Gene Symbol: Cyp6g1
Description: Cyp6g1
Alias: 6g1, CG8453, CYP6G1, CYP6g1, Cyp6-like, Cyp6G1, Cyp6gl, DDT-R, Dmel-Cyp6g1, Dmel\CG8453, RDDT, RI[DDT], RI[II], Rst(2)DDT, anon-WO03025223.16, anon-WO03025223.17, cyp6g1, Cyp6g1, CG8453-PA, CG8453-PB, CYP6-like, Cyp6g1-PA, Cyp6g1-PB, cytochrome P450, resistance to DDT, resistance to Insecticide-DDT, resistance to insecticide on chromosome 2
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Dapkus D, Merrell D. Chromosomal analysis of DDT-resistance in a long-term selected population of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1977;87:685-97 pubmed
    ..Scaling difficulties make the interactions difficult to interpret without further data. It seems possible that positive interactions between resistance have been developed by the long-term directional selection in this population. ..
  2. Kuruganti S, Lam V, Zhou X, Bennett G, Pittendrigh B, Ganguly R. High expression of Cyp6g1, a cytochrome P450 gene, does not necessarily confer DDT resistance in Drosophila melanogaster. Gene. 2007;388:43-53 pubmed
    b>Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, a family of detoxifying enzymes, are thought to confer resistance to various insecticides including DDT. Daborn et al. [Daborn, P., Yen, J.L., Bogwitz, M., Le Goff, G., Feil, et al. 2002...
  3. Daborn P, Boundy S, Yen J, Pittendrigh B, ffrench Constant R. DDT resistance in Drosophila correlates with Cyp6g1 over-expression and confers cross-resistance to the neonicotinoid imidacloprid. Mol Genet Genomics. 2001;266:556-63 pubmed
    ..The genomic sequence in this interval shows a cluster of cytochrome P450 genes, one of which, Cyp6g1, is over-expressed in all resistant strains examined...
  4. Brandt A, Scharf M, Pedra J, Holmes G, Dean A, Kreitman M, et al. Differential expression and induction of two Drosophila cytochrome P450 genes near the Rst(2)DDT locus. Insect Mol Biol. 2002;11:337-41 pubmed
    ..Six cytochrome P450 genes exist in this region...
  5. McCart C, Buckling A, Ffrench Constant R. DDT resistance in flies carries no cost. Curr Biol. 2005;15:R587-9 pubmed
  6. Ffrench Constant R, Daborn P, Le Goff G. The genetics and genomics of insecticide resistance. Trends Genet. 2004;20:163-70 pubmed
    ..These studies enable us to address three fundamental questions in the evolution of resistance. How many genes are involved? How many mutations are there within these genes? How often do these mutations arise in natural populations? ..
  7. Le Goff G, Boundy S, Daborn P, Yen J, Sofer L, Lind R, et al. Microarray analysis of cytochrome P450 mediated insecticide resistance in Drosophila. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2003;33:701-8 pubmed
    ..melanogaster resistance to DDT and other compounds is conferred by one P450 gene, Cyp6g1...
  8. Cridland J, Thornton K. Validation of rearrangement break points identified by paired-end sequencing in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster. Genome Biol Evol. 2010;2:83-101 pubmed publisher
    ..receptor, and identify copy-number differences in genes previously known to be under positive selection, like Cyp6g1, which confers resistance to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane...
  9. Emerson J, Cardoso Moreira M, Borevitz J, Long M. Natural selection shapes genome-wide patterns of copy-number polymorphism in Drosophila melanogaster. Science. 2008;320:1629-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Among duplications, those overlapping exons or introns, as well as those falling on the X chromosome, seem to be subject to stronger purifying selection. ..

More Information


  1. Chung H, Bogwitz M, McCart C, Andrianopoulos A, Ffrench Constant R, Batterham P, et al. Cis-regulatory elements in the Accord retrotransposon result in tissue-specific expression of the Drosophila melanogaster insecticide resistance gene Cyp6g1. Genetics. 2007;175:1071-7 pubmed
    ..Cyp6g1-mediated insecticide resistance in Drosophila melanogaster is due to the upregulation of the cytochrome P450 gene Cyp6g1, leading to the resistance to a variety of insecticide classes...
  2. Bogwitz M, Chung H, Magoc L, Rigby S, Wong W, O Keefe M, et al. Cyp12a4 confers lufenuron resistance in a natural population of Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:12807-12 pubmed
    ..have used precise genetic mapping to identify a mechanism of lufenuron resistance: the overexpression of the cytochrome P450 gene Cyp12a4. Cyp12a4 is predicted to encode a mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme...
  3. Pyke F, Bogwitz M, Perry T, Monk A, Batterham P, McKenzie J. The genetic basis of resistance to diazinon in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetica. 2004;121:13-24 pubmed
    ..Larval resistance levels, due to single genes (or gene complexes) on chromosomes II and III, were significant (15-fold). Evidence indicates that the gene on chromosome II is Cyp6g1.
  4. Schmidt J, Good R, Appleton B, Sherrard J, Raymant G, Bogwitz M, et al. Copy number variation and transposable elements feature in recent, ongoing adaptation at the Cyp6g1 locus. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000998 pubmed publisher
    ..of the phenotypic distribution and accounts for approximately 16% of the underlying phenotypic variation in resistance to DDT. In contrast, copy number variation for another candidate resistance gene, Cyp12d1, is not associated with ..
  5. Festucci Buselli R, Carvalho Dias A, de Oliveira Andrade M, Caixeta Nunes C, Li H, Stuart J, et al. Expression of Cyp6g1 and Cyp12d1 in DDT resistant and susceptible strains of Drosophila melanogaster. Insect Mol Biol. 2005;14:69-77 pubmed
    The Rst(2)DDT locus (loci) in Drosophila is associated with the over-expression of two cytochrome P450 genes, Cyp6g1 and Cyp12d1...
  6. Schlenke T, Begun D. Strong selective sweep associated with a transposon insertion in Drosophila simulans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:1626-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The 5' flanking sequence of one gene in this region, Cyp6g1 (a cytochrome P450), is nearly fixed for a Doc transposable element insertion...
  7. Daborn P, Yen J, Bogwitz M, Le Goff G, Feil E, Jeffers S, et al. A single p450 allele associated with insecticide resistance in Drosophila. Science. 2002;297:2253-6 pubmed
    ..Here, via microarray analysis of all P450s in Drosophila melanogaster, we show that DDT-R, a gene conferring resistance to DDT, is associated with overtranscription of a single cytochrome P450 gene, Cyp6g1...
  8. McCart C, Ffrench Constant R. Dissecting the insecticide-resistance- associated cytochrome P450 gene Cyp6g1. Pest Manag Sci. 2008;64:639-45 pubmed publisher
    The cytochrome P450 gene Cyp6g1 is overtranscribed in all field isolates of DDT-resistant Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen) and confers a fitness advantage when inherited via the female...
  9. Hutter S, Saminadin Peter S, Stephan W, Parsch J. Gene expression variation in African and European populations of Drosophila melanogaster. Genome Biol. 2008;9:R12 pubmed publisher
    ..The nature of the genes identified to differ in expression between populations may reveal which traits were important for local adaptation to the European and African environments. ..
  10. Joussen N, Heckel D, Haas M, Schuphan I, Schmidt B. Metabolism of imidacloprid and DDT by P450 CYP6G1 expressed in cell cultures of Nicotiana tabacum suggests detoxification of these insecticides in Cyp6g1-overexpressing strains of Drosophila melanogaster, leading to resistance. Pest Manag Sci. 2008;64:65-73 pubmed
    ..have been selected for resistance. Cyp6g1-overexpressing strains of D...
  11. Yang J, McCart C, Woods D, Terhzaz S, Greenwood K, Ffrench Constant R, et al. A Drosophila systems approach to xenobiotic metabolism. Physiol Genomics. 2007;30:223-31 pubmed
    ..To illustrate this, when levels of a single gene, Cyp6g1, were manipulated in just the Malpighian tubules of adult Drosophila, the survival of the whole insect after 1,1,1-..
  12. Chung H, Boey A, Lumb C, Willoughby L, Batterham P, Daborn P. Induction of a detoxification gene in Drosophila melanogaster requires an interaction between tissue specific enhancers and a novel cis-regulatory element. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2011;41:863-71 pubmed publisher
    ..In this paper we show that, in Drosophila melanogaster, the induction response of the P450 gene Cyp6g1 to the xenobiotic Phenobarbital (PB) requires the presence of both tissue specific enhancers and a distinct CRE...
  13. Jones R, Bakker S, Stone D, Shuttleworth S, Boundy S, McCart C, et al. Homology modelling of Drosophila cytochrome P450 enzymes associated with insecticide resistance. Pest Manag Sci. 2010;66:1106-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Homology models are presented for CYP6G1, a P450 associated with resistance to DDT and neonicotinoids, and two other enzymes associated with insecticide resistance in D...
  14. Hooven L, Sherman K, Butcher S, Giebultowicz J. Does the clock make the poison? Circadian variation in response to pesticides. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6469 pubmed publisher
    ..Time of day of chemical exposure should be an important consideration in experimental design, use of pesticides, and human risk assessment. ..
  15. Catania F, Kauer M, Daborn P, Yen J, ffrench Constant R, Schlotterer C. World-wide survey of an Accord insertion and its association with DDT resistance in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Ecol. 2004;13:2491-504 pubmed
    ..Drosophila melanogaster is correlated with the insertion of an Accord-like element into the 5' region of the cytochrome P450 gene, Cyp6g1. Here, we study the distribution of the Accord-like element in 673 recently collected D...
  16. Smith D, Hosken D, Rostant W, Yeo M, Griffin R, Bretman A, et al. DDT resistance, epistasis and male fitness in flies. J Evol Biol. 2011;24:1351-62 pubmed publisher
  17. Daborn P, Lumb C, Boey A, Wong W, Ffrench Constant R, Batterham P. Evaluating the insecticide resistance potential of eight Drosophila melanogaster cytochrome P450 genes by transgenic over-expression. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2007;37:512-9 pubmed
    In Drosophila melanogaster, the increased expression of Cyp6g1 results in resistance to chemically unrelated insecticides including DDT, neonicotinoids and insect growth regulator insecticides...
  18. Panhuis T, Swanson W. Molecular evolution and population genetic analysis of candidate female reproductive genes in Drosophila. Genetics. 2006;173:2039-47 pubmed
    ..We discuss our results in light of potential function as well as interaction with male reproductive proteins. ..
  19. Wan H, Liu Y, Li M, Zhu S, Li X, Pittendrigh B, et al. Nrf2/Maf-binding-site-containing functional Cyp6a2 allele is associated with DDT resistance in Drosophila?melanogaster. Pest Manag Sci. 2014;70:1048-58 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that the Nrf2/Maf binding-site-containing functional Cyp6a2?allele is associated with DDT resistance in the D.?melanogaster strains under study. ..
  20. Ranson H, Claudianos C, Ortelli F, Abgrall C, Hemingway J, Sharakhova M, et al. Evolution of supergene families associated with insecticide resistance. Science. 2002;298:179-81 pubmed
    ..The analyses also provide the means for identifying previously unknown molecules involved in fundamental biological processes such as development. ..
  21. Mahapatra C, Bond J, Rand D, Rand M. Identification of methylmercury tolerance gene candidates in Drosophila. Toxicol Sci. 2010;116:225-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Functional annotation cluster analyses showed enrichment for monooxygenases/oxidoreductases, which include cytochrome P450 (CYP) family members...
  22. Rostant W, Kay C, Wedell N, Hosken D. Sexual conflict maintains variation at an insecticide resistance locus. BMC Biol. 2015;13:34 pubmed publisher
    ..This demonstrates that sexually antagonistic selection can maintain genetic variation and explains the DDT-R frequencies observed in nature. ..
  23. Battlay P, Schmidt J, Fournier Level A, Robin C. Genomic and Transcriptomic Associations Identify a New Insecticide Resistance Phenotype for the Selective Sweep at the Cyp6g1 Locus of Drosophila melanogaster. G3 (Bethesda). 2016;6:2573-81 pubmed publisher
    ..found that both genomic and transcriptomic associations independently identified Cyp6g1, a gene involved in resistance to DDT and neonicotinoid insecticides, as the top candidate for azinphos-methyl resistance...
  24. Hales K, Korey C, Larracuente A, Roberts D. Genetics on the Fly: A Primer on the Drosophila Model System. Genetics. 2015;201:815-42 pubmed publisher
  25. Afschar S, Toivonen J, Hoffmann J, Tain L, Wieser D, Finlayson A, et al. Nuclear hormone receptor DHR96 mediates the resistance to xenobiotics but not the increased lifespan of insulin-mutant Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:1321-6 pubmed publisher
    ..dichlordiphenyltrichlorethan (DDT), by artificial selection or by transgenic expression of a gene encoding a cytochrome P450. Although both interventions increased DDT resistance, neither increased lifespan...
  26. Dapkus D. Genetic localization of DDT resistance in Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae). J Econ Entomol. 1992;85:340-7 pubmed
    Adult resistance to DDT conferred by various regions of the second chromosome of a DDT-resistant strain of Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen) was analyzed using the quantitative genetic method of Thoday and a topical test procedure...
  27. Denecke S, Nowell C, Fournier Level A, Perry T, Batterham P. The Wiggle Index: An Open Source Bioassay to Assess Sub-Lethal Insecticide Response in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0145051 pubmed publisher
    ..the WI to detect changes in insecticide metabolism was confirmed by overexpressing the imidacloprid metabolizing Cyp6g1 gene in digestive tissues or the central nervous system...
  28. Garud N, Messer P, Buzbas E, Petrov D. Recent selective sweeps in North American Drosophila melanogaster show signatures of soft sweeps. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005004 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss the implications of these results for the study of adaptation in Drosophila and in species with large census population sizes. ..
  29. Chen S, Li X. Transposable elements are enriched within or in close proximity to xenobiotic-metabolizing cytochrome P450 genes. BMC Evol Biol. 2007;7:46 pubmed
    ..genes, we scanned two alleles per each of the six xenobiotic-metabolizing Helicoverpa zea cytochrome P450 loci, including CYP6B8, CYP6B27, CYP321A1, CYP321A2, CYP9A12v3 and CYP9A14, for the presence of transposon ..
  30. Shah S, Yarrow C, Dunning R, Cheek B, Vass S, Windass J, et al. Insecticide detoxification indicator strains as tools for enhancing chemical discovery screens. Pest Manag Sci. 2012;68:38-48 pubmed publisher
    ..This strategy was tested with transgenic Drosophila lines with altered expression of Cyp6g1 and Dhr96...
  31. Harrop T, Sztal T, Lumb C, Good R, Daborn P, Batterham P, et al. Evolutionary changes in gene expression, coding sequence and copy-number at the Cyp6g1 locus contribute to resistance to multiple insecticides in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e84879 pubmed publisher
    ..In D. virilis, which has multiple copies of Cyp6g1, one copy confers resistance to DDT and another to nitenpyram, suggesting that the divergence of protein sequence between copies subsequent to ..
  32. Li X, Bai S, Cass B. Accord insertion in the 5' flanking region of CYP6G1 confers nicotine resistance in Drosophila melanogaster. Gene. 2012;502:1-8 pubmed publisher
    What has driven the sweep of the Accord retrotransposon insertion allele of CYP6G1 in the natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster is unknown. Previous studies on the DDT selection hypothesis produced conflicting data...
  33. Brookfield J. Evolutionary genetics: Mobile DNAs as sources of adaptive change?. Curr Biol. 2004;14:R344-5 pubmed
    ..A new study has revealed a mobile DNA insertion in Drosophila simulans that is associated with an apparent selective sweep and an elevation in expression level of an adjacent gene which creates insecticide resistance. ..
  34. Kalajdzic P, Markaki M, Oehler S, Savakis C. Imidacloprid does not induce Cyp genes involved in insecticide resistance of a mutant Drosophila melanogaster line. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013;60:355-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Genes Cyp6g1 and Cyp6a2, known to be involved in the resistance of mutant Drosophila melanogaster line MiT[W?]3R2 to ..
  35. Gellatly K, Yoon K, Doherty J, Sun W, Pittendrigh B, Clark J. RNAi validation of resistance genes and their interactions in the highly DDT-resistant 91-R strain of Drosophila melanogaster. Pestic Biochem Physiol. 2015;121:107-15 pubmed publisher
    ..involved in DDT resistance and has validated the role of several cuticular proteins (Cyp4g1 and Lcp1), cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (Cyp6g1 and Cyp12d1), and ATP binding cassette transporters (Mdr50, Mdr65, and Mrp1) involved ..
  36. Sun W, Valero M, Seong K, Steele L, Huang I, Lee C, et al. A glycine insertion in the estrogen-related receptor (ERR) is associated with enhanced expression of three cytochrome P450 genes in transgenic Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0118779 pubmed publisher
    ..melanogaster strains represent a resource for the discovery of the underlying molecular mechanisms of cytochrome P450 constitutive over-expression, even if some of these P450s are not directly involved in the resistance ..
  37. Müller L, Hutter S, Stamboliyska R, Saminadin Peter S, Stephan W, Parsch J. Population transcriptomics of Drosophila melanogaster females. BMC Genomics. 2011;12:81 pubmed publisher
    ..Genes with significant over-expression in Europe included the insecticide resistance gene Cyp6g1, as well as genes involved in proteolysis and olfaction...
  38. Barrón M, Fiston Lavier A, Petrov D, González J. Population genomics of transposable elements in Drosophila. Annu Rev Genet. 2014;48:561-81 pubmed publisher
    ..melanogaster. Although most of the TE insertions are deleterious or neutral, some TE insertions increase the fitness of the individual that carries them and play a role in genome adaptation. ..
  39. Sztal T, Chung H, Berger S, Currie P, Batterham P, Daborn P. A cytochrome p450 conserved in insects is involved in cuticle formation. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36544 pubmed publisher
    The sequencing of numerous insect genomes has revealed dynamic changes in the number and identity of cytochrome P450 genes in different insects...
  40. Rand M, Lowe J, Mahapatra C. Drosophila CYP6g1 and its human homolog CYP3A4 confer tolerance to methylmercury during development. Toxicology. 2012;300:75-82 pubmed publisher
    ..brains of MeHg tolerant and susceptible strains of Drosophila, we previously identified members of the cytochrome p450 (CYP) family of monooxygenases/oxidoreductases as candidate MeHg tolerance genes...
  41. Dävring L, Sunner M. Cytogenetic effects of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy-acetic acid on oogenesis and early embryogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Hereditas. 1971;68:115-22 pubmed
  42. Kasai S, Tomita T. Male specific expression of a cytochrome P450 (Cyp312a1) in Drosophila melanogaster. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;300:894-900 pubmed
    Using cDNA array techniques, the transcriptional levels of Drosophila cytochrome P450 (P450) genes were compared between male and female flies...
  43. King J, Sømme L. Chromosomal Analyses of the Genetic Factors for Resistance to Ddt in Two Resistant Lines of Drosophila Melanogaster. Genetics. 1958;43:577-93 pubmed
  44. Narraway C, Hunt J, Wedell N, Hosken D. Genotype-by-environment interactions for female preference. J Evol Biol. 2010;23:2550-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the genetic variance underlying preference also varied across environments. These findings have important consequences for the evolution of female preference and the male sexual traits preference targets. ..
  45. Morra R, Kuruganti S, Lam V, Lucchesi J, Ganguly R. Functional analysis of the cis-acting elements responsible for the induction of the Cyp6a8 and Cyp6g1 genes of Drosophila melanogaster by DDT, phenobarbital and caffeine. Insect Mol Biol. 2010;19:121-30 pubmed publisher
    Many Drosophila cytochrome P450 or Cyp genes are induced by caffeine and phenobarbital (PB)...
  46. Carareto C, Hernandez E, Vieira C. Genomic regions harboring insecticide resistance-associated Cyp genes are enriched by transposable element fragments carrying putative transcription factor binding sites in two sibling Drosophila species. Gene. 2014;537:93-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These fragments carry putative binding sites for transcription factors, which reinforces the hypothesis that DNAREP1 may influence gene regulation and play a role in the adaptation of the Drosophila species. ..
  47. Vázquez Gómez G, Sánchez Santos A, Vazquez Medrano J, Quintanar Zúñiga R, Monsalvo Reyes A, Piedra Ibarra E, et al. Sulforaphane modulates the expression of Cyp6a2 and Cyp6g1 in larvae of the ST and HB crosses of the Drosophila wing spot test and is genotoxic in the ST cross. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48:3333-9 pubmed publisher
    Constitutive overexpression of Cyp6g1 and Cyp6a2 genes in DDT-resistant line Oregon-flare of the Drosophila melanogaster wing spot test (SMART) has been reported...
  48. Gangishetti U, Breitenbach S, Zander M, Saheb S, Muller U, Schwarz H, et al. Effects of benzoylphenylurea on chitin synthesis and orientation in the cuticle of the Drosophila larva. Eur J Cell Biol. 2009;88:167-80 pubmed publisher
  49. Joussen N, Schuphan I, Schmidt B. Metabolism of methoxychlor by the P450-monooxygenase CYP6G1 involved in insecticide resistance of Drosophila melanogaster after expression in cell cultures of Nicotiana tabacum. Chem Biodivers. 2010;7:722-35 pubmed publisher
    b>Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP6G1 of Drosophila melanogaster was heterologously expressed in a cell suspension culture of Nicotiana tabacum...
  50. Beaver L, Hooven L, Butcher S, Krishnan N, Sherman K, Chow E, et al. Circadian clock regulates response to pesticides in Drosophila via conserved Pdp1 pathway. Toxicol Sci. 2010;115:513-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Day/night and Pdp1-dependent differences in the expression of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes Cyp6a2, Cyp6g1, and alpha-Esterase-7 were observed and likely contribute to impaired detoxification...
  51. Hamby K, Kwok R, Zalom F, Chiu J. Integrating circadian activity and gene expression profiles to predict chronotoxicity of Drosophila suzukii response to insecticides. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e68472 pubmed publisher
    ..However, field research is necessary for extrapolation to agricultural settings. ..
  52. Zhou J, Lemos B, Dopman E, Hartl D. Copy-number variation: the balance between gene dosage and expression in Drosophila melanogaster. Genome Biol Evol. 2011;3:1014-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Dosage-sensitive CNVs that are upregulated and downregulated coincide with copy-number increases and decreases. Our results help clarify the relation between CNV dosage and gene expression in the D. melanogaster genome. ..
  53. Denholm I, Devine G, Williamson M. Evolutionary genetics. Insecticide resistance on the move. Science. 2002;297:2222-3 pubmed
  54. Li T, Cao C, Yang T, Zhang L, He L, Xi Z, et al. A G-protein-coupled receptor regulation pathway in cytochrome P450-mediated permethrin-resistance in mosquitoes, Culex quinquefasciatus. Sci Rep. 2015;5:17772 pubmed publisher
    ..reducing the expression of two cAMP-dependent protein kinase A genes (PKAs) and four resistance related cytochrome P450 genes...
  55. Berge J, Feyereisen R, Amichot M. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and insecticide resistance in insects. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1998;353:1701-5 pubmed
    b>Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are involved in many cases of resistance of insects to insecticides. Resistance has long been associated with an increase in monooxygenase activities and with an increase in cytochrome P450 content...
  56. Cheesman M, Traylor M, Hilton M, Richards K, Taylor M, Daborn P, et al. Soluble and membrane-bound Drosophila melanogaster CYP6G1 expressed in Escherichia coli: purification, activity, and binding properties toward multiple pesticides. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2013;43:455-65 pubmed publisher
    b>Cytochrome P450 CYP6G1 has been implicated in the resistance of Drosophila melanogaster to numerous pesticides...
  57. Hoi K, Daborn P, Battlay P, Robin C, Batterham P, O Hair R, et al. Dissecting the insect metabolic machinery using twin ion mass spectrometry: a single P450 enzyme metabolizing the insecticide imidacloprid in vivo. Anal Chem. 2014;86:3525-32 pubmed publisher
    ..when formed by susceptible larval genotypes and (ii) the specific overtranscription of a single gene product, Cyp6g1, associated with the metabolic resistance to neonicotinoids, results in a significant increase in the formation of ..
  58. Kuzin B, Nikitina E, Cherezov R, Vorontsova J, Slezinger M, Zatsepina O, et al. Combination of hypomorphic mutations of the Drosophila homologues of aryl hydrocarbon receptor and nucleosome assembly protein family genes disrupts morphogenesis, memory and detoxification. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e94975 pubmed publisher
    ..and antenna morphological structures and by using real-time PCR to measure mRNA expression levels for spineless, Cyp6g1 and Gst-theta genes...