Gene Symbol: Cyt-c-d
Description: Cytochrome c distal
Alias: CG13263, CYC, Cyt C, Cyt c, Cyt-c1, CytC, CytC-1, CytC1, Cytc, Cytc-d, DC3, Dmel\CG13263, bln, bs30f07.y1, cyt c, cyt c-d, cyt-c-d, cyt.c, cyt.c-d, cytochrome c, dc3, ms(2)04445, pDMc02, cytochrome c distal, CG13263-PA, CG13263-PB, Cyt-c-d-PA, Cyt-c-d-PB, blanks, cytochrome c, cytochrome c-d, cytochrome-c-d
Species: fruit fly
Products:     Cyt-c-d

Top Publications

  1. Huh J, Vernooy S, Yu H, Yan N, Shi Y, Guo M, et al. Multiple apoptotic caspase cascades are required in nonapoptotic roles for Drosophila spermatid individualization. PLoS Biol. 2004;2:E15 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that multiple caspases and caspase regulators, likely acting at distinct points in time and space, are required for spermatid individualization, a nonapoptotic process. ..
  2. Igaki T, Yamamoto Goto Y, Tokushige N, Kanda H, Miura M. Down-regulation of DIAP1 triggers a novel Drosophila cell death pathway mediated by Dark and DRONC. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:23103-6 pubmed
    ..These results suggest the existence of a novel mechanism for cell death signaling in Drosophila that is mediated by DRONC and Dark. ..
  3. Limbach K, Wu R. Characterization of two Drosophila melanogaster cytochrome c genes and their transcripts. Nucleic Acids Res. 1985;13:631-44 pubmed
    Analysis of total Drosophila melanogaster DNA by genomic blot hybridization indicates that two cytochrome c-like sequences exist in the Drosophila genome. These two sequences, DC3 and DC4, have been isolated from a Charon 4A-D...
  4. Arama E, Agapite J, Steller H. Caspase activity and a specific cytochrome C are required for sperm differentiation in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2003;4:687-97 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that an apoptosis-like mechanism is required for spermatid differentiation in Drosophila. ..
  5. Dorstyn L, Read S, Cakouros D, Huh J, Hay B, Kumar S. The role of cytochrome c in caspase activation in Drosophila melanogaster cells. J Cell Biol. 2002;156:1089-98 pubmed
    The release of cytochrome c from mitochondria is necessary for the formation of the Apaf-1 apoptosome and subsequent activation of caspase-9 in mammalian cells...
  6. Rodriguez A, Oliver H, Zou H, Chen P, Wang X, Abrams J. Dark is a Drosophila homologue of Apaf-1/CED-4 and functions in an evolutionarily conserved death pathway. Nat Cell Biol. 1999;1:272-9 pubmed
    ..Dark contains a carboxy-terminal WD-repeat domain necessary for interactions with the mitochondrial protein cytochrome c. Dark selectively associates with another protein involved in apoptosis, the fly apical caspase, Dredd...
  7. Varkey J, Chen P, Jemmerson R, Abrams J. Altered cytochrome c display precedes apoptotic cell death in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 1999;144:701-10 pubmed
    ..It offers a powerful extension to in vitro models that have implicated a requirement for cytochrome c in caspase activation and apoptosis...
  8. Inoue S, Inoue H, Hiroyoshi T, Matsubara H, Yamanaka T. Developmental variation and amino acid sequences of cytochromes c of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the flesh fly Boettcherisca peregrina. J Biochem. 1986;100:955-65 pubmed
    ..The sequence of fruit fly cytochrome c differed from that reported previously but was identical with that predicted from the nucleotide sequence of ..
  9. Sury M, Chen J, Selbach M. The SILAC fly allows for accurate protein quantification in vivo. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2010;9:2173-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The approach is simple, fast, and cost-effective, making SILAC flies an attractive model system for the emerging field of in vivo quantitative proteomics. ..

More Information


  1. Tittel J, Steller H. A comparison of programmed cell death between species. Genome Biol. 2000;1:REVIEWS0003 pubmed
    ..The search for additional homologs has been facilitated by the availability of the entire genomic sequence for each of these organisms. ..
  2. Swanson M, Zieminn S, Miller D, Garber E, Margoliash E. Developmental expression of nuclear genes that encode mitochondrial proteins: insect cytochromes c. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985;82:1964-8 pubmed
    ..biogenesis, we studied the expression of the Manduca sexta (tobacco hornworm moth) thoracic muscle cytochrome c gene during adult eclosion and used this information to obtain a cDNA clone for this gene, which in turn was ..
  3. Shaik K, Meyer F, Vázquez A, Flötenmeyer M, Cerdán M, Moussian B. δ-Aminolevulinate synthase is required for apical transcellular barrier formation in the skin of the Drosophila larva. Eur J Cell Biol. 2012;91:204-15 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that at least two modules--an apical protein-chitin lattice and the lateral septate junctions, act in parallel to ensure Drosophila skin impermeability. ..
  4. Yano M, Nakamuta S, Wu X, Okumura Y, Kido H. A novel function of 14-3-3 protein: 14-3-3zeta is a heat-shock-related molecular chaperone that dissolves thermal-aggregated proteins. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:4769-79 pubmed
    ..action linked to heat stress, 14-3-3zeta interacted with apocytochrome c, a mitochondrial precursor protein of cytochrome c, in heat-treated cells, and the suppression of 14-3-3zeta expression by RNA interference resulted in the ..
  5. Walker D, Benzer S. Mitochondrial "swirls" induced by oxygen stress and in the Drosophila mutant hyperswirl. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:10290-5 pubmed
    ..The cristae involved in a swirl are deficient in respiratory enzyme cytochrome c oxidase activity, within an otherwise cytochrome c oxidase-positive mitochondrion...
  6. Mendes C, Arama E, Brown S, Scherr H, Srivastava M, Bergmann A, et al. Cytochrome c-d regulates developmental apoptosis in the Drosophila retina. EMBO Rep. 2006;7:933-9 pubmed
    The role of cytochrome c (Cyt c) in caspase activation has largely been established from mammalian cell-culture studies, but much remains to be learned about its physiological relevance in situ...
  7. von Stockum S, Basso E, Petronilli V, Sabatelli P, Forte M, Bernardi P. Properties of Ca(2+) transport in mitochondria of Drosophila melanogaster. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:41163-70 pubmed publisher
    ..ii) inhibited by P(i), as is the PTP of yeast mitochondria; and (iii) not accompanied by matrix swelling and cytochrome c release even in KCl-based medium...
  8. de la Cova C, Senoo Matsuda N, Ziosi M, Wu D, Bellosta P, Quinzii C, et al. Supercompetitor status of Drosophila Myc cells requires p53 as a fitness sensor to reprogram metabolism and promote viability. Cell Metab. 2014;19:470-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that the initial confrontation between precancerous and WT cells could enhance cancer cell fitness and promote tumor progression. ..
  9. Baehrecke E. Caspase activation finds fertile ground. Dev Cell. 2003;4:608-9 pubmed
    b>Cytochrome c is a critical regulator of apoptosome assembly, caspase activation, and programmed cell death...
  10. Peterson J, Barkett M, McCall K. Stage-specific regulation of caspase activity in drosophila oogenesis. Dev Biol. 2003;260:113-23 pubmed
    ..This limited caspase activation in dying nurse cells may prevent destruction of the nurse cell cytoskeleton and the connected oocyte. ..
  11. Meier P, Finch A, Evan G. Apoptosis in development. Nature. 2000;407:796-801 pubmed
    ..Dysfunctions in the regulation or execution of cell suicide are implicated in a wide range of developmental abnormalities and diseases. ..
  12. Morrow G, Inaguma Y, Kato K, Tanguay R. The small heat shock protein Hsp22 of Drosophila melanogaster is a mitochondrial protein displaying oligomeric organization. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:31204-10 pubmed
    ..The mitochondrial localization of this small Hsp22 of Drosophila and its high level of expression in aging suggests a role for this small heat shock protein in protection against oxidative stress. ..
  13. Abrams J. An emerging blueprint for apoptosis in Drosophila. Trends Cell Biol. 1999;9:435-40 pubmed
    ..This animal model promises continued insights into the determinants of cell death in 'naturally occurring' and pathological contexts. ..
  14. Igaki T, Miura M. Role of Bcl-2 family members in invertebrates. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004;1644:73-81 pubmed
    ..The ancestral role of the Bcl-2 family protein may be pro-apoptotic, and the evolution of the functions of this family of proteins may be closely linked with the contribution of mitochondria to the cell death pathway. ..
  15. Claveria C, Torres M. Mitochondrial apoptotic pathways induced by Drosophila programmed cell death regulators. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;304:531-7 pubmed
    ..Recent molecular and cellular analyses suggest, however, that the mechanisms of action of the main programmed cell death regulators in Drosophila include a canonical mitochondrial pathway. ..
  16. Tenev T, Zachariou A, Wilson R, Paul A, Meier P. Jafrac2 is an IAP antagonist that promotes cell death by liberating Dronc from DIAP1. EMBO J. 2002;21:5118-29 pubmed
    ..We show that Jafrac2 displaces Dronc from DIAP1 by competing with Dronc for the binding of DIAP1, consistent with the idea that Jafrac2 triggers cell death by liberating Dronc from DIAP1-mediated inhibition. ..
  17. White K. The third horseman takes wing. Nat Cell Biol. 1999;1:E123-4 pubmed
  18. Abdelwahid E, Yokokura T, Krieser R, Balasundaram S, Fowle W, White K. Mitochondrial disruption in Drosophila apoptosis. Dev Cell. 2007;12:793-806 pubmed
    ..Significantly, we show that inhibition of Reaper or Hid mitochondrial localization or inhibition of Drp1 significantly inhibits apoptosis, indicating a role for mitochondrial disruption in fly apoptosis. ..
  19. Aram L, Braun T, Braverman C, Kaplan Y, Ravid L, Levin Zaidman S, et al. A Krebs Cycle Component Limits Caspase Activation Rate through Mitochondrial Surface Restriction of CRL Activation. Dev Cell. 2016;37:15-33 pubmed publisher
  20. Zhang K, Li Z, Jaiswal M, Bayat V, Xiong B, Sandoval H, et al. The C8ORF38 homologue Sicily is a cytosolic chaperone for a mitochondrial complex I subunit. J Cell Biol. 2013;200:807-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that cytosolic chaperones are required for the subcellular transport of ND42. ..
  21. Grant J, Saldanha J, Gould A. A Drosophila model for primary coenzyme Q deficiency and dietary rescue in the developing nervous system. Dis Model Mech. 2010;3:799-806 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings show that Drosophila qless provides a useful model for studying the neural effects of CoQ deficiency and dietary supplementation. ..
  22. Challa M, Malladi S, Pellock B, Dresnek D, Varadarajan S, Yin Y, et al. Drosophila Omi, a mitochondrial-localized IAP antagonist and proapoptotic serine protease. EMBO J. 2007;26:3144-56 pubmed
    ..In summary, we demonstrate for the first time in flies that mitochondrial permeabilization not only occurs during apoptosis but also results in the release of a bona fide proapoptotic protein. ..
  23. Wong S, Chen Y, Chan C, Chan C, Chan P, Chui Y, et al. In vivo functional characterization of the SARS-Coronavirus 3a protein in Drosophila. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;337:720-9 pubmed
    ..We further found that 3a misexpression induces apoptosis, which could be modulated by cellular cytochrome c levels and caspase activity...
  24. Haghnia M, Cavalli V, Shah S, Schimmelpfeng K, Brusch R, Yang G, et al. Dynactin is required for coordinated bidirectional motility, but not for dynein membrane attachment. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:2081-9 pubmed
  25. Means J, Muro I, Clem R. Lack of involvement of mitochondrial factors in caspase activation in a Drosophila cell-free system. Cell Death Differ. 2006;13:1222-34 pubmed
    ..The Hid peptide also induced apoptosis when introduced into S2 cells. These results suggest that caspase activation in Drosophila is regulated solely by cytoplasmic factors and does not involve any mitochondrial factors. ..
  26. Wang Y, Lee C, Lee L, Tung L, Hsieh Li H, Lee Chen G, et al. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress contribute to the pathogenesis of spinocerebellar ataxia type 12 (SCA12). J Biol Chem. 2011;286:21742-54 pubmed publisher
    ..and tws induced fission of mitochondria accompanied by increases in cytosolic reactive oxygen species (ROS), cytochrome c, and caspase 3 activity...
  27. Kanda H, Igaki T, Okano H, Miura M. Conserved metabolic energy production pathways govern Eiger/TNF-induced nonapoptotic cell death. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:18977-82 pubmed publisher
    ..This result suggests a link between sensitivity to cell death and metabolic activity in cancer. ..
  28. Kornbluth S, White K. Apoptosis in Drosophila: neither fish nor fowl (nor man, nor worm). J Cell Sci. 2005;118:1779-87 pubmed
    ..For example, whereas cytochrome c released from mitochondria clearly promotes caspase activation in vertebrates, there is no documented role for ..
  29. Dorstyn L, Mills K, Lazebnik Y, Kumar S. The two cytochrome c species, DC3 and DC4, are not required for caspase activation and apoptosis in Drosophila cells. J Cell Biol. 2004;167:405-10 pubmed
    ..However, unlike caspase activation in mammals, DRONC activation is not accompanied by the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria...
  30. de Castro I, Costa A, Celardo I, Tufi R, Dinsdale D, Loh S, et al. Drosophila ref(2)P is required for the parkin-mediated suppression of mitochondrial dysfunction in pink1 mutants. Cell Death Dis. 2013;4:e873 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that Ref(2)P is a crucial downstream effector of a pathway involving Pink1 and Parkin and is responsible for the maintenance of a viable pool of cellular mitochondria by promoting their aggregation and autophagic clearance. ..
  31. Martin S. Destabilizing influences in apoptosis: sowing the seeds of IAP destruction. Cell. 2002;109:793-6 pubmed
    ..Recent developments suggest that ubiquitin-proteasome mediated destruction of the Drosophila IAP, DIAP1, is a key event during the initiation of programmed cell death in the fly. ..
  32. Peterson J, Bass B, Jue D, Rodriguez A, Abrams J, McCall K. Noncanonical cell death pathways act during Drosophila oogenesis. Genesis. 2007;45:396-404 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that novel pathways must control PCD in the ovary. ..
  33. Xu D, Woodfield S, Lee T, Fan Y, Antonio C, Bergmann A. Genetic control of programmed cell death (apoptosis) in Drosophila. Fly (Austin). 2009;3:78-90 pubmed
    ..Here, we review the key players of the cell death pathway in Drosophila and discuss their roles in apoptotic and non-apoptotic processes. ..
  34. Shepherd M, Dailey H. Peroxidase activity of cytochrome C facilitates the protoporphyrinogen oxidase reaction. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2009;55:6-14 pubmed
    ..In the current study, the ability of cytochrome c to serve as an electron acceptor for PPO was examined...
  35. Arama E, Bader M, Srivastava M, Bergmann A, Steller H. The two Drosophila cytochrome C proteins can function in both respiration and caspase activation. EMBO J. 2006;25:232-43 pubmed
    b>Cytochrome C has two apparently separable cellular functions: respiration and caspase activation during apoptosis...
  36. Danial N, Korsmeyer S. Cell death: critical control points. Cell. 2004;116:205-19 pubmed
    ..The identification of critical control points in the cell death pathway has yielded fundamental insights for basic biology, as well as provided rational targets for new therapeutics. ..