Gene Symbol: dco
Description: discs overgrown
Alias: 0538/13, 0915/10, 1396/02, 1447/01, 1460/09, CG2048, CK1delta/epsilon, CK1epsilon, CKIepsilon, DBT, DBT/CK1epsilon, DCO, DCO/CKIe, Dbt, Dco, Dco/CK1, Dmel\CG2048, ck1epsilon, dCKIepsilon, dbt, dco-1, ddbt, l(3)S053813, l(3)S144701, l(3)dco, l(3)dco-1, l(3)discs overgrown, l(3)discs overgrown-1, l(3)j3B9, l(3)rK215, discs overgrown, CG2048-PA, CG2048-PB, CG2048-PC, CG2048-PD, casein kinase 1, casein kinase I epsilon, casein kinase iepsilon, dco-PA, dco-PB, dco-PC, dco-PD, disc overgrown, double time, double-time, doubletime
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Kloss B, Rothenfluh A, Young M, Saez L. Phosphorylation of period is influenced by cycling physical associations of double-time, period, and timeless in the Drosophila clock. Neuron. 2001;30:699-706 pubmed
    The clock gene double-time (dbt) encodes an ortholog of casein kinase Iepsilon that promotes phosphorylation and turnover of the PERIOD protein...
  2. Hardin P. The circadian timekeeping system of Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2005;15:R714-22 pubmed
    ..I will also discuss where work remains to be done to give a comprehensive picture of the circadian clock in Drosophila and likely many other organisms. ..
  3. Feng Y, Irvine K. Processing and phosphorylation of the Fat receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:11989-94 pubmed publisher
    The Drosophila tumor suppressors fat and discs overgrown (dco) function within an intercellular signaling pathway that controls growth and polarity...
  4. Feng Y, Irvine K. Fat and expanded act in parallel to regulate growth through warts. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:20362-7 pubmed
  5. Nawathean P, Rosbash M. The doubletime and CKII kinases collaborate to potentiate Drosophila PER transcriptional repressor activity. Mol Cell. 2004;13:213-23 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that the two putative PER kinases DBT and CKII work together to phosphorylate PER and increase repression activity...
  6. Hastings M, Maywood E. Circadian clocks in the mammalian brain. Bioessays. 2000;22:23-31 pubmed
    ..BioEssays 22:23-31, 2000. ..
  7. Ko H, Kim E, CHIU J, Vanselow J, Kramer A, Edery I. A hierarchical phosphorylation cascade that regulates the timing of PERIOD nuclear entry reveals novel roles for proline-directed kinases and GSK-3beta/SGG in circadian clocks. J Neurosci. 2010;30:12664-75 pubmed publisher
  8. Rauskolb C, Pan G, Reddy B, Oh H, Irvine K. Zyxin links fat signaling to the hippo pathway. PLoS Biol. 2011;9:e1000624 pubmed publisher
    ..tests, we position the requirement for Zyx within the Fat branch of Hippo signaling, downstream of Fat and Dco, and upstream of the Yorkie kinase Warts, and we find that Zyx is required for the influence of Fat on Warts ..
  9. Smolen P, Hardin P, Lo B, Baxter D, Byrne J. Simulation of Drosophila circadian oscillations, mutations, and light responses by a model with VRI, PDP-1, and CLK. Biophys J. 2004;86:2786-802 pubmed
    ..The model makes experimental predictions, some of which could be tested in transgenic Drosophila. ..

More Information


  1. Chiu J, Vanselow J, Kramer A, Edery I. The phospho-occupancy of an atypical SLIMB-binding site on PERIOD that is phosphorylated by DOUBLETIME controls the pace of the clock. Genes Dev. 2008;22:1758-72 pubmed publisher
    ..of PERIOD (PER) proteins, which is highly dependent on casein kinase Idelta/epsilon (CKIdelta/epsilon; termed DOUBLETIME [DBT] in Drosophila) and ultimately leads to the rapid degradation of hyperphosphorylated isoforms via a ..
  2. Yildiz O, Doi M, Yujnovsky I, Cardone L, Berndt A, Hennig S, et al. Crystal structure and interactions of the PAS repeat region of the Drosophila clock protein PERIOD. Mol Cell. 2005;17:69-82 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that alphaF is essential for dPER homodimerization and that the PAS-A-alphaF interaction plays a crucial role in dPER clock function, as it is affected by the 29 hr long-period perL mutation...
  3. Kim E, Ko H, Yu W, Hardin P, Edery I. A DOUBLETIME kinase binding domain on the Drosophila PERIOD protein is essential for its hyperphosphorylation, transcriptional repression, and circadian clock function. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:5014-28 pubmed
    ..of PERIOD (PER) proteins from hypo- to hyperphosphorylated species, events that are highly dependent on casein kinase 1 epsilon (termed DOUBLETIME [DBT] in Drosophila melanogaster) and necessary for normal clock progression...
  4. Zilian O, Frei E, Burke R, Brentrup D, Gutjahr T, Bryant P, et al. double-time is identical to discs overgrown, which is required for cell survival, proliferation and growth arrest in Drosophila imaginal discs. Development. 1999;126:5409-20 pubmed
    We have isolated the discs overgrown gene of Drosophila and shown that it encodes a homolog of the Casein kinase I(delta)/(epsilon) subfamily and is identical to the double-time gene...
  5. Kloss B, Price J, Saez L, Blau J, Rothenfluh A, Wesley C, et al. The Drosophila clock gene double-time encodes a protein closely related to human casein kinase Iepsilon. Cell. 1998;94:97-107 pubmed
    The cloning of double-time (dbt) is reported. DOUBLETIME protein (DBT) is most closely related to human casein kinase Iepsilon. dbtS and dbtL mutations, which alter period length of Drosophila circadian rhythms, produce single amino acid ..
  6. Sathyanarayanan S, Zheng X, Xiao R, Sehgal A. Posttranslational regulation of Drosophila PERIOD protein by protein phosphatase 2A. Cell. 2004;116:603-15 pubmed
    ..PP2A also affects PER phosphorylation in vitro and in vivo. We propose that the posttranslational mechanisms that drive cycling of PER require the rhythmic expression of PP2A. ..
  7. Cho E, Feng Y, Rauskolb C, Maitra S, Fehon R, Irvine K. Delineation of a Fat tumor suppressor pathway. Nat Genet. 2006;38:1142-50 pubmed
    ..melanogaster tumor suppressors and identify the kinases Discs overgrown and Warts as components of a Fat signaling pathway...
  8. Brown S, Schibler U. The ins and outs of circadian timekeeping. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1999;9:588-94 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these observations are reshaping thinking about inputs and outputs of metazoan circadian clocks. ..
  9. Yu W, Zheng H, Houl J, Dauwalder B, Hardin P. PER-dependent rhythms in CLK phosphorylation and E-box binding regulate circadian transcription. Genes Dev. 2006;20:723-33 pubmed
    ..This hyperphosphorylation occurs in parallel with the PER-dependent entry of DOUBLE-TIME (DBT) kinase into a complex with CLK-CYC, where DBT destabilizes both CLK and PER...
  10. Chiu J, Ko H, Edery I. NEMO/NLK phosphorylates PERIOD to initiate a time-delay phosphorylation circuit that sets circadian clock speed. Cell. 2011;145:357-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Phosphorylation by the NEMO/NLK kinase at the "per-short" domain on PER stimulates phosphorylation by DOUBLETIME (DBT/CK1?/?) at several nearby sites...
  11. Sopko R, Silva E, Clayton L, Gardano L, Barrios Rodiles M, Wrana J, et al. Phosphorylation of the tumor suppressor fat is regulated by its ligand Dachsous and the kinase discs overgrown. Curr Biol. 2009;19:1112-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The tumor suppressor discs overgrown (dco)/Casein Kinase I delta/epsilon also regulates Hippo activity and PCP...
  12. Bao S, Rihel J, Bjes E, Fan J, Price J. The Drosophila double-timeS mutation delays the nuclear accumulation of period protein and affects the feedback regulation of period mRNA. J Neurosci. 2001;21:7117-26 pubmed
    The Drosophila double-time (dbt) gene, which encodes a protein similar to vertebrate epsilon and delta isoforms of casein kinase I, is essential for circadian rhythmicity because it regulates the phosphorylation and stability of period (..
  13. Nawathean P, Stoleru D, Rosbash M. A small conserved domain of Drosophila PERIOD is important for circadian phosphorylation, nuclear localization, and transcriptional repressor activity. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:5002-13 pubmed
    ..of PER lacking this motif (PER Delta) shows that it is important for phosphorylation of Drosophila PER by casein kinase I epsilon (CKI epsilon; doubletime protein or DBT) and CKII...
  14. Rothenfluh A, Abodeely M, Price J, Young M. Isolation and analysis of six timeless alleles that cause short- or long-period circadian rhythms in Drosophila. Genetics. 2000;156:665-75 pubmed
    ..The lengthened period is partly caused by delayed nuclear translocation of TIM(L1) protein, shown directly by immunocytochemistry and indirectly by an analysis of the phase response curve of tim(L1) flies. ..
  15. Preuss F, Fan J, Kalive M, Bao S, Schuenemann E, Bjes E, et al. Drosophila doubletime mutations which either shorten or lengthen the period of circadian rhythms decrease the protein kinase activity of casein kinase I. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:886-98 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila melanogaster, mutations affecting a casein kinase I (CKI) ortholog called doubletime (dbt) can produce short or long periods...
  16. Jia J, Zhang L, Zhang Q, Tong C, Wang B, Hou F, et al. Phosphorylation by double-time/CKIepsilon and CKIalpha targets cubitus interruptus for Slimb/beta-TRCP-mediated proteolytic processing. Dev Cell. 2005;9:819-30 pubmed
    ..Here we show that Double-time (DBT)/CKIepsilon and CKIalpha act in conjunction to promote Ci processing...
  17. Rothenfluh A, Abodeely M, Young M. Short-period mutations of per affect a double-time-dependent step in the Drosophila circadian clock. Curr Biol. 2000;10:1399-402 pubmed
    Circadian (24 hour) PERIOD (PER) protein oscillation is dependent on the double-time (dbt) gene, a casein kinase Ivarepsilon homolog [1-3]...
  18. Grima B, Lamouroux A, Chélot E, Papin C, Limbourg Bouchon B, Rouyer F. The F-box protein slimb controls the levels of clock proteins period and timeless. Nature. 2002;420:178-82 pubmed
    ..Because levels of Per and Tim oscillate in slmb mutants maintained in light:dark conditions, light- and clock-controlled degradation of Per and Tim do not rely on the same mechanisms. ..
  19. Cyran S, Yiannoulos G, Buchsbaum A, Saez L, Young M, Blau J. The double-time protein kinase regulates the subcellular localization of the Drosophila clock protein period. J Neurosci. 2005;25:5430-7 pubmed
    The Period (PER), Timeless (TIM), and Double-Time (DBT) proteins are essential components of one feedback loop in the Drosophila circadian molecular clock. PER and TIM physically interact...
  20. Klein T, Jenny A, Djiane A, Mlodzik M. CKIepsilon/discs overgrown promotes both Wnt-Fz/beta-catenin and Fz/PCP signaling in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2006;16:1337-43 pubmed
    ..Recent work in cell culture has suggested that phosphorylation of Dsh by Casein Kinase I epsilon (CKIepsilon) may act as a molecular "switch," promoting Wnt/beta-catenin while inhibiting Fz/..
  21. Yu W, Zheng H, Price J, Hardin P. DOUBLETIME plays a noncatalytic role to mediate CLOCK phosphorylation and repress CLOCK-dependent transcription within the Drosophila circadian clock. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:1452-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Within the Drosophila melanogaster circadian clock, DOUBLETIME (DBT) kinase is necessary for the phosphorylation of PERIOD (PER), a transcriptional repressor, and CLOCK (CLK), ..
  22. Price J, Blau J, Rothenfluh A, Abodeely M, Kloss B, Young M. double-time is a novel Drosophila clock gene that regulates PERIOD protein accumulation. Cell. 1998;94:83-95 pubmed
    ..We propose that the normal function of DOUBLETIME protein is to reduce the stability and thus the level of accumulation of monomeric PER proteins...
  23. Sekine T, Yamaguchi T, Hamano K, Young M, Shimoda M, Saez L. Casein kinase I epsilon does not rescue double-time function in Drosophila despite evolutionarily conserved roles in the circadian clock. J Biol Rhythms. 2008;23:3-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic and biochemical studies have shown that dbt and its mammalian ortholog casein kinase I epsilon (hckI epsilon) regulate the circadian phosphorylation of period (per), thus controlling per subcellular ..
  24. Smolen P, Baxter D, Byrne J. Modeling circadian oscillations with interlocking positive and negative feedback loops. J Neurosci. 2001;21:6644-56 pubmed
    ..Circadian oscillations were only obtained if time delays were included to represent processes not modeled in detail (e.g., transcription and translation). In both models, oscillations were preserved when positive feedback was removed. ..
  25. Scully A, Kay S. Time flies for Drosophila. Cell. 2000;100:297-300 pubmed
  26. Zhang L, Jia J, Wang B, Amanai K, Wharton K, Jiang J. Regulation of wingless signaling by the CKI family in Drosophila limb development. Dev Biol. 2006;299:221-37 pubmed
    ..We find that increased CKIepsilon stimulates whereas dominant-negative or a null CKIepsilon mutation inhibits Wg signaling...
  27. Kivimäe S, Saez L, Young M. Activating PER repressor through a DBT-directed phosphorylation switch. PLoS Biol. 2008;6:e183 pubmed publisher
    ..This study examines the role of the protein kinase Doubletime (DBT), a Drosophila ortholog of human casein kinase I (CKI)epsilon/delta...
  28. Muskus M, Preuss F, Fan J, Bjes E, Price J. Drosophila DBT lacking protein kinase activity produces long-period and arrhythmic circadian behavioral and molecular rhythms. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:8049-64 pubmed
    ..K38R) which specifically eliminates kinase activity was created in the Drosophila melanogaster ckI gene (doubletime [dbt])...
  29. Ueda H, Hagiwara M, Kitano H. Robust oscillations within the interlocked feedback model of Drosophila circadian rhythm. J Theor Biol. 2001;210:401-6 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the interlocked feedback model has robust properties in oscillations. ..
  30. Suri V, Hall J, Rosbash M. Two novel doubletime mutants alter circadian properties and eliminate the delay between RNA and protein in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2000;20:7547-55 pubmed
    ..Genetic and biochemical evidence suggests involvement of the casein kinase I homolog doubletime (dbt) in the Drosophila circadian pacemaker. We have characterized two novel dbt mutants...
  31. Xu Y, Padiath Q, Shapiro R, Jones C, Wu S, Saigoh N, et al. Functional consequences of a CKIdelta mutation causing familial advanced sleep phase syndrome. Nature. 2005;434:640-4 pubmed
    ..These results show that CKIdelta is a central component in the mammalian clock, and suggest that mammalian and fly clocks might have different regulatory mechanisms despite the highly conserved nature of their individual components. ..
  32. Milton C, Zhang X, Albanese N, Harvey K. Differential requirement of Salvador-Warts-Hippo pathway members for organ size control in Drosophila melanogaster. Development. 2010;137:735-43 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that eye tissue lacking fat, expanded or discs overgrown displays elevated Yorkie activity during the larval growth phase of development, but not in the pupal eye ..
  33. Abruzzi K, Rodriguez J, Menet J, Desrochers J, Zadina A, Luo W, et al. Drosophila CLOCK target gene characterization: implications for circadian tissue-specific gene expression. Genes Dev. 2011;25:2374-86 pubmed publisher
    ..CLK has specific targets in different tissues, implying that important CLK partner proteins and/or mechanisms contribute to gene-specific and tissue-specific regulation. ..
  34. Pan G, Feng Y, Ambegaonkar A, Sun G, Huff M, Rauskolb C, et al. Signal transduction by the Fat cytoplasmic domain. Development. 2013;140:831-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Fat-Hippo signaling requires the Drosophila Casein kinase 1? encoded by discs overgrown (Dco), and we characterize candidate Dco phosphorylation sites in the Fat ..
  35. Jursnich V, Fraser S, Held L, Ryerse J, Bryant P. Defective gap-junctional communication associated with imaginal disc overgrowth and degeneration caused by mutations of the dco gene in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1990;140:413-29 pubmed
    The lethal(3)discs overgrown (dco) locus of Drosophila melanogaster, located on the third chromosome at cytogenetic position 100A5,6-100B1,2, is necessary for normal development and growth control in the imaginal discs of the larva...
  36. Justice R, Zilian O, Woods D, Noll M, Bryant P. The Drosophila tumor suppressor gene warts encodes a homolog of human myotonic dystrophy kinase and is required for the control of cell shape and proliferation. Genes Dev. 1995;9:534-46 pubmed
    ..Our results raise the possibility that homozygous loss of the myotonic dystrophy kinase may contribute to the development of these tumors. ..
  37. Kim E, Edery I. Balance between DBT/CKIepsilon kinase and protein phosphatase activities regulate phosphorylation and stability of Drosophila CLOCK protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:6178-83 pubmed
    The first circadian-relevant kinase to be identified was DOUBLE-TIME (DBT) in Drosophila, a homolog of vertebrate CKIepsilon, which regulates the progressive phosphorylation and stability of PERIOD (PER) proteins in animals...
  38. Young M. The molecular control of circadian behavioral rhythms and their entrainment in Drosophila. Annu Rev Biochem. 1998;67:135-52 pubmed
    ..pacemaker requires the activities of proteins encoded by three genes: period (per), timeless (tim), and doubletime (dbt). RNA from two of these genes, per and tim, is expressed with a circadian rhythm...
  39. Ko H, Jiang J, Edery I. Role for Slimb in the degradation of Drosophila Period protein phosphorylated by Doubletime. Nature. 2002;420:673-8 pubmed
    ..b>Casein kinase Iepsilon (CKIepsilon) has a prominent role in regulating the phosphorylation and abundance of Per proteins in ..
  40. Dunlap J. Molecular bases for circadian clocks. Cell. 1999;96:271-90 pubmed
  41. Huang Y, Genova G, Roberts M, Jackson F. The LARK RNA-binding protein selectively regulates the circadian eclosion rhythm by controlling E74 protein expression. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e1107 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest a model wherein LARK mediates the transfer of temporal information from the molecular oscillator to different output pathways by interacting with distinct RNA targets. ..
  42. Bae K, Lee C, Hardin P, Edery I. dCLOCK is present in limiting amounts and likely mediates daily interactions between the dCLOCK-CYC transcription factor and the PER-TIM complex. J Neurosci. 2000;20:1746-53 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that dCLK is the main component regulating the daily abundance of transcriptionally active dCLK-CYC complexes. ..
  43. Stanewsky R. Genetic analysis of the circadian system in Drosophila melanogaster and mammals. J Neurobiol. 2003;54:111-47 pubmed
    ..This review will try to give a comparative overview about the two systems, highlighting similarities as well as specifics of both insect and murine clocks. ..
  44. Price M, Kalderon D. Proteolysis of the Hedgehog signaling effector Cubitus interruptus requires phosphorylation by Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 and Casein Kinase 1. Cell. 2002;108:823-35 pubmed
    ..Conversely, Ci-155 levels are reduced in Hedgehog-responding cells by overexpression of PKA and the Drosophila CK1, Double-time, a regulator of circadian rhythms. ..
  45. Lefers M, Holmgren R. Ci proteolysis: regulation by a constellation of phosphorylation sites. Curr Biol. 2002;12:R422-3 pubmed
    ..The newly identified phosphorylation sites form clusters with previously described PKA sites in which phosphorylation by PKA acts to prime subsequent phosphorylation by Sgg/GSK3 and CK1. ..
  46. Song Z, McCall K, Steller H. DCP-1, a Drosophila cell death protease essential for development. Science. 1997;275:536-40 pubmed
    ..Loss of zygotic DCP-1 function in Drosophila caused larval lethality and melanotic tumors, showing that this gene is essential for normal development. ..
  47. Woods D, Wu J, Bryant P. Localization of proteins to the apico-lateral junctions of Drosophila epithelia. Dev Genet. 1997;20:111-8 pubmed
    ..the apico-lateral junctional complexes appeared normal in tissue from the hyperplastic overgrowth mutants fat, dco, gd and wts...
  48. Wilsbacher L, Takahashi J. Circadian rhythms: molecular basis of the clock. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1998;8:595-602 pubmed
    ..In addition, the discovery of brain-independent clocks promises to revolutionize the study of circadian biology. ..
  49. Lakin Thomas P. Circadian rhythms: new functions for old clock genes. Trends Genet. 2000;16:135-42 pubmed
    ..Our a priori assumptions about the nature of circadian clocks might have restricted our search for new mutants in ways that prevent us from finding important clock genes...
  50. T M, Hari Dass S, Sharma V. Egg-laying rhythm in Drosophila melanogaster. J Genet. 2008;87:495-504 pubmed
    ..In this review, we discuss our current understanding of the circadian egg-laying rhythm in D. melanogaster, and the possible molecular and physiological mechanisms that control the rhythmic output of the egg-laying process. ..
  51. Cong F, Schweizer L, Varmus H. Casein kinase Iepsilon modulates the signaling specificities of dishevelled. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:2000-11 pubmed
    ..We also found that casein kinase Iepsilon (CKIepsilon), a previously identified positive regulator of Wnt signaling, stimulated Dvl activity in the ..
  52. Strutt H, Price M, Strutt D. Planar polarity is positively regulated by casein kinase Iepsilon in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2006;16:1329-36 pubmed
    ..By examining hypomorphic mutations of the Drosophila CKIepsilon homolog discs overgrown (dco)/double-time, we now show that it is an essential component of the noncanonical/planar cell polarity ..
  53. Matsubayashi H, Sese S, Lee J, Shirakawa T, Iwatsubo T, Tomita T, et al. Biochemical characterization of the Drosophila wingless signaling pathway based on RNA interference. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:2012-24 pubmed
  54. Nanda S, DeFalco T, Loh S, Phochanukul N, Camara N, Van Doren M, et al. Sox100B, a Drosophila group E Sox-domain gene, is required for somatic testis differentiation. Sex Dev. 2009;3:26-37 pubmed publisher
  55. Pegoraro M, Gesto J, Kyriacou C, Tauber E. Role for circadian clock genes in seasonal timing: testing the Bünning hypothesis. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004603 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results support an underlying circadian function mediating seasonal daylength measurement and indicate that clock genes are tightly involved in photo- and thermo-periodic measurements. ..
  56. Hendricks J. Invited review: Sleeping flies don't lie: the use of Drosophila melanogaster to study sleep and circadian rhythms. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2003;94:1660-72; discussion 1673 pubmed
    ..Nonetheless, studies have already established that two transcription factors alter rest and rest homeostasis. The implications of these advances for the future of sleep research are summarized. ..
  57. Huang Y, McNeil G, Jackson F. Translational regulation of the DOUBLETIME/CKIδ/ε kinase by LARK contributes to circadian period modulation. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004536 pubmed publisher
    The Drosophila homolog of Casein Kinase I δ/ε, DOUBLETIME (DBT), is required for Wnt, Hedgehog, Fat and Hippo signaling as well as circadian clock function...
  58. Price J, Fan J, Keightley A, Means J. The role of casein kinase I in the Drosophila circadian clock. Methods Enzymol. 2015;551:175-95 pubmed publisher
    ..In Drosophila, the circadian transcriptional regulator PERIOD (PER) is targeted for degradation by a kinase (DOUBLETIME or DBT) orthologous to mammalian kinases (CKIɛ and CKIδ) that also target mammalian PER...
  59. Yao Z, Shafer O. The Drosophila circadian clock is a variably coupled network of multiple peptidergic units. Science. 2014;343:1516-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work reveals that the circadian clock neuron network is not orchestrated by a small group of master pacemakers but rather consists of multiple independent oscillators, each of which drives rhythms in activity. ..
  60. Kyriacou C, Hastings M. Keystone clocks. Trends Neurosci. 2001;24:434-5 pubmed
  61. Schöning J, Staiger D. At the pulse of time: protein interactions determine the pace of circadian clocks. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:3246-52 pubmed
    ..Based on the model organisms Drosophila melanogaster and Arabidopsis thaliana molecular principles of circadian clocks are discussed in this review. ..
  62. Schwartz Y, Kahn T, Nix D, Li X, Bourgon R, Biggin M, et al. Genome-wide analysis of Polycomb targets in Drosophila melanogaster. Nat Genet. 2006;38:700-5 pubmed
    ..PcG targets are highly enriched in genes encoding transcription factors, but they also include genes coding for receptors, signaling proteins, morphogens and regulators representing all major developmental pathways. ..