathway. ..
- Brennan C, Delaney J, Schneider D, Anderson K. Psidin is required in Drosophila blood cells for both phagocytic degradation and immune activation of the fat body. Curr Biol. 2007;17:67-72 pubmed..activation of other immune tissues has not been clear, we show that induction of the antibacterial-peptide gene Defensin in the fat body during infection requires blood-cell contributions...
- Luo C, Shen B, Manley J, Zheng L. Tehao functions in the Toll pathway in Drosophila melanogaster: possible roles in development and innate immunity. Insect Mol Biol. 2001;10:457-64 pubmed..Thus, Tehao, alone or with Toll as a multimeric complex, has the potential to participate in both the development and innate immune responses of Drosophila. ..
- Oh C, Moon C, Jeong M, Kwon S, Jang J. Drosophila melanogaster model for Mycobacterium abscessus infection. Microbes Infect. 2013;15:788-95 pubmed publisher..To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that mycobacteria induce the production of antimicrobial peptides in D. melanogaster. ..
- Doroszuk A, Jonker M, Pul N, Breit T, Zwaan B. Transcriptome analysis of a long-lived natural Drosophila variant: a prominent role of stress- and reproduction-genes in lifespan extension. BMC Genomics. 2012;13:167 pubmed publisher..The results suggest that natural genetic variation for SR and lifespan can operate through similar transcriptional mechanisms as those of dietary restriction and life-extending mutations. ..
- Pilatova M, Dionne M. Burkholderia thailandensis is virulent in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e49745 pubmed publisher..Finally, the function of fly phagocytes is not affected by B. thailandensis infection. The high virulence of B. thailandensis in the fly suggests the possibility that this organism is a natural pathogen of one or more invertebrates. ..
- Bettencourt R, Ip Y. Learning the codes of fly immunity. Mol Cell. 2004;13:1-2 pubmed..In this issue of Molecular Cell, Senger and colleagues demonstrate that a large number of immunity genes in Drosophila fat bodies can be regulated by a simple code, REL-GATA. ..
- Ligoxygakis P, Bulet P, Reichhart J. Critical evaluation of the role of the Toll-like receptor 18-Wheeler in the host defense of Drosophila. EMBO Rep. 2002;3:666-73 pubmed..18-Wheeler does not qualify as a pattern recognition receptor of Gram-negative bacteria. ..
- Prokupek A, Kachman S, Ladunga I, Harshman L. Transcriptional profiling of the sperm storage organs of Drosophila melanogaster. Insect Mol Biol. 2009;18:465-75 pubmed publisher..Differences in functional gene categories indicate that these organs play unique roles in sperm storage. ..
- Buchon N, Osman D. All for one and one for all: Regionalization of the Drosophila intestine. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2015;67:2-8 pubmed publisher..Further characterization of the gene regulatory networks underlying gut compartmentalization will pave the way for a better understanding of gastrointestinal function in insects and mammals, in both health and disease conditions. ..
- Cheng W, Song C, Anjum K, Chen M, Li D, Zhou H, et al. Coenzyme Q plays opposing roles on bacteria/fungi and viruses in Drosophila innate immunity. Int J Immunogenet. 2011;38:331-7 pubmed publisher..We further showed that CoQ was essential for normal induction of anti-microbial peptides and amplification of viruses. Our work determined CoQ content in Drosophila and described its function in immunity for the first time. ..
- Dijkers P, O Farrell P. Drosophila calcineurin promotes induction of innate immune responses. Curr Biol. 2007;17:2087-93 pubmed..Thus, CanA1 provides an additional input into Relish-promoted immune responses and functions in hemocytes to promote a tissue-to-tissue signaling cascade required for robust immune response. ..
- Senger K, Armstrong G, Rowell W, Kwan J, Markstein M, Levine M. Immunity regulatory DNAs share common organizational features in Drosophila. Mol Cell. 2004;13:19-32 pubmed..Aspects of this "regulatory code" are essential for the immune response. These results suggest that immunity regulatory DNAs contain constrained organizational features, which may be a general property of eukaryotic enhancers. ..
- Bergeret E, Perrin J, Williams M, Grunwald D, Engel E, Thevenon D, et al. TM9SF4 is required for Drosophila cellular immunity via cell adhesion and phagocytosis. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:3325-34 pubmed publisher..Our study highlights the contribution of phagocytes to host defence in an organism possessing a complex innate immune response and suggests an evolutionarily conserved function of TM9SF4 in eukaryotic phagocytes. ..
- Craig C, Fink J, Yagi Y, Ip Y, Cagan R. A Drosophila p38 orthologue is required for environmental stress responses. EMBO Rep. 2004;5:1058-63 pubmed..These phenotypes only partially overlap those caused by mutations in D-MEKK1 and dTAK1, suggesting that the D-p38a gene is required to mediate some, but not all, of the functions ascribed to p38 signalling. ..
- Kim Y, Han S, Ryu J, Choi K, Hong Y, Chung Y, et al. Lipopolysaccharide-activated kinase, an essential component for the induction of the antimicrobial peptide genes in Drosophila melanogaster cells. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:2071-9 pubmed..These results establish that DLAK is a novel LPS-activated kinase, which is an essential signaling component for the induction of antimicrobial peptide genes following LPS treatment in Drosophila cells. ..
- Shin S, Kokoza V, Bian G, Cheon H, Kim Y, Raikhel A. REL1, a homologue of Drosophila dorsal, regulates toll antifungal immune pathway in the female mosquito Aedes aegypti. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:16499-507 pubmed..bassiana. These results indicate that the homologue of Dl, but not that of Dif, is a key regulator of the Toll antifungal immune pathway in A. aegypti female mosquitoes. ..
- Bitra K, Suderman R, Strand M. Polydnavirus Ank proteins bind NF-?B homodimers and inhibit processing of Relish. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002722 pubmed publisher..Overall, our data provide the first quantitative measures of insect and viral I?B binding affinities, while also showing that viral mimics disable Relish processing...
- Mathey Prevot B, Perrimon N. Mammalian and Drosophila blood: JAK of all trades?. Cell. 1998;92:697-700 pubmed
- Lemaitre B, Nicolas E, Michaut L, Reichhart J, Hoffmann J. Pillars article: the dorsoventral regulatory gene cassette spätzle/Toll/cactus controls the potent antifungal response in Drosophila adults. Cell. 1996. 86: 973-983. J Immunol. 2012;188:5210-20 pubmed..Antibacterial genes are induced either by a distinct pathway involving the immune deficiency gene (imd) or by combined activation of both imd and dorsoventral pathways. ..
- Kuo T, Williams J. Increased sleep promotes survival during a bacterial infection in Drosophila. Sleep. 2014;37:1077-86, 1086A-1086D pubmed publisher..Together, these findings support the hypothesis that sleep is beneficial to the host by maintaining a robust immune system. ..
- Moskalev A, Zhikrivetskaya S, Krasnov G, Shaposhnikov M, Proshkina E, Borisoglebsky D, et al. A comparison of the transcriptome of Drosophila melanogaster in response to entomopathogenic fungus, ionizing radiation, starvation and cold shock. BMC Genomics. 2015;16 Suppl 13:S8 pubmed publisher..Studied doses of stress treatments deleteriously affect the organism's viability and lead to different changes of both general and specific cellular stress response mechanisms. ..
- Chrostek E, Teixeira L. Mutualism breakdown by amplification of Wolbachia genes. PLoS Biol. 2015;13:e1002065 pubmed publisher..Our results show that transition from a mutualist to a pathogen may occur because of a single genomic change in the endosymbiont. This implies that there must be constant selection on endosymbionts to control their densities. ..
- Liu F, Baggerman G, D Hertog W, Verleyen P, Schoofs L, Wets G. In silico identification of new secretory peptide genes in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2006;5:510-22 pubmed..This bioinformatic study opens perspectives for the genome-wide analysis of peptide genes in other eukaryotic model organisms. ..
- Narbonne Reveau K, Charroux B, Royet J. Lack of an antibacterial response defect in Drosophila Toll-9 mutant. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17470 pubmed publisher..Our results suggest that Toll-9 is neither required to maintain a basal anti-microbial response nor to mount an efficient immune response to bacterial infection. ..
- Boulanger N, Ehret Sabatier L, Brun R, Zachary D, Bulet P, Imler J. Immune response of Drosophila melanogaster to infection with the flagellate parasite Crithidia spp. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2001;31:129-37 pubmed..The data presented here suggest that Drosophila-Crithidia spp. represents an interesting model to study host defense against protozoan parasites...
- Schmidt R, Rinaldo F, Hesse S, Hamada M, Ortiz Z, Beleford D, et al. Cleavage of PGRP-LC receptor in the Drosophila IMD pathway in response to live bacterial infection in S2 cells. Self Nonself. 2011;2:125-141 pubmed
- Chen H, Zheng X, Zheng Y. Age-associated loss of lamin-B leads to systemic inflammation and gut hyperplasia. Cell. 2014;159:829-43 pubmed publisher..paperflick: ..
- Shaposhnikov M, Latkin D, Plyusnina E, Shilova L, Danilov A, Popov S, et al. The effects of pectins on life span and stress resistance in Drosophila melanogaster. Biogerontology. 2014;15:113-27 pubmed publisher..In the intestines LH and HM pectins induced the mRNA expression of the NF-?B-dependent antimicrobial genes Defensin, Drosomycin and Metchnikowin...
- Orme M, Liccardi G, Moderau N, Feltham R, Wicky John S, Tenev T, et al. The unconventional myosin CRINKLED and its mammalian orthologue MYO7A regulate caspases in their signalling roles. Nat Commun. 2016;7:10972 pubmed publisher..Together, our results expose a conserved role for unconventional myosins in transducing caspase-dependent regulation of kinases, allowing them to take part in specific signalling events. ..
- Akbar M, Tracy C, Kahr W, KRAMER H. The full-of-bacteria gene is required for phagosome maturation during immune defense in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 2011;192:383-90 pubmed publisher..These findings suggest that defects in phagosome maturation may contribute to symptoms of ARC patients including recurring infections. ..
- Malagoli D, Conklin D, Sacchi S, Mandrioli M, Ottaviani E. A putative helical cytokine functioning in innate immune signalling in Drosophila melanogaster. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1770:974-8 pubmed..Functional experiments demonstrate that its expression, as well as that of the antimicrobial factors defensin and cecropin A1, is significantly increased after immune stimulation...
- Sackton T, Clark A. Comparative profiling of the transcriptional response to infection in two species of Drosophila by short-read cDNA sequencing. BMC Genomics. 2009;10:259 pubmed publisher..virilis hemolymph and validate our transcriptional data. These results suggest that the acquisition of novel components of the immune system, and particularly novel effector proteins, may be a common evolutionary phenomenon. ..
- Matova N, Anderson K. Drosophila Rel proteins are central regulators of a robust, multi-organ immune network. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:627-33 pubmed publisher..Based on similarities between Drosophila and mammals, we propose that a Rel-dependent network is an ancient and robust framework of animal immune systems...
- Ren C, Webster P, Finkel S, Tower J. Increased internal and external bacterial load during Drosophila aging without life-span trade-off. Cell Metab. 2007;6:144-52 pubmed
- Hill Burns E, Clark A. X-linked variation in immune response in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2009;183:1477-91 pubmed publisher..Many of the associations act in a sex-specific or sexually antagonistic manner, supporting the theory that with the selective pressures facing genes on the X chromosome, sexually antagonistic variation may be more easily maintained. ..
- Wang Z, Berkey C, Watnick P. The Drosophila protein mustard tailors the innate immune response activated by the immune deficiency pathway. J Immunol. 2012;188:3993-4000 pubmed publisher..Mtd homologs have been implicated in resistance to oxidative stress. However, to our knowledge this is the first evidence that Mtd or its homologs alter the output of an innate immunity signaling cascade from within the nucleus...