Gene Symbol: DCTN2-p50
Description: Dynactin 2, p50 subunit
Alias: CG8269, DCTN2, DMN, Dmel\CG8269, Dmn, Dynamitin, P50, dDyn, dmn, dyna, l(2)k16109, l(2)k16218, p50, p50/Dmn, p50/dynamitin, p50[Dmn], dynactin 2, p50 subunit, CG8269-PA, DCTN2-p50-PA, Dynactin2 p50, dynamitin, p50 dynamitin, p50-dynamitin, p50/Dynamitin
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Marques G, Haerry T, Crotty M, Xue M, Zhang B, O Connor M. Retrograde Gbb signaling through the Bmp type 2 receptor wishful thinking regulates systemic FMRFa expression in Drosophila. Development. 2003;130:5457-70 pubmed
    ..We propose that Wit and Gbb globally regulate NMJ function by controlling both the growth and transmitter release properties of the synapse as well as the expression of systemic modulators of NMJ synaptic activity. ..
  2. Wilkie G, Davis I. Drosophila wingless and pair-rule transcripts localize apically by dynein-mediated transport of RNA particles. Cell. 2001;105:209-19 pubmed
    ..We propose that dynein-dependent movement of RNA particles is a widely deployed mechanism for mRNA localization. ..
  3. Dix C, Soundararajan H, Dzhindzhev N, Begum F, Suter B, Ohkura H, et al. Lissencephaly-1 promotes the recruitment of dynein and dynactin to transported mRNAs. J Cell Biol. 2013;202:479-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data therefore reveal a critical role for Lis1 within the mRNA localization machinery and suggest a model in which Lis1 facilitates motor complex association with cargos by promoting the interaction of dynein with dynactin. ..
  4. Pilling A, Horiuchi D, Lively C, Saxton W. Kinesin-1 and Dynein are the primary motors for fast transport of mitochondria in Drosophila motor axons. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:2057-68 pubmed
  5. Wojcik E, Basto R, Serr M, Scaerou F, Karess R, Hays T. Kinetochore dynein: its dynamics and role in the transport of the Rough deal checkpoint protein. Nat Cell Biol. 2001;3:1001-7 pubmed
    ..A functional conjugate of dynamitin with green fluorescent protein accumulates rapidly at prometaphase kinetochores, and subsequently migrates off ..
  6. Wainman A, Creque J, Williams B, Williams E, Bonaccorsi S, Gatti M, et al. Roles of the Drosophila NudE protein in kinetochore function and centrosome migration. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:1747-58 pubmed publisher
    ..However, in the absence of NudE, the 'shedding' of proteins off the kinetochore is abrogated and the SAC cannot be turned off, implying that NudE regulates dynein function at the kinetochore. ..
  7. Haghnia M, Cavalli V, Shah S, Schimmelpfeng K, Brusch R, Yang G, et al. Dynactin is required for coordinated bidirectional motility, but not for dynein membrane attachment. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:2081-9 pubmed
  8. Kim H, Ling S, Rogers G, Kural C, Selvin P, Rogers S, et al. Microtubule binding by dynactin is required for microtubule organization but not cargo transport. J Cell Biol. 2007;176:641-51 pubmed
    ..Thus, dynactin binding to microtubules is required for organizing spindle microtubule arrays but not cargo motility in vivo. ..
  9. Morales Mulia S, Scholey J. Spindle pole organization in Drosophila S2 cells by dynein, abnormal spindle protein (Asp), and KLP10A. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:3176-86 pubmed
    ..These results extend recent findings from Xenopus extracts to Drosophila cultured cells and suggest that common pathways contribute to spindle pole organization and length determination. ..

More Information


  1. Januschke J, Gervais L, Dass S, Kaltschmidt J, Lopez Schier H, St Johnston D, et al. Polar transport in the Drosophila oocyte requires Dynein and Kinesin I cooperation. Curr Biol. 2002;12:1971-81 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, Kinesin-dependent localization of Dynein suggests that both motors are components of the same complex and therefore might cooperate in recycling each other to the opposite microtubule pole. ..
  2. Sitaram P, Anderson M, Jodoin J, Lee E, Lee L. Regulation of dynein localization and centrosome positioning by Lis-1 and asunder during Drosophila spermatogenesis. Development. 2012;139:2945-54 pubmed publisher
    ..We present a model in which Lis-1 and asun cooperate to regulate dynein localization and centrosome positioning during Drosophila spermatogenesis...
  3. Eckley D, Schroer T. Interactions between the evolutionarily conserved, actin-related protein, Arp11, actin, and Arp1. Mol Biol Cell. 2003;14:2645-54 pubmed
    ..Arp11 significantly decreases the formation of these organized Arp1 assemblies. Finally, this assay was used to confirm the identity of a putative Arp11 homolog in Drosophila melanogaster. ..
  4. Reis G, Yang G, Szpankowski L, Weaver C, Shah S, Robinson J, et al. Molecular motor function in axonal transport in vivo probed by genetic and computational analysis in Drosophila. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:1700-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data also suggest kinesin-1 and cytoplasmic dynein motors assemble in stable mixtures on APP vesicles and their direction and velocity are controlled at least in part by dynein intermediate chain. ..
  5. Amrute Nayak M, Bullock S. Single-molecule assays reveal that RNA localization signals regulate dynein-dynactin copy number on individual transcript cargoes. Nat Cell Biol. 2012;14:416-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings lead to a model in which RNA localization signals produce highly polarized distributions of transcript populations through modest changes in motor copy number on single mRNA molecules. ..
  6. Whited J, Cassell A, Brouillette M, Garrity P. Dynactin is required to maintain nuclear position within postmitotic Drosophila photoreceptor neurons. Development. 2004;131:4677-86 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the maintenance of photoreceptor nuclear position depends on a balance of plus-end and minus-end directed microtubule motor function. ..
  7. Duncan J, Warrior R. The cytoplasmic dynein and kinesin motors have interdependent roles in patterning the Drosophila oocyte. Curr Biol. 2002;12:1982-91 pubmed
    ..in the oocyte by disrupting motor activity through temporally restricted expression of the dynactin subunit, dynamitin. Our results indicate that dynein is required for several processes that impact patterning; such processes ..
  8. Wu C, Zong Q, Du A, Zhang W, Yao H, Yu X, et al. Knockdown of Dynamitin in testes significantly decreased male fertility in Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 2016;420:79-89 pubmed publisher
    b>Dynamitin (Dmn) is a major component of dynactin, a multiprotein complex playing important roles in a variety of intracellular motile events. We previously found that Wolbachia bacterial infection resulted in a reduction of Dmn protein...
  9. Mirouse V, Formstecher E, Couderc J. Interaction between Polo and BicD proteins links oocyte determination and meiosis control in Drosophila. Development. 2006;133:4005-13 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our data indicate the existence of a positive feedback loop between BicD and Polo, and we propose that this loop represents a functional link between oocyte specification and the control of meiosis. ..
  10. Butzlaff M, Hannan S, Karsten P, Lenz S, Ng J, Voßfeldt H, et al. Impaired retrograde transport by the Dynein/Dynactin complex contributes to Tau-induced toxicity. Hum Mol Genet. 2015;24:3623-37 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our findings contribute to the elucidation of disease mechanisms in tauopathies like FTDP-17 or AD. ..
  11. Cytrynbaum E, Scholey J, Mogilner A. A force balance model of early spindle pole separation in Drosophila embryos. Biophys J. 2003;84:757-69 pubmed
  12. Zheng Y, Wildonger J, Ye B, Zhang Y, Kita A, Younger S, et al. Dynein is required for polarized dendritic transport and uniform microtubule orientation in axons. Nat Cell Biol. 2008;10:1172-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that dynein is required for the distinguishing properties of the axon and dendrites: without dynein, dendritic organelles and proteins enter the axon and the axonal microtubules are no longer uniform in polarity. ..
  13. Dockendorff T, Robertson S, Faulkner D, Jongens T. Genetic characterization of the 44D-45B region of the Drosophila melanogaster genome based on an F2 lethal screen. Mol Gen Genet. 2000;263:137-43 pubmed
    ..This screen may have uncovered mutant alleles of these genes. The results of complementation tests with previously identified genes in 44D-45B suggests that over half of the complementation groups identified in this screen may be novel. ..
  14. Anderson M, Jodoin J, Lee E, Hales K, Hays T, Lee L. Asunder is a critical regulator of dynein-dynactin localization during Drosophila spermatogenesis. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:2709-21 pubmed publisher
  15. Yang J, Bai J, Lee T. Dynein-dynactin complex is essential for dendritic restriction of TM1-containing Drosophila Dscam. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3504 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study suggest multiple mechanisms of dendritic protein targeting. Notably, dynein-dynactin plays a role in excluding dendritic Dscam, but not Rdl, from axons by retrograde transport. ..
  16. Weil T, Forrest K, Gavis E. Localization of bicoid mRNA in late oocytes is maintained by continual active transport. Dev Cell. 2006;11:251-62 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, our results indicate that association of bicoid with the anterior oocyte cortex is dynamic and support a model for maintenance of bicoid localization by continual active transport on microtubules. ..
  17. Winkler F, Gummalla M, Künneke L, Lv Z, Zippelius A, Aspelmeier T, et al. Fluctuation Analysis of Centrosomes Reveals a Cortical Function of Kinesin-1. Biophys J. 2015;109:856-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Kinesin-1 may mediate linkage of the microtubule (+)-ends to the actin cortex. Consistent with this model is our finding that Kinesin-1-GFP accumulates at the cortical actin caps. ..
  18. Cohen R. Oocyte patterning: dynein and kinesin, inc. Curr Biol. 2002;12:R797-9 pubmed
    ..The orientation of microtubules in the oocyte suggests that kinesin mediates anterior transport indirectly, by activating and/or recycling dynein. ..
  19. Gunawardena S, Her L, Brusch R, Laymon R, Niesman I, Gordesky Gold B, et al. Disruption of axonal transport by loss of huntingtin or expression of pathogenic polyQ proteins in Drosophila. Neuron. 2003;40:25-40 pubmed
    ..Thus, disruption of axonal transport by pathogenic polyQ proteins could contribute to early neuropathology in Huntington's and other polyQ expansion diseases. ..
  20. Gervais L, Claret S, Januschke J, Roth S, Guichet A. PIP5K-dependent production of PIP2 sustains microtubule organization to establish polarized transport in the Drosophila oocyte. Development. 2008;135:3829-38 pubmed publisher
  21. Nicolas E, Chenouard N, Olivo Marin J, Guichet A. A dual role for actin and microtubule cytoskeleton in the transport of Golgi units from the nurse cells to the oocyte across ring canals. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:556-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that actin networks may be involved in RC crossing through a myosin II step process, as well as in dispatching Golgi units inside the oocyte subcompartments. ..
  22. Jaramillo A, Weil T, Goodhouse J, Gavis E, Schupbach T. The dynamics of fluorescently labeled endogenous gurken mRNA in Drosophila. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:887-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, we have observed the nature of localized grk mRNA in live oocytes and propose that its maintenance changes from a dynamic to a static process as oogenesis progresses. ..
  23. Kracklauer M, Wiora H, Deery W, Chen X, Bolival B, Romanowicz D, et al. The Drosophila SUN protein Spag4 cooperates with the coiled-coil protein Yuri Gagarin to maintain association of the basal body and spermatid nucleus. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:2763-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The later defects in spermatogenesis seen for yuri and spag4 mutants are similar, suggesting they could be secondary to initial disruption of events at the nuclear surface. ..
  24. Li M, Serr M, Newman E, Hays T. The Drosophila tctex-1 light chain is dispensable for essential cytoplasmic dynein functions but is required during spermatid differentiation. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:3005-14 pubmed
    ..Our results provide evidence that the function of the 14-kDa light chain in Drosophila is distinct from other dynein subunits and is not required for any essential functions in early development or in the adult organism. ..
  25. Menzel N, Chari A, Fischer U, Linder M, Raabe T. A 5'-fluorosulfonylbenzoyladenosine-based method to identify physiological substrates of a Drosophila p21-activated kinase. Anal Biochem. 2007;368:178-84 pubmed
    ..Among candidate proteins identified by mass spectrometry, the dynactin complex subunit dynamitin was verified as a bona fide Mbt phosphorylation substrate and interaction partner, suggesting an involvement of ..
  26. Rodal A, Motola Barnes R, Littleton J. Nervous wreck and Cdc42 cooperate to regulate endocytic actin assembly during synaptic growth. J Neurosci. 2008;28:8316-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results suggest that synaptic growth activated by growth factor signaling is controlled at an endosomal compartment via coordinated Nwk and Cdc42-dependent actin assembly. ..
  27. Liu G, Sanghavi P, Bollinger K, Perry L, Marshall B, Roon P, et al. Efficient Endocytic Uptake and Maturation in Drosophila Oocytes Requires Dynamitin/p50. Genetics. 2015;201:631-49 pubmed publisher
    ..A central component of this complex is Dynamitin/p50 (Dmn). Dmn is required for endosome motility in mammalian cell lines...
  28. Hughes J, Bullock S, Ish Horowicz D. Inscuteable mRNA localization is dynein-dependent and regulates apicobasal polarity and spindle length in Drosophila neuroblasts. Curr Biol. 2004;14:1950-6 pubmed
  29. Ferree P, Frydman H, Li J, Cao J, Wieschaus E, Sullivan W. Wolbachia utilizes host microtubules and Dynein for anterior localization in the Drosophila oocyte. PLoS Pathog. 2005;1:e14 pubmed
    ..These interactions may also play a role in bacterial motility and replication, ultimately leading to the bacteria's efficient maternal transmission. ..
  30. Sulkowski M, Kim Y, Serpe M. Postsynaptic glutamate receptors regulate local BMP signaling at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. Development. 2014;141:436-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, synaptic pMad functions as a local sensor for NMJ synapse activity and has the potential to coordinate synaptic activity with a BMP retrograde signal required for synapse growth and homeostasis. ..
  31. Wong M, Zhou C, Shakiryanova D, Lloyd T, Deitcher D, Levitan E. Neuropeptide delivery to synapses by long-range vesicle circulation and sporadic capture. Cell. 2012;148:1029-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, vesicle circulation, which includes long-range retrograde transport and inefficient bidirectional capture, overcomes the limitations of one-way anterograde transport to uniformly supply release sites with DCVs...
  32. Januschke J, Nicolas E, Compagnon J, Formstecher E, Goud B, Guichet A. Rab6 and the secretory pathway affect oocyte polarity in Drosophila. Development. 2007;134:3419-25 pubmed
    ..Our results point to a possible connection between Rab protein-mediated secretion, organization of the cytoskeleton and mRNA transport. ..
  33. Soundararajan H, Bullock S. The influence of dynein processivity control, MAPs, and microtubule ends on directional movement of a localising mRNA. elife. 2014;3:e01596 pubmed publisher
    ..DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01596.001. ..
  34. Huang Y, Xie J, Wang T. A Fluorescence-Based Genetic Screen to Study Retinal Degeneration in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0144925 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate that this "Rh1::GFP ey-flp/hid" method enables high-throughput F1 genetic screens to rapidly and precisely identify mutations of retinal degeneration. ..
  35. Zimyanin V, Lowe N, St Johnston D. An oskar-dependent positive feedback loop maintains the polarity of the Drosophila oocyte. Curr Biol. 2007;17:353-9 pubmed
  36. Hammesfahr B, Kollmar M. Evolution of the eukaryotic dynactin complex, the activator of cytoplasmic dynein. BMC Evol Biol. 2012;12:95 pubmed publisher
    ..polypeptides of which eight are unique to this complex, namely dynactin1 (p150(Glued)), dynactin2 (p50 or dynamitin), dynactin3 (p24), dynactin4 (p62), dynactin5 (p25), dynactin6 (p27), and the actin-related proteins Arp1 and ..
  37. Lloyd T, Machamer J, O Hara K, Kim J, Collins S, Wong M, et al. The p150(Glued) CAP-Gly domain regulates initiation of retrograde transport at synaptic termini. Neuron. 2012;74:344-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the p150(Glued) CAP-Gly domain regulates dynein-mediated retrograde transport at synaptic termini, and this function of dynactin is disrupted by a mutation that causes motor neuron disease. ..
  38. Higashi Kovtun M, Mosca T, Dickman D, Meinertzhagen I, Schwarz T. Importin-beta11 regulates synaptic phosphorylated mothers against decapentaplegic, and thereby influences synaptic development and function at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. J Neurosci. 2010;30:5253-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, importin-beta11 function interacts with the BMP pathway to regulate a pool of pMAD that must be present at the presynapse for its proper development and function. ..
  39. Navarro C, Bullock S, Lehmann R. Altered dynein-dependent transport in piRNA pathway mutants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:9691-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that aggregate formation is a cellular response to protect germ cells from DNA damage caused by elevated retrotransposon expression. ..
  40. Basto R, Scaërou F, Mische S, Wojcik E, Lefebvre C, Gomes R, et al. In vivo dynamics of the rough deal checkpoint protein during Drosophila mitosis. Curr Biol. 2004;14:56-61 pubmed