Gene Symbol: CYTB
Description: cytochrome b
Alias: cytochrome b
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Stewart J, Beckenbach A. Characterization of mature mitochondrial transcripts in Drosophila, and the implications for the tRNA punctuation model in arthropods. Gene. 2009;445:49-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Where multiple tRNA genes are present, as between nad3 and nad5, they are removed sequentially in a 3' to 5' direction. ..
  2. Adán C, Matsushima Y, Hernández Sierra R, Marco Ferreres R, Fernández Moreno M, Gonzalez Vioque E, et al. Mitochondrial transcription factor B2 is essential for metabolic function in Drosophila melanogaster development. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:12333-42 pubmed publisher
  3. Roberti M, Bruni F, Loguercio Polosa P, Manzari C, Gadaleta M, Cantatore P. MTERF3, the most conserved member of the mTERF-family, is a modular factor involved in mitochondrial protein synthesis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1757:1199-206 pubmed
    ..This role, likely based on protein-protein interactions, may be exerted either through a direct interaction with the translation machinery or by bridging the mitochondrial transcription and translation apparatus. ..
  4. Calleja M, Pena P, Ugalde C, Ferreiro C, Marco R, Garesse R. Mitochondrial DNA remains intact during Drosophila aging, but the levels of mitochondrial transcripts are significantly reduced. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:18891-7 pubmed
    ..levels of all mitochondrial transcripts investigated: 16 S ribosomal RNA (16SrRNA), cytochrome c oxidase, cytochrome b, and beta H(+)-ATP synthase subunit...
  5. Chen S, Oliveira M, Sanz A, Kemppainen E, Fukuoh A, Schlicht B, et al. A cytoplasmic suppressor of a nuclear mutation affecting mitochondrial functions in Drosophila. Genetics. 2012;192:483-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide a paradigm for understanding the role of mtDNA genotype in human disease. ..
  6. Bruni F, Manzari C, Filice M, Loguercio Polosa P, Colella M, Carmone C, et al. D-MTERF5 is a novel factor modulating transcription in Drosophila mitochondria. Mitochondrion. 2012;12:492-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Co-regulation by DREF (DNA Replication-related Element binding Factor) of D-MTERF5 and DmTTF implies that expression of the two factors needs to be co-ordinated to ensure fine modulation of Drosophila mitochondrial transcription. ..
  7. Lim D, Lee L, Oh C, Kim N, Hwang S, Han S, et al. Microarray analysis of Drosophila dicer-2 mutants reveals potential regulation of mitochondrial metabolism by endogenous siRNAs. J Cell Biochem. 2013;114:418-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data support a potential role for the endo-siRNA pathway in energy homeostasis through regulation of mitochondrial metabolism. ..
  8. Aw W, Correa C, Clancy D, Ballard J. Mitochondrial DNA variants in Drosophila melanogaster are expressed at the level of the organismal phenotype. Mitochondrion. 2011;11:756-63 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss these results in terms of the known differences between the lines and conclude that naturally occurring mtDNA variants in D. melanogaster are expressed at the level of the organismal phenotype. ..
  9. Matsushima Y, Kaguni L. Differential phenotypes of active site and human autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia mutations in Drosophila mitochondrial DNA helicase expressed in Schneider cells. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:9436-44 pubmed
    ..Our dominant negative analysis of d-mtDNA helicase in cultured cells provides a tractable model for understanding human autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia mutations...

More Information


  1. Dowling D, Friberg U, Hailer F, Arnqvist G. Intergenomic epistasis for fitness: within-population interactions between cytoplasmic and nuclear genes in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2007;175:235-44 pubmed
    ..Sequencing of mtDNA (2752 bp) revealed polymorphism within the population, suggesting that the observed cytoplasmic genetic effects may be mitochondrial in origin. ..
  2. Tsai H, Lin R, Hsieh T. Drosophila mitochondrial topoisomerase III alpha affects the aging process via maintenance of mitochondrial function and genome integrity. J Biomed Sci. 2016;23:38 pubmed publisher
    ..The results reported here demonstrate that mitochondrial Top3? ablation results in mitochondrial genome instability and its dysfunction, thereby accelerating the aging process. ..
  3. Rand D, Kann L. Mutation and selection at silent and replacement sites in the evolution of animal mitochondrial DNA. Genetica. 1998;102-103:393-407 pubmed
    ..b>Cytochrome b data from GenBank show that about half of the species pairs tested have a significant excess of amino acid ..
  4. Matsushima Y, Garesse R, Kaguni L. Drosophila mitochondrial transcription factor B2 regulates mitochondrial DNA copy number and transcription in schneider cells. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:26900-5 pubmed
  5. Kula M, Allay E, Rozek C. Evolutionary divergence of the cytochrome b5 gene of Drosophila. J Mol Evol. 1995;41:430-9 pubmed
    ..The high degree of conservation between species separated by 60 million years of evolution in both the DNA and amino acid sequences suggests this nuclear cytochrome b5 locus encodes an essential product of the Drosophila system. ..
  6. Barrio E, Latorre A, Moya A. Phylogeny of the Drosophila obscura species group deduced from mitochondrial DNA sequences. J Mol Evol. 1994;39:478-88 pubmed
    ..e., affinis and pseudoobscura), whereas the obscura subgroup remains heterogeneous assemblage that could be reasonably subdivided into at least two complexes (i.e., subobscura and obscura). ..
  7. Garesse R. Drosophila melanogaster mitochondrial DNA: gene organization and evolutionary considerations. Genetics. 1988;118:649-63 pubmed
    ..The analysis of nucleotide changes reveals a similar frequency for transitions and transversions, and reflects a strong bias against G + C on both strands. The predominant type of transition is strand specific. ..
  8. Scialò F, Sriram A, Fernández Ayala D, Gubina N, Lõhmus M, Nelson G, et al. Mitochondrial ROS Produced via Reverse Electron Transport Extend Animal Lifespan. Cell Metab. 2016;23:725-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These results illustrate that the source of a ROS signal is vital in determining its effects on cellular physiology and establish that manipulation of ubiquinone redox state is a valid strategy to delay aging. ..
  9. Clancy D. Variation in mitochondrial genotype has substantial lifespan effects which may be modulated by nuclear background. Aging Cell. 2008;7:795-804 pubmed publisher
    ..The limited mtDNA variation in D. melanogaster makes it an ideal organism for biochemical studies to link genotype and aging phenotype. ..
  10. Dowling D, Maklakov A, Friberg U, Hailer F. Applying the genetic theories of ageing to the cytoplasm: cytoplasmic genetic covariation for fitness and lifespan. J Evol Biol. 2009;22:818-27 pubmed publisher
    ..We find negative covariation for fitness and the rate of ageing, and positive covariation for fitness and lifespan. Notably, the direction of these associations is opposite to that typically predicted under AP. ..
  11. Peralta S, Clemente P, Sanchez Martinez A, Calleja M, Hernández Sierra R, Matsushima Y, et al. Coiled coil domain-containing protein 56 (CCDC56) is a novel mitochondrial protein essential for cytochrome c oxidase function. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:24174-85 pubmed publisher
    ..melanogaster. We propose CCDC56 as a candidate factor required for COX biogenesis/assembly. ..
  12. Humphrey D, Parsons R, Ludlow Z, Riemensperger T, Esposito G, Verstreken P, et al. Alternative oxidase rescues mitochondria-mediated dopaminergic cell loss in Drosophila. Hum Mol Genet. 2012;21:2698-712 pubmed publisher
  13. Matsushima Y, Goto Y, Kaguni L. Mitochondrial Lon protease regulates mitochondrial DNA copy number and transcription by selective degradation of mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:18410-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The increased TFAMmtDNA ratio in turn causes inhibition of mitochondrial transcription. We conclude that Lon regulates mitochondrial transcription by stabilizing the mitochondrial TFAMmtDNA ratio via selective degradation of TFAM. ..
  14. Clancy D, Hime G, Shirras A. Cytoplasmic male sterility in Drosophila melanogaster associated with a mitochondrial CYTB variant. Heredity (Edinb). 2011;107:374-6 pubmed publisher
  15. Camus M, Clancy D, Dowling D. Mitochondria, maternal inheritance, and male aging. Curr Biol. 2012;22:1717-21 pubmed publisher
  16. Nunes M, Dolezal M, Schlotterer C. Extensive paternal mtDNA leakage in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Ecol. 2013;22:2106-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that evolutionary studies using mtDNA as a marker might be biased by paternal leakage in this species. ..
  17. Iijima Ando K, Hearn S, Shenton C, Gatt A, Zhao L, Iijima K. Mitochondrial mislocalization underlies Abeta42-induced neuronal dysfunction in a Drosophila model of Alzheimer's disease. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8310 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that mislocalization of mitochondria underlies the pathogenic effects of Abeta42 in vivo. ..
  18. de Paula W, Agip A, Missirlis F, Ashworth R, Vizcay Barrena G, Lucas C, et al. Female and male gamete mitochondria are distinct and complementary in transcription, structure, and genome function. Genome Biol Evol. 2013;5:1969-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Suppressed mitochondrial metabolism in the female germ line may therefore constitute a mechanism for increasing the fidelity of mitochondrial DNA inheritance. ..
  19. Barry W, Thummel C. The Drosophila HNF4 nuclear receptor promotes glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and mitochondrial function in adults. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    ..These findings establish an animal model for MODY1 and define a developmental reprogramming of metabolism to support the energetic needs of the mature animal. ..
  20. Wolff J, Camus M, Clancy D, Dowling D. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences of thirteen globally sourced strains of fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) form a powerful model for mitochondrial research. Mitochondrial DNA A DNA Mapp Seq Anal. 2016;27:4672-4674 pubmed
    ..The sequenced fly strains form a powerful model for mitochondrial research, when it comes to elucidating the links between the mitochondrial genotype and the phenotype. ..
  21. Scialò F, Sriram A, Naudí A, Ayala V, Jové M, Pamplona R, et al. Target of rapamycin activation predicts lifespan in fruit flies. Cell Cycle. 2015;14:2949-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results, dissociate metabolic rate and lifespan in wild type flies and instead link nutrient sensing signaling with longevity as predicted by the hyperfunction theory. ..
  22. Bratic A, Wredenberg A, Gronke S, Stewart J, Mourier A, Ruzzenente B, et al. The bicoid stability factor controls polyadenylation and expression of specific mitochondrial mRNAs in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002324 pubmed publisher
    ..We thus report a novel function of BSF in flies and demonstrate that it has an important intra-mitochondrial role, which is essential for maintaining mtDNA gene expression and oxidative phosphorylation. ..
  23. Tourmente S, Savre Train I, Berthier F, Renaud M. Expression of six mitochondrial genes during Drosophila oogenesis: analysis by in situ hybridization. Cell Differ Dev. 1990;31:137-49 pubmed
    ..Northern analysis of poly(A)+RNA from ovaries or cultured cells revealed an 1.7 kb extra-mitochondrial RNA, which is probably of nuclear origin. ..
  24. Shim M, Kim J, Jung H, Lee K, Xu X, Carlson B, et al. Elevation of glutamine level by selenophosphate synthetase 1 knockdown induces megamitochondrial formation in Drosophila cells. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:32881-94 pubmed publisher
  25. Lachaise D, Harry M, Solignac M, Lemeunier F, B nassi V, Cariou M. Evolutionary novelties in islands: Drosophila santomea, a new melanogaster sister species from São Tomé. Proc Biol Sci. 2000;267:1487-95 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to the significant divergence of their nuclear DNAs, an intriguing similarity in their cytochrome b sequences was observed indicating a recent coalescence common to santomea, yakuba and also teissieri cytoplasms...
  26. Schwarze S, Weindruch R, Aiken J. Decreased mitochondrial RNA levels without accumulation of mitochondrial DNA deletions in aging Drosophila melanogaster. Mutat Res. 1998;382:99-107 pubmed
    ..No difference, however, was apparent in the nuclear-encoded beta-ATPase RNA level, suggesting only mitochondrial RNA (mtRNA) declines are associated with life expectancy. ..
  27. Ballard J, Kreitman M. Unraveling selection in the mitochondrial genome of Drosophila. Genetics. 1994;138:757-72 pubmed
    We examine mitochondrial DNA variation at the cytochrome b locus within and between three species of Drosophila to determine whether patterns of variation conform to the predictions of neutral molecular evolution...
  28. Seligmann H. An overlapping genetic code for frameshifted overlapping genes in Drosophila mitochondria: antisense antitermination tRNAs UAR insert serine. J Theor Biol. 2012;298:51-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Parallel genetic systems coded by an additional mitochondrial genetic code in Drosophila confirm similar phenomena in primate mitochondria. ..
  29. Chang K, MIN K. Drosophila melanogaster homolog of Down syndrome critical region 1 is critical for mitochondrial function. Nat Neurosci. 2005;8:1577-85 pubmed
    ..These results identify nebula/DSCR1 as a regulator of mitochondrial function and integrity and further suggest that an increased level of DSCR1 may contribute to the mitochondrial dysfunction seen in Down syndrome. ..
  30. Morel F, Debise R, Renoux M, Touraille S, Ragno M, Alziari S. Biochemical and molecular consequences of ethidium bromide treatment on Drosophila cells. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 1999;29:835-43 pubmed
    ..These reductions matched that in mtDNA content. In contrast, no link could be demonstrated between mtDNA content and steady-state concentrations of the transcripts of genes COIII and Cyt b. ..
  31. Wolff J, Tompkins D, Gemmell N, Dowling D. Mitonuclear interactions, mtDNA-mediated thermal plasticity, and implications for the Trojan Female Technique for pest control. Sci Rep. 2016;6:30016 pubmed publisher
    ..for this "Trojan Female Technique" (TFT) was recently provided, in the form of a mutation in the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (mt:Cyt-b) of Drosophila melanogaster which reduces male fertility across diverse nuclear backgrounds...