Gene Symbol: Cyt-c-p
Description: Cytochrome c proximal
Alias: CG17903, CYC, Cyct-c-p, Cyt C, Cyt c, Cyt-c2, CytC, CytC-2, Cytc, Cytc-p, DC4, DMc01, Dmel\CG17903, cyt c, cyt c-p, cyt-c-p, cyt-c2, cyt.c, cytC-p, cytochrome c, dCyt.C-p, dc4, l(2)k13905, pDMc01, cytochrome c proximal, CG17903-PA, CG17903-PB, Cyt-c-p-PA, Cyt-c-p-PB, Cytochrome-c-proximal, cytochrome c, cytochrome c DC4, cytochrome-c-p, lethal (2) k13905
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Swanson M, Zieminn S, Miller D, Garber E, Margoliash E. Developmental expression of nuclear genes that encode mitochondrial proteins: insect cytochromes c. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985;82:1964-8 pubmed
    ..biogenesis, we studied the expression of the Manduca sexta (tobacco hornworm moth) thoracic muscle cytochrome c gene during adult eclosion and used this information to obtain a cDNA clone for this gene, which in turn was ..
  2. White K. The third horseman takes wing. Nat Cell Biol. 1999;1:E123-4 pubmed
  3. Means J, Muro I, Clem R. Lack of involvement of mitochondrial factors in caspase activation in a Drosophila cell-free system. Cell Death Differ. 2006;13:1222-34 pubmed
    ..The Hid peptide also induced apoptosis when introduced into S2 cells. These results suggest that caspase activation in Drosophila is regulated solely by cytoplasmic factors and does not involve any mitochondrial factors. ..
  4. Limbach K, Wu R. Characterization of two Drosophila melanogaster cytochrome c genes and their transcripts. Nucleic Acids Res. 1985;13:631-44 pubmed
    Analysis of total Drosophila melanogaster DNA by genomic blot hybridization indicates that two cytochrome c-like sequences exist in the Drosophila genome. These two sequences, DC3 and DC4, have been isolated from a Charon 4A-D...
  5. Arama E, Agapite J, Steller H. Caspase activity and a specific cytochrome C are required for sperm differentiation in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2003;4:687-97 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that an apoptosis-like mechanism is required for spermatid differentiation in Drosophila. ..
  6. Inoue S, Inoue H, Hiroyoshi T, Matsubara H, Yamanaka T. Developmental variation and amino acid sequences of cytochromes c of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the flesh fly Boettcherisca peregrina. J Biochem. 1986;100:955-65 pubmed
    ..The sequence of fruit fly cytochrome c differed from that reported previously but was identical with that predicted from the nucleotide sequence of ..
  7. Dorstyn L, Read S, Cakouros D, Huh J, Hay B, Kumar S. The role of cytochrome c in caspase activation in Drosophila melanogaster cells. J Cell Biol. 2002;156:1089-98 pubmed
    The release of cytochrome c from mitochondria is necessary for the formation of the Apaf-1 apoptosome and subsequent activation of caspase-9 in mammalian cells...
  8. Abrams J. An emerging blueprint for apoptosis in Drosophila. Trends Cell Biol. 1999;9:435-40 pubmed
    ..This animal model promises continued insights into the determinants of cell death in 'naturally occurring' and pathological contexts. ..
  9. Zimmermann K, Ricci J, Droin N, Green D. The role of ARK in stress-induced apoptosis in Drosophila cells. J Cell Biol. 2002;156:1077-87 pubmed
    ..Cells in which cytochrome c expression was decreased underwent apoptosis induced by stress stimuli, Reaper or Grim...

More Information


  1. Varkey J, Chen P, Jemmerson R, Abrams J. Altered cytochrome c display precedes apoptotic cell death in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 1999;144:701-10 pubmed
    ..It offers a powerful extension to in vitro models that have implicated a requirement for cytochrome c in caspase activation and apoptosis...
  2. Rodriguez A, Oliver H, Zou H, Chen P, Wang X, Abrams J. Dark is a Drosophila homologue of Apaf-1/CED-4 and functions in an evolutionarily conserved death pathway. Nat Cell Biol. 1999;1:272-9 pubmed
    ..Dark contains a carboxy-terminal WD-repeat domain necessary for interactions with the mitochondrial protein cytochrome c. Dark selectively associates with another protein involved in apoptosis, the fly apical caspase, Dredd...
  3. Peterson J, Bass B, Jue D, Rodriguez A, Abrams J, McCall K. Noncanonical cell death pathways act during Drosophila oogenesis. Genesis. 2007;45:396-404 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that novel pathways must control PCD in the ovary. ..
  4. Gerbasi V, Preall J, Golden D, Powell D, Cummins T, Sontheimer E. Blanks, a nuclear siRNA/dsRNA-binding complex component, is required for Drosophila spermiogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:3204-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal Blanks to be a unique component of a nuclear siRNA/dsRNA-binding complex that contributes to essential RNA silencing-related pathways in the male germ line. ..
  5. Shepherd M, Dailey H. Peroxidase activity of cytochrome C facilitates the protoporphyrinogen oxidase reaction. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2009;55:6-14 pubmed
    ..In the current study, the ability of cytochrome c to serve as an electron acceptor for PPO was examined...
  6. Danial N, Korsmeyer S. Cell death: critical control points. Cell. 2004;116:205-19 pubmed
    ..The identification of critical control points in the cell death pathway has yielded fundamental insights for basic biology, as well as provided rational targets for new therapeutics. ..
  7. Tong J, Margoliash E. Cytochrome c heme lyase activity of yeast mitochondria. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:25695-702 pubmed
    ..made, pure Drosophila melanogaster apocytochrome c and Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria, the activity of cytochrome c heme lyase amounted to about 800 fmol min-1 mg-1 mitochondrial protein...
  8. Arama E, Bader M, Srivastava M, Bergmann A, Steller H. The two Drosophila cytochrome C proteins can function in both respiration and caspase activation. EMBO J. 2006;25:232-43 pubmed
    b>Cytochrome C has two apparently separable cellular functions: respiration and caspase activation during apoptosis...
  9. Xu D, Woodfield S, Lee T, Fan Y, Antonio C, Bergmann A. Genetic control of programmed cell death (apoptosis) in Drosophila. Fly (Austin). 2009;3:78-90 pubmed
    ..Here, we review the key players of the cell death pathway in Drosophila and discuss their roles in apoptotic and non-apoptotic processes. ..
  10. de Castro I, Costa A, Celardo I, Tufi R, Dinsdale D, Loh S, et al. Drosophila ref(2)P is required for the parkin-mediated suppression of mitochondrial dysfunction in pink1 mutants. Cell Death Dis. 2013;4:e873 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that Ref(2)P is a crucial downstream effector of a pathway involving Pink1 and Parkin and is responsible for the maintenance of a viable pool of cellular mitochondria by promoting their aggregation and autophagic clearance. ..
  11. Baltzer C, Tiefenböck S, Marti M, Frei C. Nutrition controls mitochondrial biogenesis in the Drosophila adipose tissue through Delg and cyclin D/Cdk4. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6935 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings are the first genetic evidence that the regulation of mitochondrial mass can be uncoupled from mitochondrial activity. ..
  12. Martin S. Destabilizing influences in apoptosis: sowing the seeds of IAP destruction. Cell. 2002;109:793-6 pubmed
    ..Recent developments suggest that ubiquitin-proteasome mediated destruction of the Drosophila IAP, DIAP1, is a key event during the initiation of programmed cell death in the fly. ..
  13. Dorstyn L, Mills K, Lazebnik Y, Kumar S. The two cytochrome c species, DC3 and DC4, are not required for caspase activation and apoptosis in Drosophila cells. J Cell Biol. 2004;167:405-10 pubmed
    ..However, unlike caspase activation in mammals, DRONC activation is not accompanied by the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria...
  14. Koshy T, Luntz T, Schejter A, Margoliash E. Changing the invariant proline-30 of rat and Drosophila melanogaster cytochromes c to alanine or valine destabilizes the heme crevice more than the overall conformation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:8697-701 pubmed
    ..The valine-substituted rat cytochrome c had properties intermediate between those of the wild type and the alanine mutant...
  15. Haghnia M, Cavalli V, Shah S, Schimmelpfeng K, Brusch R, Yang G, et al. Dynactin is required for coordinated bidirectional motility, but not for dynein membrane attachment. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:2081-9 pubmed
  16. Cobbe N, Savvidou E, Heck M. Diverse mitotic and interphase functions of condensins in Drosophila. Genetics. 2006;172:991-1008 pubmed
    ..This suggests either that the role of condensin proteins in interphase differs from their expected role in mitosis or that the way we envision condensin's activity needs to be modified to accommodate alternative possibilities. ..
  17. Kornbluth S, White K. Apoptosis in Drosophila: neither fish nor fowl (nor man, nor worm). J Cell Sci. 2005;118:1779-87 pubmed
    ..For example, whereas cytochrome c released from mitochondria clearly promotes caspase activation in vertebrates, there is no documented role for ..
  18. Wang Y, Lee C, Lee L, Tung L, Hsieh Li H, Lee Chen G, et al. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress contribute to the pathogenesis of spinocerebellar ataxia type 12 (SCA12). J Biol Chem. 2011;286:21742-54 pubmed publisher
    ..and tws induced fission of mitochondria accompanied by increases in cytosolic reactive oxygen species (ROS), cytochrome c, and caspase 3 activity...
  19. Fernandez Sousa J, Gavilanes J, Municio A, Paredes J, Pérez Aranda A, Rodriguez R. Primary structure of cytochrome c from the insect Ceratitis capitata. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1975;393:358-67 pubmed
    The complete amino acid sequence of cytochrome c from the Dipterous Ceratitis capitata (serie Acalypterae) has been determined by combining automatic and manual methods of sequence analysis...
  20. Banerjee K, Ayyub C, Sengupta S, Kolthur Seetharam U. Fat body dSir2 regulates muscle mitochondrial physiology and energy homeostasis nonautonomously and mimics the autonomous functions of dSir2 in muscles. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:252-64 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, we show that fat body dSir2 is a master regulator of organismal energy homeostasis and is required for maintaining the metabolic regulatory network across tissues. ..
  21. Abdelwahid E, Yokokura T, Krieser R, Balasundaram S, Fowle W, White K. Mitochondrial disruption in Drosophila apoptosis. Dev Cell. 2007;12:793-806 pubmed
    ..Significantly, we show that inhibition of Reaper or Hid mitochondrial localization or inhibition of Drp1 significantly inhibits apoptosis, indicating a role for mitochondrial disruption in fly apoptosis. ..
  22. Hakvoort T, Sprinkle J, Margoliash E. Reversible import of apocytochrome c into mitochondria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:4996-5000 pubmed
  23. Tenev T, Zachariou A, Wilson R, Paul A, Meier P. Jafrac2 is an IAP antagonist that promotes cell death by liberating Dronc from DIAP1. EMBO J. 2002;21:5118-29 pubmed
    ..We show that Jafrac2 displaces Dronc from DIAP1 by competing with Dronc for the binding of DIAP1, consistent with the idea that Jafrac2 triggers cell death by liberating Dronc from DIAP1-mediated inhibition. ..
  24. Sprinkle J, Hakvoort T, Koshy T, Miller D, Margoliash E. Amino acid sequence requirements for the association of apocytochrome c with mitochondria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:5729-33 pubmed
    ..These results emphasize the wide disparity between the structural requirements for association with mitochondria and for the production of a functional holoprotein. ..
  25. Igaki T, Miura M. Role of Bcl-2 family members in invertebrates. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004;1644:73-81 pubmed
    ..The ancestral role of the Bcl-2 family protein may be pro-apoptotic, and the evolution of the functions of this family of proteins may be closely linked with the contribution of mitochondria to the cell death pathway. ..
  26. Claveria C, Torres M. Mitochondrial apoptotic pathways induced by Drosophila programmed cell death regulators. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;304:531-7 pubmed
    ..Recent molecular and cellular analyses suggest, however, that the mechanisms of action of the main programmed cell death regulators in Drosophila include a canonical mitochondrial pathway. ..
  27. Zhang K, Li Z, Jaiswal M, Bayat V, Xiong B, Sandoval H, et al. The C8ORF38 homologue Sicily is a cytosolic chaperone for a mitochondrial complex I subunit. J Cell Biol. 2013;200:807-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that cytosolic chaperones are required for the subcellular transport of ND42. ..
  28. Xun Z, Kaufman T, Clemmer D. Stable isotope labeling and label-free proteomics of Drosophila parkin null mutants. J Proteome Res. 2009;8:4500-10 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that abnormalities in energy metabolism and protein transporter activity pathways may be associated with the pathogenesis of Parkin-associated AR-JP. ..
  29. Challa M, Malladi S, Pellock B, Dresnek D, Varadarajan S, Yin Y, et al. Drosophila Omi, a mitochondrial-localized IAP antagonist and proapoptotic serine protease. EMBO J. 2007;26:3144-56 pubmed
    ..In summary, we demonstrate for the first time in flies that mitochondrial permeabilization not only occurs during apoptosis but also results in the release of a bona fide proapoptotic protein. ..
  30. Walker D, Benzer S. Mitochondrial "swirls" induced by oxygen stress and in the Drosophila mutant hyperswirl. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:10290-5 pubmed
    ..The cristae involved in a swirl are deficient in respiratory enzyme cytochrome c oxidase activity, within an otherwise cytochrome c oxidase-positive mitochondrion...
  31. Igaki T, Yamamoto Goto Y, Tokushige N, Kanda H, Miura M. Down-regulation of DIAP1 triggers a novel Drosophila cell death pathway mediated by Dark and DRONC. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:23103-6 pubmed
    ..These results suggest the existence of a novel mechanism for cell death signaling in Drosophila that is mediated by DRONC and Dark. ..
  32. Tittel J, Steller H. A comparison of programmed cell death between species. Genome Biol. 2000;1:REVIEWS0003 pubmed
    ..The search for additional homologs has been facilitated by the availability of the entire genomic sequence for each of these organisms. ..
  33. Grant J, Saldanha J, Gould A. A Drosophila model for primary coenzyme Q deficiency and dietary rescue in the developing nervous system. Dis Model Mech. 2010;3:799-806 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings show that Drosophila qless provides a useful model for studying the neural effects of CoQ deficiency and dietary supplementation. ..
  34. Shaik K, Meyer F, Vázquez A, Flötenmeyer M, Cerdán M, Moussian B. δ-Aminolevulinate synthase is required for apical transcellular barrier formation in the skin of the Drosophila larva. Eur J Cell Biol. 2012;91:204-15 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that at least two modules--an apical protein-chitin lattice and the lateral septate junctions, act in parallel to ensure Drosophila skin impermeability. ..
  35. von Stockum S, Basso E, Petronilli V, Sabatelli P, Forte M, Bernardi P. Properties of Ca(2+) transport in mitochondria of Drosophila melanogaster. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:41163-70 pubmed publisher
    ..ii) inhibited by P(i), as is the PTP of yeast mitochondria; and (iii) not accompanied by matrix swelling and cytochrome c release even in KCl-based medium...
  36. Yu H, Luscombe N, Lu H, Zhu X, Xia Y, Han J, et al. Annotation transfer between genomes: protein-protein interologs and protein-DNA regulogs. Genome Res. 2004;14:1107-18 pubmed
    ..We test a number of these in two-hybrid experiments and are able to verify 45 overlaps, which we show to be statistically significant. ..
  37. Yano M, Nakamuta S, Wu X, Okumura Y, Kido H. A novel function of 14-3-3 protein: 14-3-3zeta is a heat-shock-related molecular chaperone that dissolves thermal-aggregated proteins. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:4769-79 pubmed
    ..action linked to heat stress, 14-3-3zeta interacted with apocytochrome c, a mitochondrial precursor protein of cytochrome c, in heat-treated cells, and the suppression of 14-3-3zeta expression by RNA interference resulted in the ..
  38. Meier P, Finch A, Evan G. Apoptosis in development. Nature. 2000;407:796-801 pubmed
    ..Dysfunctions in the regulation or execution of cell suicide are implicated in a wide range of developmental abnormalities and diseases. ..
  39. Morrow G, Inaguma Y, Kato K, Tanguay R. The small heat shock protein Hsp22 of Drosophila melanogaster is a mitochondrial protein displaying oligomeric organization. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:31204-10 pubmed
    ..The mitochondrial localization of this small Hsp22 of Drosophila and its high level of expression in aging suggests a role for this small heat shock protein in protection against oxidative stress. ..
  40. Tiefenböck S, Baltzer C, Egli N, Frei C. The Drosophila PGC-1 homologue Spargel coordinates mitochondrial activity to insulin signalling. EMBO J. 2010;29:171-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data place Spargel at a nodal point for the integration of mitochondrial activity to tissue and organismal metabolism and growth. ..
  41. Peterson J, Barkett M, McCall K. Stage-specific regulation of caspase activity in drosophila oogenesis. Dev Biol. 2003;260:113-23 pubmed
    ..This limited caspase activation in dying nurse cells may prevent destruction of the nurse cell cytoskeleton and the connected oocyte. ..
  42. Baehrecke E. Caspase activation finds fertile ground. Dev Cell. 2003;4:608-9 pubmed
    b>Cytochrome c is a critical regulator of apoptosome assembly, caspase activation, and programmed cell death...
  43. de la Cova C, Senoo Matsuda N, Ziosi M, Wu D, Bellosta P, Quinzii C, et al. Supercompetitor status of Drosophila Myc cells requires p53 as a fitness sensor to reprogram metabolism and promote viability. Cell Metab. 2014;19:470-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that the initial confrontation between precancerous and WT cells could enhance cancer cell fitness and promote tumor progression. ..
  44. Gajan A, Barnes V, Liu M, Saha N, Pile L. The histone demethylase dKDM5/LID interacts with the SIN3 histone deacetylase complex and shares functional similarities with SIN3. Epigenetics Chromatin. 2016;9:4 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, the data provide a solid framework for analyzing the gene regulatory pathways through which SIN3 and dKDM5/LID control diverse biological processes in the organism. ..