Gene Symbol: Ctr1B
Description: Copper transporter 1B
Alias: CG7459, Dmel\CG7459, ctr1B, copper transporter 1B, CG7459-PA, Ctr1B-PA
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Zhou H, Cadigan K, Thiele D. A copper-regulated transporter required for copper acquisition, pigmentation, and specific stages of development in Drosophila melanogaster. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:48210-8 pubmed
    ..Three distinct Drosophila Ctr1 genes (Ctr1A, Ctr1B, and Ctr1C) have been identified, which have unique expression patterns over the course of development...
  2. Hua H, Georgiev O, Schaffner W, Steiger D. Human copper transporter Ctr1 is functional in Drosophila, revealing a high degree of conservation between mammals and insects. J Biol Inorg Chem. 2010;15:107-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The fruit fly Drosophila has three family members, termed Ctr1A, Ctr1B, and Ctr1C. Ctr1A is expressed throughout development, and a null mutation causes lethality at an early stage...
  3. Binks T, Lye J, Camakaris J, Burke R. Tissue-specific interplay between copper uptake and efflux in Drosophila. J Biol Inorg Chem. 2010;15:621-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Both Ctr1A and DmATP7 are essential genes, whereas Ctr1B mutants are viable but die in excess or depleted copper conditions...
  4. Selvaraj A, Balamurugan K, Yepiskoposyan H, Zhou H, Egli D, Georgiev O, et al. Metal-responsive transcription factor (MTF-1) handles both extremes, copper load and copper starvation, by activating different genes. Genes Dev. 2005;19:891-6 pubmed
    ..and seemingly paradoxical role for MTF-1 in Drosophila in that it also mediates transcriptional activation of Ctr1B, a copper importer, upon copper depletion...
  5. Norgate M, Southon A, Greenough M, Cater M, Farlow A, Batterham P, et al. Syntaxin 5 is required for copper homeostasis in Drosophila and mammals. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e14303 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus Syx5 plays an essential role in copper homeostasis and is a candidate gene for copper-related disease in humans. ..
  6. Southon A, Burke R, Norgate M, Batterham P, Camakaris J. Copper homoeostasis in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells. Biochem J. 2004;383:303-9 pubmed
    ..Suppression of either Ctr1A (a Drosophila orthologue of yeast CTR1) or Ctr1B significantly reduced Cu uptake from media, demonstrating that both these proteins function to transport Cu into ..
  7. Turski M, Thiele D. Drosophila Ctr1A functions as a copper transporter essential for development. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:24017-26 pubmed
    ..Whereas the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, expresses three Ctr1 genes, ctr1A, ctr1B, and ctr1C, little is known about their protein isoform-specific roles...
  8. Balamurugan K, Egli D, Hua H, Rajaram R, Seisenbacher G, Georgiev O, et al. Copper homeostasis in Drosophila by complex interplay of import, storage and behavioral avoidance. EMBO J. 2007;26:1035-44 pubmed
    ..factor (MTF-1) plays a dual role in copper homeostasis: at limiting copper concentrations, it induces the Ctr1B copper importer gene, whereas at high copper concentrations, it mainly induces the metallothionein genes...
  9. Egli D, Domènech J, Selvaraj A, Balamurugan K, Hua H, Capdevila M, et al. The four members of the Drosophila metallothionein family exhibit distinct yet overlapping roles in heavy metal homeostasis and detoxification. Genes Cells. 2006;11:647-58 pubmed

More Information


  1. Armstrong N, Ramamoorthy M, Lyon D, Jones K, Duttaroy A. Mechanism of silver nanoparticles action on insect pigmentation reveals intervention of copper homeostasis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e53186 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we claim that Drosophila, an established genetic model system, can be well utilized for further understanding of the biological effects of nanoparticles. ..
  2. Mercer S, La Fontaine S, Warr C, Burke R. Reduced glutathione biosynthesis in Drosophila melanogaster causes neuronal defects linked to copper deficiency. J Neurochem. 2016;137:360-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Alternatively, GSH could modify the copper-binding and transport activities of Atox1 and the ATP7 efflux protein via glutathionylation of copper-binding cysteines. ..
  3. Steiger D, Fetchko M, Vardanyan A, Atanesyan L, Steiner K, Turski M, et al. The Drosophila copper transporter Ctr1C functions in male fertility. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:17089-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Drosophila has three Ctr1 homologs: Ctr1A, Ctr1B, and Ctr1C...
  4. Norgate M, Southon A, Zou S, Zhan M, Sun Y, Batterham P, et al. Copper homeostasis gene discovery in Drosophila melanogaster. Biometals. 2007;20:683-97 pubmed
    ..Building on this information, there is great potential for the further use of Drosophila for copper homeostasis gene discovery. ..
  5. Liu J, Wu Q, He D, Ma T, Du L, Dui W, et al. Drosophila sbo regulates lifespan through its function in the synthesis of coenzyme Q in vivo. J Genet Genomics. 2011;38:225-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, we conclude that sbo is an essential gene for Drosophila development, mutation of which leads to an extension of lifespan most likely by altering endogenous CoQ biosynthesis. ..
  6. Lye J, Hwang J, Paterson D, de Jonge M, Howard D, Burke R. Detection of genetically altered copper levels in Drosophila tissues by synchrotron x-ray fluorescence microscopy. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26867 pubmed publisher
  7. Günther V, Waldvogel D, Nosswitz M, Georgiev O, Schaffner W. Dissection of Drosophila MTF-1 reveals a domain for differential target gene activation upon copper overload vs. copper starvation. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2012;44:404-11 pubmed publisher
    ..a dual function in that it not only helps to protect against heavy metal load but also induces the expression of Ctr1B, the gene for an intestinal copper importer, upon copper starvation...
  8. Egli D, Yepiskoposyan H, Selvaraj A, Balamurugan K, Rajaram R, Simons A, et al. A family knockout of all four Drosophila metallothioneins reveals a central role in copper homeostasis and detoxification. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:2286-96 pubmed
    ..We conclude that free metal, but not metallothionein-bound metal, triggers the activation of MTF-1 and that metallothioneins regulate their own expression by a negative feedback loop. ..
  9. Wang J, Binks T, Warr C, Burke R. Vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase subunits and the neurogenic protein big brain are required for optimal copper and zinc uptake. Metallomics. 2014;6:2100-8 pubmed publisher
    ..big brain (bib), as being required for the correct localization of the copper uptake transporters Ctr1A and Ctr1B and the zinc uptake protein dZip89B and hence necessary for optimal copper and zinc accumulation in vivo...
  10. Xiao G, Fan Q, Wang X, Zhou B. Huntington disease arises from a combinatory toxicity of polyglutamine and copper binding. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:14995-5000 pubmed publisher
    ..The existence of these two parallel pathways converging into Htt toxicity also suggests that an ideal HD therapy would be a multipronged approach that takes both these actions into consideration. ..
  11. Sims H, Chirn G, Marr M. Single nucleotide in the MTF-1 binding site can determine metal-specific transcription activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:16516-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We also find that the type of binding site chosen is an important component of the capability to induce the metal-specific transcription activation. ..
  12. Hwang J, de Bruyne M, Warr C, Burke R. Copper overload and deficiency both adversely affect the central nervous system of Drosophila. Metallomics. 2014;6:2223-9 pubmed publisher
    ..in the Drosophila melanogaster nervous system, using targeted manipulation of the copper uptake genes Ctr1A and Ctr1B and efflux gene ATP7 in combination with altered dietary copper levels...
  13. Mercer S, Burke R. Evidence for a role for the putative Drosophila hGRX1 orthologue in copper homeostasis. Biometals. 2016;29:705-13 pubmed publisher
    ..scutellum, phenotypes that were exacerbated by additional knockdown of copper uptake transporters Ctr1A and Ctr1B. Knockdown of CG6852 in the adult eye enhanced a copper-deficiency phenotype caused by Ctr1A knockdown while ..
  14. Lang M, Fan Q, Wang L, Zheng Y, Xiao G, Wang X, et al. Inhibition of human high-affinity copper importer Ctr1 orthologous in the nervous system of Drosophila ameliorates A?42-induced Alzheimer's disease-like symptoms. Neurobiol Aging. 2013;34:2604-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar results were obtained from inhibiting another copper importer Ctr1B and overexpressing a copper exporter DmATP7 in the nervous system of AD flies...
  15. McNeil C, Bain C, Macdonald S. Multiple Quantitative Trait Loci Influence the Shape of a Male-Specific Genital Structure in Drosophila melanogaster. G3 (Bethesda). 2011;1:343-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These genes are good candidates to harbor naturally segregating polymorphisms contributing to posterior lobe shape. ..
  16. Hua H, Günther V, Georgiev O, Schaffner W. Distorted copper homeostasis with decreased sensitivity to cisplatin upon chaperone Atox1 deletion in Drosophila. Biometals. 2011;24:445-53 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the mutants are unable to develop on low-copper food. Furthermore, the intestinal copper importer Ctr1B, which is regulated by copper demand, fails to be induced upon copper starvation in Atox1-/- larvae...
  17. Saini N, Oelhafen S, Hua H, Georgiev O, Schaffner W, Bueler H. Extended lifespan of Drosophila parkin mutants through sequestration of redox-active metals and enhancement of anti-oxidative pathways. Neurobiol Dis. 2010;40:82-92 pubmed publisher
    ..deficiency exacerbated the rough eye phenotype of Drosophila caused by overexpression of the copper importer B (Ctr1B)...
  18. Balamurugan K, Hua H, Georgiev O, Schaffner W. Mercury and cadmium trigger expression of the copper importer Ctr1B, which enables Drosophila to thrive on heavy metal-loaded food. Biol Chem. 2009;390:109-13 pubmed publisher
    ..In Drosophila, MTF-1 somewhat counter-intuitively also activates transcription of a copper importer gene (Ctr1B) in response to copper starvation...
  19. Cheng W, Song C, Anjum K, Chen M, Li D, Zhou H, et al. Coenzyme Q plays opposing roles on bacteria/fungi and viruses in Drosophila innate immunity. Int J Immunogenet. 2011;38:331-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We further showed that CoQ was essential for normal induction of anti-microbial peptides and amplification of viruses. Our work determined CoQ content in Drosophila and described its function in immunity for the first time. ..