Gene Symbol: Ddc
Description: Dopa decarboxylase
Alias: 5-HT, AADC, CG10697, DDC, DdcDm, Dmel\CG10697, ddc, fDDC, l(2)37Bl, l(2)37Ch, l(2)k02104, dopa decarboxylase, 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine decarboxylase, CG10697-PB, CG10697-PC, CG10697-PD, Ddc-PB, Ddc-PC, Ddc-PD, aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, dopa-decarboxylase, dopadecarboxylase, dopamine decarboxylase, transcription unit No. 3
Species: fruit fly
Products:     Ddc

Top Publications

  1. Bang S, Hyun S, Hong S, Kang J, Jeong K, Park J, et al. Dopamine signalling in mushroom bodies regulates temperature-preference behaviour in Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1001346 pubmed publisher
    ..The current findings will provide important bases to understand the logic of thermosensation and temperature preference decision in Drosophila. ..
  2. Davis M, Primrose D, Hodgetts R. A member of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase family is responsible for transcriptional induction of Dopa decarboxylase in the epidermis of Drosophila melanogaster during the innate immune response. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:4883-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Transcription of the Dopa decarboxylase (Ddc) gene is induced in response to gram-negative and gram-positive septic injury, but not aseptic wounding...
  3. Dierick H, Greenspan R. Serotonin and neuropeptide F have opposite modulatory effects on fly aggression. Nat Genet. 2007;39:678-82 pubmed
    ..Moreover, this neuropeptide F effect seems to be independent of 5-HT. The implication of these two modulatory systems in fly and mouse aggression suggest a marked degree of conservation and a deep molecular root for this behavior. ..
  4. Auluck P, Chan H, Trojanowski J, Lee V, Bonini N. Chaperone suppression of alpha-synuclein toxicity in a Drosophila model for Parkinson's disease. Science. 2002;295:865-8 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, Lewy bodies in human postmortem tissue immunostained for molecular chaperones, also suggesting that chaperones may play a role in Parkinson's disease progression. ..
  5. Liu C, Plaçais P, Yamagata N, Pfeiffer B, Aso Y, Friedrich A, et al. A subset of dopamine neurons signals reward for odour memory in Drosophila. Nature. 2012;488:512-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Dopamine in insects is known to mediate aversive reinforcement signals. Our results highlight the cellular specificity underlying the various roles of dopamine and the importance of spatially segregated local circuits within the MBs. ..
  6. Walter M, Zeineh L, Black B, McIvor W, Wright T, Biessmann H. Catecholamine metabolism and in vitro induction of premature cuticle melanization in wild type and pigmentation mutants of Drosophila melanogaster. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 1996;31:219-33 pubmed
    ..factor determining the onset of melanization and that the major enzymatic activities that act downstream of dopa decarboxylase in the pathway are deposited into the cuticle before pigmentation begins...
  7. Shen J, Beall C, Hirsh J. Tissue-specific alternative splicing of the Drosophila dopa decarboxylase gene is affected by heat shock. Mol Cell Biol. 1993;13:4549-55 pubmed
    The Drosophila dopa decarboxylase gene, Ddc, is expressed in the hypoderm and in a small number of cells in the central nervous system (CNS). The unique Ddc primary transcript is alternatively spliced in these two tissues...
  8. Yang Y, Nishimura I, Imai Y, Takahashi R, Lu B. Parkin suppresses dopaminergic neuron-selective neurotoxicity induced by Pael-R in Drosophila. Neuron. 2003;37:911-24 pubmed
    ..Our study implicates Parkin as a central player in the molecular pathway of Parkinson's disease (PD) and suggests that manipulating Parkin expression may provide a novel avenue of PD therapy. ..
  9. Lundell M, Hirsh J. Temporal and spatial development of serotonin and dopamine neurons in the Drosophila CNS. Dev Biol. 1994;165:385-96 pubmed
    ..in the Drosophila embryonic CNS and the expression pattern of two enzymes important in their biosynthesis, DOPA decarboxylase (DDC) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)...

More Information


  1. Landgraf M, Sanchez Soriano N, Technau G, Urban J, Prokop A. Charting the Drosophila neuropile: a strategy for the standardised characterisation of genetically amenable neurites. Dev Biol. 2003;260:207-25 pubmed
    ..Using the Fasciclin2-based mapping procedure as a standard (e.g., in a common database) would facilitate studies on the functional architecture of the neuropile and the identification of candiate circuit elements. ..
  2. Monastirioti M. Distinct octopamine cell population residing in the CNS abdominal ganglion controls ovulation in Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 2003;264:38-49 pubmed
    ..The above results point to a neuronal focus that can synthesize and release octopamine in specific sites of the female reproductive system where the amine is required to trigger ovulation...
  3. Haywood A, Staveley B. Parkin counteracts symptoms in a Drosophila model of Parkinson's disease. BMC Neurosci. 2004;5:14 pubmed
    ..If this relationship is conserved in humans, this suggests that up-regulation of parkin should suppress alpha-synucleinopathic PD. The development of therapies that regulate parkin activity may be crucial in the treatment of PD. ..
  4. Pearson J, Juarez M, Kim M, Drivenes Ø, McGinnis W. Multiple transcription factor codes activate epidermal wound-response genes in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:2224-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We characterize the transcriptional regulatory enhancers of 4 genes-Ddc, ple, msn, and kkv-that are rapidly activated in epidermal cells surrounding wounds in late Drosophila embryos and ..
  5. Davis M, O Keefe S, Primrose D, Hodgetts R. A neuropeptide hormone cascade controls the precise onset of post-eclosion cuticular tanning in Drosophila melanogaster. Development. 2007;134:4395-404 pubmed
    ..Together, two enzymes, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, encoded by ple) and dopa decarboxylase (DDC, encoded by Ddc), produce the dopamine that is required for tanning...
  6. Wang S, Tsarouhas V, Xylourgidis N, Sabri N, Tiklová K, Nautiyal N, et al. The tyrosine kinase Stitcher activates Grainy head and epidermal wound healing in Drosophila. Nat Cell Biol. 2009;11:890-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Stit activation upon wounding coordinates cytoskeletal rearrangements and the level of Grh-mediated transcriptional wound responses. ..
  7. Wittkopp P, True J, Carroll S. Reciprocal functions of the Drosophila yellow and ebony proteins in the development and evolution of pigment patterns. Development. 2002;129:1849-58 pubmed
    ..These findings provide a developmental and genetic framework for understanding the evolution of melanin patterns. ..
  8. Joshi R, Venkatesh K, Srinivas R, Nair S, Hasan G. Genetic dissection of itpr gene function reveals a vital requirement in aminergic cells of Drosophila larvae. Genetics. 2004;166:225-36 pubmed
    ..However, this function does not require synaptic activity, suggesting that InsP(3)-mediated Ca(2+) release regulates the neurohormonal action of serotonin. ..
  9. Chen L, O Keefe S, Hodgetts R. Control of Dopa decarboxylase gene expression by the Broad-Complex during metamorphosis in Drosophila. Mech Dev. 2002;119:145-56 pubmed
    The induction of the Dopa decarboxylase gene (Ddc) in the epidermis of Drosophila at pupariation is a receptor-mediated response to the steroid molting hormone, ecdysone...
  10. McClung C, Hirsh J. The trace amine tyramine is essential for sensitization to cocaine in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 1999;9:853-60 pubmed
    ..These results indicate an essential role for tyramine in cocaine sensitization in Drosophila. ..
  11. Lee P, Lin H, Chang Y, Fu T, Dubnau J, Hirsh J, et al. Serotonin-mushroom body circuit modulating the formation of anesthesia-resistant memory in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:13794-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in addition to the Amnesiac peptide required for anesthesia-sensitive memory formation, the two DPM neurons also release 5HT acting on MB neurons for ARM formation...
  12. Wright T. The Wilhelmine E. Key 1992 Invitational lecture. Phenotypic analysis of the Dopa decarboxylase gene cluster mutants in Drosophila melanogaster. J Hered. 1996;87:175-90 pubmed
    Mutations in a majority of the 18 loci of the Dopa decarboxylase (Ddc) gene cluster effect similar morphological defects of the cuticle and/or catecholamine-related abnormalities...
  13. Konrad K, Marsh J. Developmental expression and spatial distribution of dopa decarboxylase in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1987;122:172-85 pubmed
    Regulation of the dopa decarboxylase gene of Drosophila has been studied at the genetic and molecular levels. Here we report a direct assay for the tissue and temporal regulation of Ddc...
  14. Livingstone M, Tempel B. Genetic dissection of monoamine neurotransmitter synthesis in Drosophila. Nature. 1983;303:67-70 pubmed
    ..In contrast, dopa decarboxylase (Ddc) mutations decreased dopamine and serotonin synthesis but did not affect octopamine synthesis...
  15. Blenau W, Baumann A. Molecular and pharmacological properties of insect biogenic amine receptors: lessons from Drosophila melanogaster and Apis mellifera. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2001;48:13-38 pubmed
    ..In this review, the present knowledge on the biochemical, molecular, and pharmacological properties of biogenic amine receptors from Drosophila and Apis will be summarized. Arch...
  16. Li H, Chaney S, Roberts I, Forte M, Hirsh J. Ectopic G-protein expression in dopamine and serotonin neurons blocks cocaine sensitization in Drosophila melanogaster. Curr Biol. 2000;10:211-4 pubmed
    ..Finally, repeated drug stimulation of a nerve cord preparation that is postsynaptic to the brain amine cells failed to induce sensitization, further showing the importance of presynaptic modulation in sensitization. ..
  17. Aso Y, Herb A, Ogueta M, Siwanowicz I, Templier T, Friedrich A, et al. Three dopamine pathways induce aversive odor memories with different stability. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002768 pubmed publisher
    ..These results cast light on a cellular mechanism by which a noxious event induces different dopamine signals to a single brain structure to synthesize an aversive memory. ..
  18. Wittkopp P, Carroll S, Kopp A. Evolution in black and white: genetic control of pigment patterns in Drosophila. Trends Genet. 2003;19:495-504 pubmed publisher
  19. Alekseyenko O, Lee C, Kravitz E. Targeted manipulation of serotonergic neurotransmission affects the escalation of aggression in adult male Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10806 pubmed publisher
    ..By separately manipulating 5HT- and DA- neuron systems, we collected evidence demonstrating a direct role for 5HT in the escalation of aggression in Drosophila. ..
  20. Kong E, Woo K, Li H, Lebestky T, Mayer N, Sniffen M, et al. A pair of dopamine neurons target the D1-like dopamine receptor DopR in the central complex to promote ethanol-stimulated locomotion in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9954 pubmed publisher
    ..These data tie the activity of defined dopamine neurons to D1-like DopR-expressing neurons to form a neural circuit that governs acute responding to ethanol. ..
  21. Claridge Chang A, Roorda R, Vrontou E, Sjulson L, Li H, Hirsh J, et al. Writing memories with light-addressable reinforcement circuitry. Cell. 2009;139:405-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The delineation of core reinforcement circuitry is an essential first step in dissecting the neural mechanisms that compute and represent valuations, store associations, and guide actions. ..
  22. Tatarenkov A, Kwiatowski J, Skarecky D, Barrio E, Ayala F. On the evolution of Dopa decarboxylase (Ddc) and Drosophila systematics. J Mol Evol. 1999;48:445-62 pubmed
    We have sequenced most of the coding region of the gene Dopa decarboxylase (Ddc) in 24 fruitfly species. The Ddc gene is quite informative about Drosophila phylogeny...
  23. Hirsh J, Davidson N. Isolation and characterization of the dopa decarboxylase gene of Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Cell Biol. 1981;1:475-85 pubmed
    We have isolated chromosomal deoxyribonucleic acid clones containing the Drosophila dopa decarboxylase gene. We describe an isolation procedure which can be applied to other nonabundantly expressed Drosophila genes...
  24. Feany M, Bender W. A Drosophila model of Parkinson's disease. Nature. 2000;404:394-8 pubmed
    ..Our Drosophila model thus recapitulates the essential features of the human disorder, and makes possible a powerful genetic approach to Parkinson's disease. ..
  25. Hirsh J, Morgan B, Scholnick S. Delimiting regulatory sequences of the Drosophila melanogaster Ddc gene. Mol Cell Biol. 1986;6:4548-57 pubmed
    We delimited sequences necessary for in vivo expression of the Drosophila melanogaster dopa decarboxylase gene Ddc. The expression of in vitro-altered genes was assayed following germ line integration via P-element vectors...
  26. Davis R. Mushroom bodies and Drosophila learning. Neuron. 1993;11:1-14 pubmed
  27. Zu K, Sikes M, Haynes S, Beyer A. Altered levels of the Drosophila HRB87F/hrp36 hnRNP protein have limited effects on alternative splicing in vivo. Mol Biol Cell. 1996;7:1059-73 pubmed
    ..above normal levels, aberrant internal exon skipping was induced in at least one endogenous transcript, the dopa decarboxylase (Ddc) pre-mRNA, which previously had been shown to be similarly affected by excess HRB98DE/hrp38...
  28. Black B, Pentz E, Wright T. The alpha methyl dopa hypersensitive gene, 1(2)amd, and two adjacent genes in Drosophila melanogaster: physical location and direct effects of amd on catecholamine metabolism. Mol Gen Genet. 1987;209:306-12 pubmed
    The dopa decarboxylase gene (Ddc) is located in a very dense cluster of genes many of whose functions appear to be related to the physiological role of dopa decarboxylase (DDC) in catecholamine metabolism...
  29. Nappi A, Carton Y, Vass E. Reduced cellular immune competence of a temperature-sensitive dopa decarboxylase mutant strain of Drosophila melanogaster against the parasite Leptopilina boulardi. Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1992;101:453-60 pubmed
    1. The melanotic encapsulation response made by larvae of a temperature-sensitive dopa decarboxylase (DDC) mutant strain of Drosophila against the parasitic wasp Leptopilina was severely compromised in hosts with reduced levels of DDC. 2...
  30. Wright T, Bewley G, Sherald A. The genetics of dopa decarboxylase in Drosophila melanogaster. II. Isolation and characterization of dopa-decarboxylase-deficient mutants and their relationship to the alpha-methyl-dopa-hypersensitive mutants. Genetics. 1976;84:287-310 pubmed
    Of 84 lethals isolated over the dopa decarboxylase (DDC) deficiency Df(2L)50, 8 have been identified as DDC-deficient alleles on the basis of their effect on DDC activity when heterozygous over the Cgamma-O balancer chromosome with ..
  31. True J, Edwards K, Yamamoto D, Carroll S. Drosophila wing melanin patterns form by vein-dependent elaboration of enzymatic prepatterns. Curr Biol. 1999;9:1382-91 pubmed
    ..We show that, in D. melanogaster, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopa decarboxylase (DDC) are required for melanin synthesis...
  32. Budnik V, Wu C, White K. Altered branching of serotonin-containing neurons in Drosophila mutants unable to synthesize serotonin and dopamine. J Neurosci. 1989;9:2866-77 pubmed
    ..the gut of wild-type Drosophila larvae was compared to mutants deficient in the gene that encodes the enzyme dopa decarboxylase (DfDdc mutants)...
  33. Shen J, Zu K, Cass C, Beyer A, Hirsh J. Exon skipping by overexpression of a Drosophila heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:1822-5 pubmed
    ..overexpression of the Drosophila hnRNP HRB98DE leads to skipping of all internal exons in the Drosophila dopa decarboxylase (Ddc) pre-mRNA in vivo...
  34. Park S, George R, Cai Y, Chang H, Krantz D, Friggi Grelin F, et al. Cell-type-specific limitation on in vivo serotonin storage following ectopic expression of the Drosophila serotonin transporter, dSERT. J Neurobiol. 2006;66:452-62 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that a small number of neurons selectively express factor(s) required for 5-HT storage, and potentially for function of dSERT. ..
  35. Morgan B, Johnson W, Hirsh J. Regulated splicing produces different forms of dopa decarboxylase in the central nervous system and hypoderm of Drosophila melanogaster. EMBO J. 1986;5:3335-42 pubmed
    The dopa decarboxylase gene (Ddc) of Drosophila melanogaster is expressed in the hypoderm and the nervous system and promoter elements mediating differential expression in these tissues have been identified (Scholnick et al., 1986)...
  36. Marsh J, Wright T. Evidence for regulatory variants of the dopa decarboxylase and alpha-methyldopa hypersensitive loci in Drosophila. Genetics. 1986;112:249-65 pubmed
    ..Both phenotypes show tight genetic linkage to the dopa decarboxylase, Ddc, and l(2)amd genes (i.e., less than 0.05 cM distant)...
  37. Johnson W, McCormick C, Bray S, Hirsh J. A neuron-specific enhancer of the Drosophila dopa decarboxylase gene. Genes Dev. 1989;3:676-86 pubmed
    ..cis-regulatory elements are necessary for correct neuron-specific expression of the Drosophila melanogaster dopa decarboxylase gene, Ddc...
  38. Roy B, Singh A, Shetty C, Chaudhary V, North A, Landgraf M, et al. Metamorphosis of an identified serotonergic neuron in the Drosophila olfactory system. Neural Dev. 2007;2:20 pubmed
    ..Understanding the morphogenesis of such neurons, which have been shown in other systems to modulate the sensitivity and directionality of response to odors, links anatomy to the development of olfactory behavior. ..
  39. Keene A, Masek P. Optogenetic induction of aversive taste memory. Neuroscience. 2012;222:173-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, this optogenetic system provides a powerful new tool for interrogation of the central brain circuits that mediate memory formation. ..
  40. Sykes P, Condron B. Development and sensitivity to serotonin of Drosophila serotonergic varicosities in the central nervous system. Dev Biol. 2005;286:207-16 pubmed
    ..The effects of serotonin appear to be selective for serotonergic varicosities, as dopaminergic and corazonergic varicosities remain qualitatively intact following serotonin application. ..
  41. Mace K, Pearson J, McGinnis W. An epidermal barrier wound repair pathway in Drosophila is mediated by grainy head. Science. 2005;308:381-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This pathway includes a wound response enhancer from the Ddc gene that requires grainy head (grh) function and binding sites for the Grh transcription factor...
  42. Anh N, Nishitani M, Harada S, Yamaguchi M, Kamei K. Essential role of Duox in stabilization of Drosophila wing. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:33244-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These dDuox-knockdown fly lines would be useful tools for further studying dDuox functions during the development of Drosophila...
  43. Powell J, Sezzi E, Moriyama E, Gleason J, Caccone A. Analysis of a shift in codon usage in Drosophila. J Mol Evol. 2003;57 Suppl 1:S214-25 pubmed publisher
    ..However, we do not argue that this shift was adaptive in nature, rather it may be an example of a "frozen accident."..
  44. Scholnick S, Morgan B, Hirsh J. The cloned dopa decarboxylase gene is developmentally regulated when reintegrated into the Drosophila genome. Cell. 1983;34:37-45 pubmed
    The Drosophila dopa decarboxylase gene, Ddc, functions normally when reintroduced into flies. DNA containing a cloned Ddc gene inserted into a P element transposon was injected into early embryos...
  45. Callahan C, Muralidhar M, Lundgren S, Scully A, Thomas J. Control of neuronal pathway selection by a Drosophila receptor protein-tyrosine kinase family member. Nature. 1995;376:171-4 pubmed
    ..In drl mutant embryos these neurons fail to make the correct pathway choices. Our results provide evidence for receptor protein-tyrosine kinase involvement in key aspects of neuronal pathway recognition. ..
  46. Kramer H, Phistry M. Mutations in the Drosophila hook gene inhibit endocytosis of the boss transmembrane ligand into multivesicular bodies. J Cell Biol. 1996;133:1205-15 pubmed
  47. Tarr o R, Rodr guez Trelles F, Ayala F. Shared nucleotide composition biases among species and their impact on phylogenetic reconstructions of the Drosophilidae. Mol Biol Evol. 2001;18:1464-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analyses confidently place the Chymomyza genus as an outgroup closer than the genus Scaptodrosophila to the Drosophila genus and conclusively support the monophyly of the Sophophora subgenus...
  48. Kim S, Lee W. Role of DUOX in gut inflammation: lessons from Drosophila model of gut-microbiota interactions. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2014;3:116 pubmed publisher
  49. Jordan K, Morgan T, Mackay T. Quantitative trait loci for locomotor behavior in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2006;174:271-84 pubmed
    ..tests of mutations to identify 13 positional candidate genes affecting locomotor reactivity, including Dopa decarboxylase (Ddc), which catalyzes the final step in the synthesis of serotonin and dopamine...
  50. Sykes P, Norman H, Condron B. Variation in serotonergic and dopaminergic neuronal survival in the central nervous system of adult Drosophila. Cell Tissue Res. 2004;317:327-31 pubmed
    ..Changes in cell number attributable to age are therefore likely to be highly masked by developmental variation. The source of this variation is probably apoptosis-based cell loss during pupal development. ..
  51. Mackay T. The genetic architecture of quantitative traits: lessons from Drosophila. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2004;14:253-7 pubmed
    ..These observations offer valuable lessons for understanding the genetic basis of variation for complex traits in other organisms, including humans. ..
  52. O Grady P, DeSalle R. How the fruit fly changed (some of) its spots. Curr Biol. 2000;10:R75-7 pubmed
    ..While several genes have been shown to play a role in melanization, changes in a single gene - the one encoding tyrosine hydroxylase - are sufficient to generate novel pigmentation patterns. ..
  53. Walter M, Black B, Afshar G, Kermabon A, Wright T, Biessmann H. Temporal and spatial expression of the yellow gene in correlation with cuticle formation and dopa decarboxylase activity in Drosophila development. Dev Biol. 1991;147:32-45 pubmed
    ..At this stage the adult cuticle is unsclerotized and unpigmented and dopa decarboxylase levels, a key enzyme in catecholamine metabolism which provides the crosslinking agents as well as the ..
  54. O Brien M, Taghert P. A peritracheal neuropeptide system in insects: release of myomodulin-like peptides at ecdysis. J Exp Biol. 1998;201:193-209 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that peritracheal cells release MM-like peptides as part of a conserved feature of the endocrine regulation of insect ecdysis. ..
  55. Phillips A, Salkoff L, Kelly L. A neural gene from Drosophila melanogaster with homology to vertebrate and invertebrate glutamate decarboxylases. J Neurochem. 1993;61:1291-301 pubmed
    ..It is possible that the protein encoded by this gene is novel, not only in sequence and spatial expression, but also in substrate specificity. ..
  56. Chen C, Wu J, Lin H, Pai T, Fu T, Wu C, et al. Visualizing long-term memory formation in two neurons of the Drosophila brain. Science. 2012;335:678-85 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest an extra-MB memory circuit in Drosophila: LTM consolidation (MB to DAL), storage (DAL), and retrieval (DAL to MB)...
  57. Lundell M, Chu LaGraff Q, Doe C, Hirsh J. The engrailed and huckebein genes are essential for development of serotonin neurons in the Drosophila CNS. Mol Cell Neurosci. 1996;7:46-61 pubmed
    ..hkb appears to act at a step subsequent to NB delamination, since NB 7-3 is detectable in a strain containing a severe hkb allele. ..
  58. Maitre M. [Memory and synaptic plasticity]. Ann Biol Clin (Paris). 1996;54:49-66 pubmed
    ..The building of new synaptic contacts and/or the plastic evolution of existing synapses could explain long-term LTP and long-term memory traces. ..
  59. Konrad K, Wang D, Marsh J. Vitelline membrane biogenesis in Drosophila requires the activity of the alpha-methyl dopa hypersensitive gene (I(2)amd) in both the germline and follicle cells. Insect Mol Biol. 1993;1:179-87 pubmed
    ..Given its unique role in insects and its demonstrated sensitivity to dietary inhibitors, the amd gene product poses an attractive target for insect control...
  60. Spencer C, Gietz R, Hodgetts R. Overlapping transcription units in the dopa decarboxylase region of Drosophila. Nature. 1986;322:279-81 pubmed
    ..This 88-base-pair (bp) genomic region encodes the 3' terminus of the messenger RNA for the enzyme dopa decarboxylase (Ddc) and, in opposite orientation, the 3' terminus of the adjacent gene whose function is unknown...
  61. Schorderet D, Gartler S. Analysis of CpG suppression in methylated and nonmethylated species. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:957-61 pubmed
    ..We speculate that the excess of CpGs at position III-I in nonmethylated forms may be related to a requirement for minimal thermal stability of the DNA. ..
  62. Jackson F, Newby L, Kulkarni S. Drosophila GABAergic systems: sequence and expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase. J Neurochem. 1990;54:1068-78 pubmed
    ..This transcript class has a widespread distribution in the adult CNS. A smaller 2.6-kb transcript is expressed in a developmentally regulated manner; it is detected only in embryos and pupae. ..
  63. Kankare M, Salminen T, Laiho A, Vesala L, Hoikkala A. Changes in gene expression linked with adult reproductive diapause in a northern malt fly species: a candidate gene microarray study. BMC Ecol. 2010;10:3 pubmed publisher
    ..montana is worth of studying in more details. Also, further studies using the candidate gene microarray with more specific experimental designs and target tissues may reveal additional genes with more restricted expression patterns. ..
  64. Budnik V, Gorczyca M. SSB, an antigen that selectively labels morphologically distinct synaptic boutons at the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction. J Neurobiol. 1992;23:1054-65 pubmed
    ..Central nervous system (CNS) staining was restricted to a segmentally repeated pattern of cell bodies in the ventral ganglion and to a few small groups of cells in the brain lobes. ..