Gene Symbol: DCTN1-p150
Description: Dynactin 1, p150 subunit
Alias: CG9206, DCTN1, DYNA_DROME, Dmel\CG9206, FCP-D, Glu, Glued, P150, P150A, P150[Glued], p150, p150/Glued, p150/glued, p150[Glued], p150[glued], dynactin 1, p150 subunit, CG9206-PA, DCTN1-p150-PA, Dynactin1 p150 A, dynactin, dynactin P150, glued, p150-Glued, p150[glued], p150glued
Species: fruit fly
Products:     DCTN1-p150

Top Publications

  1. Allen M, Shan X, Caruccio P, Froggett S, Moffat K, Murphey R. Targeted expression of truncated glued disrupts giant fiber synapse formation in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 1999;19:9374-84 pubmed
    b>Glued(1) (Gl(1)) mutants produce a truncated protein that acts as a poison subunit and disables the cytoplasmic retrograde motor dynein. Heterozygous mutants have axonal defects in the adult eye and the nervous system...
  2. Holleran E, Karki S, Holzbaur E. The role of the dynactin complex in intracellular motility. Int Rev Cytol. 1998;182:69-109 pubmed
    ..b>p150Glued, a vertebrate homologue of the Drosophila gene Glued, is the largest polypeptide in the dynactin complex with ..
  3. Reddy S, Jin P, Trimarchi J, Caruccio P, Phillis R, Murphey R. Mutant molecular motors disrupt neural circuits in Drosophila. J Neurobiol. 1997;33:711-23 pubmed
    A dominant negative mutation, Glued1, that codes for a component of the dynactin complex, disrupted the axonal anatomy of leg sensory neurons in Drosophila...
  4. Siller K, Serr M, Steward R, Hays T, Doe C. Live imaging of Drosophila brain neuroblasts reveals a role for Lis1/dynactin in spindle assembly and mitotic checkpoint control. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:5127-40 pubmed
    ..Lis1 binds dynactin and the dynein motor complex, but the role of Lis1 in many dynein/dynactin-dependent processes is not clearly ..
  5. Iyadurai S, Robinson J, Ma L, He Y, Mische S, Li M, et al. Dynein and Star interact in EGFR signaling and ligand trafficking. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:2643-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The Glued (Gl) locus encodes the p150 subunit of the dynactin complex, an activator of cytoplasmic dynein-driven motility...
  6. Sisson J, Field C, Ventura R, Royou A, Sullivan W. Lava lamp, a novel peripheral golgi protein, is required for Drosophila melanogaster cellularization. J Cell Biol. 2000;151:905-18 pubmed
    ..Our results are consistent with the idea that animal cell cytokinesis depends on both actomyosin-based contraction and Golgi-derived membrane secretion. ..
  7. Boylan K, Serr M, Hays T. A molecular genetic analysis of the interaction between the cytoplasmic dynein intermediate chain and the glued (dynactin) complex. Mol Biol Cell. 2000;11:3791-803 pubmed
    ..between the dynein intermediate chain subunit and the p150-Glued component of the dynein regulatory complex, dynactin, has supported the hypothesis that the intermediate chain is a key modulator of dynein attachment to cellular ..
  8. Pielage J, Fetter R, Davis G. Presynaptic spectrin is essential for synapse stabilization. Curr Biol. 2005;15:918-28 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that presynaptic spectrin functions as an essential presynaptic scaffold that may link synaptic cell adhesion with the stabilization of the underlying microtubule cytoskeleton. ..
  9. Sanghavi P, Lu S, Gonsalvez G. A functional link between localized Oskar, dynamic microtubules, and endocytosis. Dev Biol. 2012;367:66-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, multiple polarity-determining pathways are functionally linked in the Drosophila oocytes. ..

More Information


  1. Swaroop A, Sun J, Paco Larson M, Garen A. Molecular organization and expression of the genetic locus glued in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Cell Biol. 1986;6:833-41 pubmed
    The Glued locus of Drosophila melanogaster is genetically defined as the functional unit which is affected by the dominant Glued mutation Gl...
  2. Gunawardena S, Her L, Brusch R, Laymon R, Niesman I, Gordesky Gold B, et al. Disruption of axonal transport by loss of huntingtin or expression of pathogenic polyQ proteins in Drosophila. Neuron. 2003;40:25-40 pubmed
    ..Thus, disruption of axonal transport by pathogenic polyQ proteins could contribute to early neuropathology in Huntington's and other polyQ expansion diseases. ..
  3. Wainman A, Creque J, Williams B, Williams E, Bonaccorsi S, Gatti M, et al. Roles of the Drosophila NudE protein in kinetochore function and centrosome migration. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:1747-58 pubmed publisher
    ..However, in the absence of NudE, the 'shedding' of proteins off the kinetochore is abrogated and the SAC cannot be turned off, implying that NudE regulates dynein function at the kinetochore. ..
  4. Mische S, Li M, Serr M, Hays T. Direct observation of regulated ribonucleoprotein transport across the nurse cell/oocyte boundary. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:2254-63 pubmed
    ..We speculate that after delivery to the oocyte, RNP complexes may disassemble and be remodeled with appropriate accessory factors to ensure proper localization. ..
  5. Basto R, Scaƫrou F, Mische S, Wojcik E, Lefebvre C, Gomes R, et al. In vivo dynamics of the rough deal checkpoint protein during Drosophila mitosis. Curr Biol. 2004;14:56-61 pubmed
    ..and Zw10 are components of a complex required for the metazoan metaphase checkpoint and for recruitment of dynein/dynactin to the kinetochore...
  6. Kim H, Ling S, Rogers G, Kural C, Selvin P, Rogers S, et al. Microtubule binding by dynactin is required for microtubule organization but not cargo transport. J Cell Biol. 2007;176:641-51 pubmed
    b>Dynactin links cytoplasmic dynein and other motors to cargo and is involved in organizing radial microtubule arrays...
  7. Eaton B, Fetter R, Davis G. Dynactin is necessary for synapse stabilization. Neuron. 2002;34:729-41 pubmed
    ..identify the molecular mechanisms that regulate synapse retraction identified Arp-1/centractin, a subunit of the dynactin complex...
  8. Morales Mulia S, Scholey J. Spindle pole organization in Drosophila S2 cells by dynein, abnormal spindle protein (Asp), and KLP10A. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:3176-86 pubmed
    ..We evaluated the functions of the dynein-dynactin complex by using RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated depletion of distinct subunits in Drosophila S2 cells...
  9. Fan S, Ready D. Glued participates in distinct microtubule-based activities in Drosophila eye development. Development. 1997;124:1497-507 pubmed
    A C-terminal truncation of Glued, the Drosophila homolog of the cytoplasmic dynein activating protein, dynactin, results in a severe and complex retinal phenotype, including a roughening of the facet array, malformation of the ..
  10. Whited J, Cassell A, Brouillette M, Garrity P. Dynactin is required to maintain nuclear position within postmitotic Drosophila photoreceptor neurons. Development. 2004;131:4677-86 pubmed
    ..In this work, we demonstrate that the Dynactin complex (a regulator of the microtubule motor protein Dynein) is required to maintain the position of the nucleus ..
  11. Papoulas O, Hays T, Sisson J. The golgin Lava lamp mediates dynein-based Golgi movements during Drosophila cellularization. Nat Cell Biol. 2005;7:612-8 pubmed
    ..that Lava lamp (Lva), a golgin protein that is required for cellularization, specifically associates with dynein, dynactin, cytoplasmic linker protein-190 (CLIP-190) and Golgi spectrin, and is required for the dynein-dependent targeting ..
  12. Vendra G, Hamilton R, Davis I. Dynactin suppresses the retrograde movement of apically localized mRNA in Drosophila blastoderm embryos. RNA. 2007;13:1860-7 pubmed
    ..In contrast, Dynactin, a Dynein processivity factor, is required to suppress retrograde mRNA movements, as well as for efficient minus ..
  13. McCabe B, Marques G, Haghighi A, Fetter R, Crotty M, Haerry T, et al. The BMP homolog Gbb provides a retrograde signal that regulates synaptic growth at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. Neuron. 2003;39:241-54 pubmed
    ..with this notion, we find that blocking retrograde axonal transport by overexpression of dominant-negative p150/Glued in neurons inhibits BMP signaling in motoneurons...
  14. Haghnia M, Cavalli V, Shah S, Schimmelpfeng K, Brusch R, Yang G, et al. Dynactin is required for coordinated bidirectional motility, but not for dynein membrane attachment. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:2081-9 pubmed
    ..Critical to dynein function is dynactin, a multiprotein complex commonly thought to be required for dynein attachment to membrane compartments (Karki and ..
  15. Eckley D, Schroer T. Interactions between the evolutionarily conserved, actin-related protein, Arp11, actin, and Arp1. Mol Biol Cell. 2003;14:2645-54 pubmed
    The dynein activator dynactin is a multiprotein complex with distinct microtubule- and cargo-binding domains...
  16. Duncan J, Warrior R. The cytoplasmic dynein and kinesin motors have interdependent roles in patterning the Drosophila oocyte. Curr Biol. 2002;12:1982-91 pubmed
    ..dynein function in the oocyte by disrupting motor activity through temporally restricted expression of the dynactin subunit, dynamitin...
  17. Gross S, Welte M, Block S, Wieschaus E. Coordination of opposite-polarity microtubule motors. J Cell Biol. 2002;156:715-24 pubmed
    ..To this end we impaired the minus-end transport machinery using dynein and dynactin mutations, and then investigated whether plus-end motion was improved or disrupted...
  18. Mosley Bishop K, Li Q, Patterson L, Fischer J. Molecular analysis of the klarsicht gene and its role in nuclear migration within differentiating cells of the Drosophila eye. Curr Biol. 1999;9:1211-20 pubmed
  19. Dix C, Soundararajan H, Dzhindzhev N, Begum F, Suter B, Ohkura H, et al. Lissencephaly-1 promotes the recruitment of dynein and dynactin to transported mRNAs. J Cell Biol. 2013;202:479-94 pubmed publisher
    ..we uncovered an important requirement for Lis1 in promoting the recruitment of dynein and its accessory complex dynactin to RNA localization complexes...
  20. Holzbaur E, Hammarback J, Paschal B, Kravit N, Pfister K, Vallee R. Homology of a 150K cytoplasmic dynein-associated polypeptide with the Drosophila gene Glued. Nature. 1991;351:579-83 pubmed
    ..It has extensive homology with the product of the Drosophila gene Glued, which encodes a polypeptide of Mr 148K...
  21. Siller K, Doe C. Lis1/dynactin regulates metaphase spindle orientation in Drosophila neuroblasts. Dev Biol. 2008;319:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutants in the Lis1/dynactin complex strongly decrease maximum and average spindle velocity, consistent with this motor complex mediating ..
  22. LORENZO D, Li M, Mische S, Armbrust K, Ranum L, Hays T. Spectrin mutations that cause spinocerebellar ataxia type 5 impair axonal transport and induce neurodegeneration in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 2010;189:143-58 pubmed publisher
    ..These phenotypes are genetically enhanced by both dynein and dynactin loss-of-function mutations...
  23. Keshishian H, Kim Y. Orchestrating development and function: retrograde BMP signaling in the Drosophila nervous system. Trends Neurosci. 2004;27:143-7 pubmed
    ..Together, the results suggest that retrograde growth factor signaling by BMPs integrates neuromuscular development and function at both local and global levels in the animal. ..
  24. Lei Y, Warrior R. The Drosophila Lissencephaly1 (DLis1) gene is required for nuclear migration. Dev Biol. 2000;226:57-72 pubmed
    ..DLis1 shows genetic interactions with the Glued and Dynein heavy chain subunits of the dynein/dynactin complex, supporting the idea that the Lis1 family of proteins plays a role in microtubule motor-based nuclear ..
  25. Allan D, St Pierre S, Miguel Aliaga I, Thor S. Specification of neuropeptide cell identity by the integration of retrograde BMP signaling and a combinatorial transcription factor code. Cell. 2003;113:73-86 pubmed
    ..Thus, an intrinsic transcription factor code integrates with an extrinsic retrograde signal to select a specific neuropeptide identity within peptidergic cells. ..
  26. Martin M, Iyadurai S, Gassman A, Gindhart J, Hays T, Saxton W. Cytoplasmic dynein, the dynactin complex, and kinesin are interdependent and essential for fast axonal transport. Mol Biol Cell. 1999;10:3717-28 pubmed
    ..In extruded axoplasm, antibody disruption of kinesin or the dynactin complex (a dynein activator) inhibits both retrograde and anterograde transport...
  27. Li X, Kuromi H, Briggs L, Green D, Rocha J, Sweeney S, et al. Bicaudal-D binds clathrin heavy chain to promote its transport and augments synaptic vesicle recycling. EMBO J. 2010;29:992-1006 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results implicate BicD as a new player in clathrin-associated trafficking processes and show a novel requirement for microtubule-based motor transport in the synaptic vesicle cycle. ..
  28. Harte P, Kankel D. Analysis of visual system development in Drosophila melanogaster: mutations at the Glued locus. Dev Biol. 1983;99:88-102 pubmed
    We have analyzed several aspects of the development of flies carrying mutations at the Glued locus...
  29. Delanoue R, Davis I. Dynein anchors its mRNA cargo after apical transport in the Drosophila blastoderm embryo. Cell. 2005;122:97-106 pubmed
    ..We propose a general principle that could also apply to other dynein cargo and to some other molecular motors, whereby cargo transport and anchoring reside in the same molecule. ..
  30. Tinsley J, Minke P, Bruno K, Plamann M. p150Glued, the largest subunit of the dynactin complex, is nonessential in Neurospora but required for nuclear distribution. Mol Biol Cell. 1996;7:731-42 pubmed
    ..b>p150Glued, the largest subunit of dynactin, has been identified in vertebrates and Drosophila and recently has been shown ..
  31. Wojcik E, Basto R, Serr M, Scaerou F, Karess R, Hays T. Kinetochore dynein: its dynamics and role in the transport of the Rough deal checkpoint protein. Nat Cell Biol. 2001;3:1001-7 pubmed
    We describe the dynamics of kinetochore dynein-dynactin in living Drosophila embryos and examine the effect of mutant dynein on the metaphase checkpoint...
  32. Boylan K, Hays T. The gene for the intermediate chain subunit of cytoplasmic dynein is essential in Drosophila. Genetics. 2002;162:1211-20 pubmed
    ..enhance the rough eye phenotype of Glued(1), a dominant mutation in the gene for the p150 subunit of the dynactin complex, a dynein activator...
  33. Harte P, Kankel D. Genetic analysis of mutations at the Glued locus and interacting loci in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1982;101:477-501 pubmed
    A genetic analysis of the dominant mutation Glued that perturbs the development of the normal axonal architecture of the fly's visual system was undertaken. Ten new alleles at this locus were identified and characterized...
  34. Swan A, Nguyen T, Suter B. Drosophila Lissencephaly-1 functions with Bic-D and dynein in oocyte determination and nuclear positioning. Nat Cell Biol. 1999;1:444-9 pubmed
  35. Pilling A, Horiuchi D, Lively C, Saxton W. Kinesin-1 and Dynein are the primary motors for fast transport of mitochondria in Drosophila motor axons. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:2057-68 pubmed
    ..Tests of the possible coordination factor P150(Glued) suggested that it indeed influenced both motors on axonal mitochondria, but there was no evidence that its ..
  36. Waterman Storer C, Holzbaur E. The product of the Drosophila gene, Glued, is the functional homologue of the p150Glued component of the vertebrate dynactin complex. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:1153-9 pubmed
    b>p150Glued is the largest polypeptide in the dynactin complex, a protein heteromultimer that binds to and may mediate the microtubule-based motor cytoplasmic dynein...
  37. Delcros J, Prigent C, Giet R. Dynactin targets Pavarotti-KLP to the central spindle during anaphase and facilitates cytokinesis in Drosophila S2 cells. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:4431-41 pubmed
    The dynactin complex cooperates with the dynein complex in various systems for mitotic completion. Here we analysed the mitotic phenotype of Drosophila S2 cells following the knockdown of the dynactin subunit p150(Glued)...
  38. McGrail M, Gepner J, Silvanovich A, Ludmann S, Serr M, Hays T. Regulation of cytoplasmic dynein function in vivo by the Drosophila Glued complex. J Cell Biol. 1995;131:411-25 pubmed
    The Drosophila Glued gene product shares sequence homology with the p150 component of vertebrate dynactin. Dynactin is a multiprotein complex that stimulates cytoplasmic dynein-mediated vesicle motility in vitro...
  39. Murphey R, Caruccio P, Getzinger M, Westgate P, Phillis R. Dynein-dynactin function and sensory axon growth during Drosophila metamorphosis: A role for retrograde motors. Dev Biol. 1999;209:86-97 pubmed
    Mutations in the genes for components of the dynein-dynactin complex disrupt axon path finding and synaptogenesis during metamorphosis in the Drosophila central nervous system...
  40. Swaroop A, Paco Larson M, Garen A. Molecular genetics of a transposon-induced dominant mutation in the Drosophila locus Glued. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985;82:1751-5 pubmed
    The organization of the Drosophila locus Glued containing the dominant allele Gl was shown to differ from that of the normal locus by an insertion of a 9-kilobase-pair DNA segment near the 3' end of a transcribed region...
  41. Dzhindzhev N, Rogers S, Vale R, Ohkura H. Distinct mechanisms govern the localisation of Drosophila CLIP-190 to unattached kinetochores and microtubule plus-ends. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:3781-90 pubmed
    ..This localisation depends on the dynein-dynactin complex and Lis1 which also localise to unattached kinetochores...
  42. Nyarko A, Song Y, Barbar E. Intrinsic disorder in dynein intermediate chain modulates its interactions with NudE and dynactin. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:24884-93 pubmed publisher
    ..a subset of the bi-segmental binding region reported for p150(Glued), a subunit of the dynein activator protein dynactin. Although the IC binding domains of both NudE and p150(Glued) form dimeric coiled-coils and bind IC at a common ..
  43. Garen S, Kankel D. Golgi and genetic mosaic analyses of visual system mutants in Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 1983;96:445-66 pubmed
    ..of individual neurons in the visual systems of the Canton-S wild-type strain, of flies expressing mutations at the Glued, rough, glass, and uneven loci, all of which affect the organization of the visual system, and of genetic mosaics ..
  44. Marques G, Haerry T, Crotty M, Xue M, Zhang B, O Connor M. Retrograde Gbb signaling through the Bmp type 2 receptor wishful thinking regulates systemic FMRFa expression in Drosophila. Development. 2003;130:5457-70 pubmed
    ..We propose that Wit and Gbb globally regulate NMJ function by controlling both the growth and transmitter release properties of the synapse as well as the expression of systemic modulators of NMJ synaptic activity. ..
  45. Rieckhof G, Yoshihara M, Guan Z, Littleton J. Presynaptic N-type calcium channels regulate synaptic growth. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:41099-108 pubmed
    ..Linking presynaptic voltage-gated calcium entry to downstream calcium-sensitive synaptic growth regulators provides an efficient activity-dependent mechanism for modifying synaptic strength. ..
  46. Li Z, Wang L, Hays T, Cai Y. Dynein-mediated apical localization of crumbs transcripts is required for Crumbs activity in epithelial polarity. J Cell Biol. 2008;180:31-8 pubmed publisher
  47. Rogers G, Rusan N, Peifer M, Rogers S. A multicomponent assembly pathway contributes to the formation of acentrosomal microtubule arrays in interphase Drosophila cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:3163-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results modify our view of the cycle of centrosome function and reveal a multi-component acentrosomal microtubule assembly pathway to establish interphase microtubule arrays in Drosophila. ..
  48. Jauffred B, Llense F, Sommer B, Wang Z, Martin C, Bellaiche Y. Regulation of centrosome movements by numb and the collapsin response mediator protein during Drosophila sensory progenitor asymmetric division. Development. 2013;140:2657-68 pubmed publisher
  49. Swaroop A, Swaroop M, Garen A. Sequence analysis of the complete cDNA and encoded polypeptide for the Glued gene of Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987;84:6501-5 pubmed
    The complete cDNA sequence for the Glued gene of wild-type Drosophila melanogaster contains an open reading frame encoding 1319 amino acids, which constitute the Glued polypeptide...
  50. Pallavi S, Shashidhara L. Egfr/Ras pathway mediates interactions between peripodial and disc proper cells in Drosophila wing discs. Development. 2003;130:4931-41 pubmed
    ..These results on signaling between squamous and columnar epithelia are particularly significant in the context of in vitro studies using human cell lines that suggest a role for the Egfr/Ras pathway in metastasis and tumour progression. ..
  51. Cohen R. Oocyte patterning: dynein and kinesin, inc. Curr Biol. 2002;12:R797-9 pubmed
    ..The orientation of microtubules in the oocyte suggests that kinesin mediates anterior transport indirectly, by activating and/or recycling dynein. ..
  52. Rawson J, Kreko T, Davison H, Mahoney R, Bokov A, Chang L, et al. Effects of diet on synaptic vesicle release in dynactin complex mutants: a mechanism for improved vitality during motor disease. Aging Cell. 2012;11:418-27 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Dynactin mutant flies have significant increases in mortality rates and exhibit progressive loss of motor function...
  53. Clark S, Sharp N, Rowe L, Agrawal A. Relative effectiveness of mating success and sperm competition at eliminating deleterious mutations in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37351 pubmed publisher
    ..Establishing whether the various stages of sexual selection affect deleterious mutations differently, and to what extent, remains an important issue to resolve. ..
  54. Mathew D, Ataman B, Chen J, Zhang Y, Cumberledge S, Budnik V. Wingless signaling at synapses is through cleavage and nuclear import of receptor DFrizzled2. Science. 2005;310:1344-7 pubmed
    ..We conclude that, at synapses, Wingless signal transduction occurs through the nuclear localization of DFrizzled2-C for potential transcriptional regulation of synapse development. ..
  55. Roy B, Singh A, Shetty C, Chaudhary V, North A, Landgraf M, et al. Metamorphosis of an identified serotonergic neuron in the Drosophila olfactory system. Neural Dev. 2007;2:20 pubmed
    ..Understanding the morphogenesis of such neurons, which have been shown in other systems to modulate the sensitivity and directionality of response to odors, links anatomy to the development of olfactory behavior. ..
  56. Ma L, Johns L, Allen M. A modifier screen in the Drosophila eye reveals that aPKC interacts with Glued during central synapse formation. BMC Genet. 2009;10:77 pubmed publisher
    The Glued gene of Drosophila melanogaster encodes the homologue of the vertebrate p150Glued subunit of dynactin...
  57. Xiong X, Wang X, Ewanek R, Bhat P, DiAntonio A, Collins C. Protein turnover of the Wallenda/DLK kinase regulates a retrograde response to axonal injury. J Cell Biol. 2010;191:211-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that the regulation of Wnd protein turnover by Hiw can function as a damage surveillance mechanism for responding to axonal injury. ..
  58. Cheng J, Tiyaboonchai A, Yamashita Y, Hunt A. Asymmetric division of cyst stem cells in Drosophila testis is ensured by anaphase spindle repositioning. Development. 2011;138:831-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that dynamic spindle repositioning allows CySCs to divide asymmetrically while accommodating the structure of the GSCs they encapsulate. ..
  59. Herrero P, Magarinos M, Molina I, Benito J, Dorado B, Turiegano E, et al. Squeeze involvement in the specification of Drosophila leucokinergic neurons: Different regulatory mechanisms endow the same neuropeptide selection. Mech Dev. 2007;124:427-40 pubmed
    ..Thus, Sqz appears to be a regulatory factor for neuropeptidergic identity common to all leucokinergic cells, whose function in different cell types is regulated by cell-specific factors. ..
  60. Plough H, Ives P. Induction of Mutations by High Temperature in Drosophila. Genetics. 1935;20:42-69 pubmed
  61. Wehr K, Swan A, Schupbach T. Deadlock, a novel protein of Drosophila, is required for germline maintenance, fusome morphogenesis and axial patterning in oogenesis and associates with centrosomes in the early embryo. Dev Biol. 2006;294:406-17 pubmed
    ..Our genetic and immunohistological experiments point to a role for Deadlock in microtubule function during oogenesis. ..
  62. Charng W, Yamamoto S, Bellen H. Shared mechanisms between Drosophila peripheral nervous system development and human neurodegenerative diseases. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2014;27:158-64 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we summarize and discuss how studies of Drosophila PNS and NMJ development have provided guidance in experimental approaches for these diseases. ..
  63. Welte M. As the fat flies: The dynamic lipid droplets of Drosophila embryos. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015;1851:1156-85 pubmed publisher