Gene Symbol: D1
Description: D1 chromosomal protein
Alias: CG9745, Dmel\CG9745, EP(3)0473, HMGI, RE69409, dD1, dHMGx, D1 chromosomal protein, CG9745-PA, CG9745-PC, CG9745-PD, D1-PA, D1-PC, D1-PD, chromosomal protein D1
Species: fruit fly
Products:     D1

Top Publications

  1. Aulner N, Monod C, Mandicourt G, Jullien D, Cuvier O, Sall A, et al. The AT-hook protein D1 is essential for Drosophila melanogaster development and is implicated in position-effect variegation. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:1218-32 pubmed
    ..the expression pattern of the D1 gene and the localization of its product, the AT hook-bearing nonhistone chromosomal protein D1, during Drosophila melanogaster development...
  2. Cuvier O, Hart C, Käs E, Laemmli U. Identification of a multicopy chromatin boundary element at the borders of silenced chromosomal domains. Chromosoma. 2002;110:519-31 pubmed
    ..of DNA-protein and protein blotting techniques, we found that this region is recognized by the A+T-binding D1 non-histone chromosomal protein of D. melanogaster, and we provide evidence that D1 and BEAF physically interact...
  3. Blattes R, Monod C, Susbielle G, Cuvier O, Wu J, Hsieh T, et al. Displacement of D1, HP1 and topoisomerase II from satellite heterochromatin by a specific polyamide. EMBO J. 2006;25:2397-408 pubmed
    ..The P9 polyamide, which binds the X-chromosome 1.688 g/cm3 satellite III (SAT III), displaces the D1 protein...
  4. Levinger L, Varshavsky A. Selective arrangement of ubiquitinated and D1 protein-containing nucleosomes within the Drosophila genome. Cell. 1982;28:375-85 pubmed
    ..688 satellite mononucleotomes contain a specific approximately 50,000 dalton nonhistone protein, D1, in addition to being extremely under-ubiquitinated...
  5. Claus P, Schulze E, Wisniewski J. Insect proteins homologous to mammalian high mobility group proteins I/Y (HMG I/Y). Characterization and binding to linear and four-way junction DNA. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:33042-8 pubmed
    ..Similarly to mammalian HMGI/Y proteins the insect cHMGI protein has three putative DNA-binding motifs with a sequence K/RXRGRP that are each ..
  6. Csink A, Henikoff S. Something from nothing: the evolution and utility of satellite repeats. Trends Genet. 1998;14:200-4 pubmed
    ..To account for the ubiquity and pericentric localization of satellites, we propose that they are utilized to maintain regions of late replication, thus ensuring that the centromere is the last region to replicate on a chromosome. ..
  7. Muller U, Littlewood Evans A. Mechanisms that regulate mechanosensory hair cell differentiation. Trends Cell Biol. 2001;11:334-42 pubmed
    ..The studies have also provided new insights into the function of receptors such as integrins and protocadherins, and cytoplasmic proteins such as Rho-type GTPases and unconventional myosins, in organizing the actin cytoskeleton. ..
  8. Weiler K, Chatterjee S. The multi-AT-hook chromosomal protein of Drosophila melanogaster, D1, is dispensable for viability. Genetics. 2009;182:145-59 pubmed publisher
    The D1 protein is a high mobility group A (HMGA)-like nonhistone chromosomal protein with primary localization to certain AT-rich satellite DNA sequences within heterochromatin...
  9. Ashley C, Pendleton C, Jennings W, Saxena A, Glover C. Isolation and sequencing of cDNA clones encoding Drosophila chromosomal protein D1. A repeating motif in proteins which recognize at DNA. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:8394-401 pubmed
    Drosophila melanogaster D1 is a satellite DNA-associated protein which preferentially binds DNA sequences containing runs of AT base pairs...

More Information


  1. Levinger L, Varshavsky A. Protein D1 preferentially binds A + T-rich DNA in vitro and is a component of Drosophila melanogaster nucleosomes containing A + T-rich satellite DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982;79:7152-6 pubmed
    Our previous work [Levinger, L. & Varshavsky, A. (1982) Cell 28, 375-385] has shown that D1, a 50-kilodalton chromosomal protein of Drosophila melanogaster, is specifically associated with isolated nucleosomes that contain a complex A ..
  2. Francisco F, Lemos B. How do y-chromosomes modulate genome-wide epigenetic States: genome folding, chromatin sinks, and gene expression. J Genomics. 2014;2:94-103 pubmed publisher
    ..We also discuss how the discovery of this new function impacts the current knowledge about Y chromosome origin, its current dynamics, and future fate. ..
  3. Belyaeva E, Goncharov F, Demakova O, Kolesnikova T, Boldyreva L, Semeshin V, et al. Late replication domains in polytene and non-polytene cells of Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30035 pubmed publisher
    ..IH regions can thus be defined as a special class of domains with low gene density, which have narrow temporal expression patterns, and so displaying relatively conserved organization. ..
  4. Smith M, Weiler K. Drosophila D1 overexpression induces ectopic pairing of polytene chromosomes and is deleterious to development. Chromosoma. 2010;119:287-309 pubmed publisher
    ..The D1 protein of Drosophila is an example of a chromosomal protein that has been fairly well characterized biochemically, ..
  5. Ferree P, Barbash D. Species-specific heterochromatin prevents mitotic chromosome segregation to cause hybrid lethality in Drosophila. PLoS Biol. 2009;7:e1000234 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate how divergence of noncoding repetitive sequences between species can directly cause reproductive isolation by altering chromosome segregation. ..
  6. Grewal S, Elgin S. Transcription and RNA interference in the formation of heterochromatin. Nature. 2007;447:399-406 pubmed
    ..Silencing of chromatin might involve trans-acting sources of the crucial small RNAs that carry out RNA interference, but in some cases, transcription of the region to be silenced seems to be required--an apparent contradiction. ..
  7. Zhang H, Syu L, Modica V, Yu Z, Von Ohlen T, Mellerick D. The Drosophila homeodomain transcription factor, Vnd, associates with a variety of co-factors, is extensively phosphorylated and forms multiple complexes in embryos. FEBS J. 2008;275:5062-73 pubmed publisher
    ..We identify the high mobility group 1-type protein, D1, and the novel helix-loop-helix protein, Olig, as novel Vnd-interacting proteins using co-immunoprecipitation assays...
  8. Emberly E, Blattes R, Schuettengruber B, Hennion M, Jiang N, Hart C, et al. BEAF regulates cell-cycle genes through the controlled deposition of H3K9 methylation marks into its conserved dual-core binding sites. PLoS Biol. 2008;6:2896-910 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal a novel role for BEAF chromatin dual-cores in regulating a distinct set of genes involved in chromosome organization/segregation and the cell cycle. ..
  9. Quiñones Coello A, Petrella L, Ayers K, Melillo A, Mazzalupo S, Hudson A, et al. Exploring strategies for protein trapping in Drosophila. Genetics. 2007;175:1089-104 pubmed
    ..We report a total of 335 genes associated with protein or enhancer traps and a web-accessible database for viewing molecular information and expression data for these genes. ..
  10. Sun X, Morozova T, Sonnenfeld M. Glial and neuronal functions of the Drosophila homolog of the human SWI/SNF gene ATR-X (DATR-X) and the jing zinc-finger gene specify the lateral positioning of longitudinal glia and axons. Genetics. 2006;173:1397-415 pubmed
  11. Renner U, Ghidelli S, Schafer M, Wisniewski J. Alterations in titer and distribution of high mobility group proteins during embryonic development of Drosophila melanogaster. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1475:99-108 pubmed
    ..The titers of the HMG proteins HMGD, HMGZ, and D1 are highest in ovaries and at the beginning of embryonic development...
  12. Wisniewski J, Szewczuk Z, Petry I, Schwanbeck R, Renner U. Constitutive phosphorylation of the acidic tails of the high mobility group 1 proteins by casein kinase II alters their conformation, stability, and DNA binding specificity. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:20116-22 pubmed
    ..As the occurrence of acidic tails containing canonical casein kinase II phosphorylation sites is common to diverse HMG and other chromosomal proteins, our results are probably of general significance. ..
  13. Rodriguez Alfageme C, Rudkin G, Cohen L. Isolation, properties and cellular distribution of D1, a chromosomal protein of Drosophila. Chromosoma. 1980;78:1-31 pubmed
    The protein D1 was obtained from nuclei of Drosophila melanogaster embryos and purified by perchloric acid fractionation and preparative gel electrophoresis. In nuclei its amount is approximately 1% of the amount of DNA by weight...